Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 1 Food and Human Health

Textbook Questions Solved

I. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1:
Naru is caused by which of the following?
(a) Bacteria
(b) Worms
(c) Virus
(d) Protozoa
Answer:
(b) Worms

Question 2:
What is the normal blood pressure in a healthy individual?
(a) 120/80 mm Hg
(b) 100/60 mm Hg
(c) 140/100 mm Hg
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) 120/80 mm Hg

Question 3:
Tobacco belongs to which family of plants?
(a) Malvaceae
(b) Liliaceae
(c) Solanaceae
(d) Fabaceae
Answer:
(c) Solanaceae

Question 4:
Which is the main component of wine?
(a) C2H5OH
(b) CH3OH
(c) CH3COOH
(d) C6H12O6
Answer:
(a) C2H5OH

Question 5:
Iodine deficiency results in which disease?
(a) Night blindness
(b) Rickets
(c) Infertility
(d) Goitre
Answer:
(d) Goitre

Food and Human Health Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 6:
What is the scientific name of opium?
Answer:
Papaver somniferum

Question 7:
What is the main cause of fatty liver disease?
Answer:
Alcohol

Question 8:
Which toxic substance is found in tobacco?
Answer:
Nicotine

Question 9:
What is the name of the instrument for measuring blood pressure?
Answer:
Sphygmomanometer

Question 10:
Which organism causes nani disease?
Answer:
Dracunculus medinensis

Food and Human Health Short Answer Type Questions

Question 11:
What do you mean by balanced diet and malnutrition?
Answer:
A food which contains all the nutrients in right proportion is called balanced diet. A balanced diet is necessary for good growth and development of children. A balanced diet is necessary for maintaining health. Lack of some or most of the nutrient in a person’s diet for a long duration is called malnutrition.

Question 12:
What is the effect of protein malnourishment on human body?
Answer:
Protein malnourishment results in a disease called kwashiorkor.
Symptoms of Kwashiorkor: Bloated stomach, dry skin, patchy skin, lack of hunger, etc. This disease usually affects children. It also affects pregnant women.

Question 13:
What are the properties of drinking water?
Answer:
Following are the properties of clean drinking water:

  • It should be colourless.
  • It should be odorless.
  • It should be free of any visible impurities.
  • It should have right balance of minerals.
  • What are the harms of contaminated water?

Question 14:
What are the harms of contaminated of water?
Answer:
Following are the harms of contaminated water:
Drinking contaminated water can result in many diseases; like cholera, diarrhoea, jaundice, etc. Dracunculus medinensis or Guinea worm is a nematode and lays its eggs in water and using this contaminated water causes dracunculiasis or Guinea worm disease or ‘naru’ disease. This disease had once created havoc in Rajasthan.

Question 15:
Name the alkaloids present in opium milk?
Answer:
Following alkaloids are present in opium milk:
Morphine, Codeine, Nicotine, Somniferin, Papaverin, etc.

Question 16:
What are the harms of tobacco?
Answer:
Following are the harms of tobacco:

  • Staining of teeth and tooth decay
  • Foul smell from mouth
  • Oral cancer
  • Lung cancer

Question 17:
Write the symptoms and causes of disease submucous fibrosis.
Answer:
Symptoms: Jaw becomes rigid to the extent that the person is unable to open the mouth.
Causes: Chewing Gutkha which is mixture of betel nut, lime, catechu and some flavouring agents.

Food and Human Health RBSE Solutions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 18:
What is kwashiorkor? Write its symptoms and ways of prevention.
Answer:
Poor people are unable to take enough protein in diet. Their diet mainly contains carbohydrate. This results in protein malnutrition. This condition results in a disease called Kwashiorkor. Symptoms of Kwashiorkor: Bloated stomach, dry skin, patchy skin, lack of hunger, etc. This disease usually affects children. It also affects pregnant women.

Prevention of Kwashiorkor: People at risk of this disease should be given dal (pulses) on a regular basis. If possible, then meat and fish should also be provided to such people. There should be sufficient gap between the birth of two children to ensure proper growth of the older child.

Question 19:
How can you stop the problem of opium addiction in society?
Answer:
Opium addiction can be prevented by taking following steps:

  • Awareness campaign should be continuous in villages and towns.
  • Sale and distribution of opium products should be under strict control and vigilance.
  • Strict punishment should be given to those who illegally trade opium.
  • Proper rehabilitation programme should be managed for addicted people.

Question 20:
Write the diseases and symptoms which happen because of vitamin deficiency.
Answer:
Following table shows diseases and symptoms due to vitamin deficiency:

Vitamins Deficiency Disease Symptoms
Vitamin A Night blindness Difficulty in seeing in dim light
Thiamine (B12) Beriberi Weak heart beat, weak muscles and nerves
Riboflavin (B2) Riboflavinosis Cracked skin near lips and mouth, loss of memory
Niacin (B3) Pellagra Crust formation on tongue and skin
Ascorbic acid (C) Scurvy Bleeding gums, spots on skin
Calciferol (D) Rickets Bones of legs bend, knees come closer to each other

Question 21:
What are the harms of cold drinks?
Answer:
Following are the harms of cold drinks:

  • Children may become addictive to cold drinks.
  • The body gets too much sugar.
  • It can result in obesity among children.
  • It can cause diabetes.
  • Promotes bad eating habits.
  • The body does not get balanced diet.

Question 22:
What is food adulteration? What are the harms of food adulteration?
Answer:
Many sellers often mix some unwanted substances to food to earn a heavy profit. Deliberate addition of any unwanted substance to food is called food adulteration. Following are the harms of food adulteration:

  • Unhealthy practice of business.
  • Consumer is cheated.
  • Results in wastage of money.
  • May alter the taste of food.
  • Can lead to high concentration of harmful substances in the body.
  • Can cause many diseases.
  • Can cause food poisoning.
  • Can cause cancer.

Question 23:
What are the harms of deficiency of minerals in our body?
Answer:
The following table shows some minerals, their sources and deficiency syndrome:

Mineral Sources Deficiency Syndrome
Sodium Common salt, fish, eggs, milk Affects working of muscles and transmission of nerve signals, fluid imbalance in body.
Potassium In all edible items Affects working of muscles and transmission of nerve signals, fluid imbalance in body, also affects functions inside a cell.
Calcium Milk, eggs, green vegetables Weakens bones and teeth, affects the proper working of muscles.
Phosphorus Milk, green vegetables, millets, dry fruits, liver, kidney Weakens bones and teeth
Iron Green leafy vegetables, carrot, millets, liver, kidneys, meat,jiggery Affects the formation of RBC and oxidation in tissues
Iodine Sea salt, sea food, green leafy vegetables, jamun, fish Affects the formation of thyroxin (hormone)

Food and Human Health Rajasthan Board Solutions Additional Questions Solved

I. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1:
Beriberi is caused by deficiency of which vitamin?
(a) Vitamin A
(b) Vitamin B
(c) Vitamin C
(d) Vitamin D
Answer:
(b) Vitamin B

Question 2:
Rickets is caused by deficiency of which mineral?
(a) Iron
(b) Zinc
(c) Calcium
(d) Iodine
Answer:
(c) Calcium

Question 3:
Kwashiorkor happens because of deficiency of which of the following?
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Vitamins
(c) Minerals
(d) Proteins
Answer:
(d) Proteins

Question 4:
(a) Iodine
(b) Iron
(c) Calcium
(d) Phosphorus
Answer:
(a) Iodine

Question 5:
Which addictive substance is present in tobacco?
(a) Caffeine
(b) Nicotine
(c) Alcohol
(d) Opiate
Answer:
(b) Nicotine

Question 6:
Which of the following is energy-giving nutrient?
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Proteins
(c) Vitamins
(d) Minerals
Answer:
(a) Carbohydrates

Question 7:
Which of the following is body-building nutrient?
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Proteins
(c) Fats
(d) Vitamins
Answer:
(b) Proteins

Question 8:
Which mineral is important for strong bones and teeth?
(a) Calcium only
(b) Phosphorus only
(c) Calcium & phosphorus
(d) Iron
Answer:
(c) Calcium & Phosphorus

Question 9:
Kwashiorkor happens because of deficiency of which of the following?
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Proteins
(c) Fats
(d) Carbohydrates and proteins
Answer:
(b) Proteins

Question 10:
Marasmus happens because of deficiency of which of the following?
(a) Carbohydrates
(b) Proteins
(c) Fats
(d) Carbohydrates and proteins
Answer:
(d) Carbohydrates and proteins

Question 11:
Which of the following is used both as painkiller as well as intoxicant?
(a) Morphene
(b) Codeine
(c) Diazepam
(d) Paint thinner
Answer:
(a) Morphene

Question 12:
Alcohol abuse badly affects which organ in the long run?
(a) Stomach
(b) Brain
(c) Liver
(d) Lungs
Answer:
(c) Liver

Food and Human Health RBSE Rajasthan Board Solutions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
Which are the energy giving nutrients?
Answer:
Carbohydrate and fat

Question 2:
Which is the body-building nutrient?
Answer:
Protein

Question 3:
Name a food which is a good source of calcium?
Answer:
Milk

Question 4:
Name a food which is a good source of iron?
Answer:
Spinach

Question 5:
Iron is necessary for making which type of blood cells?
Answer:
Red Blood Cells

Question 6:
What is anaemia?
Answer:
Low level of haemoglobin in blood is called anaemia.

Question 7:
What are the symptoms of beriberi?
Answer:
Weak heart beat, weak muscles and nerves

Question 8:
What are the symptoms of pellagra?
Answer:
Crust formation on tongue and skin

Question 9:
What are the symptoms of rickets?
Answer:
Bones of legs bend, knees come closer to each other

Question 10:
What are the functions of sodium in our body?
Answer:
Working of muscles, transmission of nerve signals, maintaining water and acid-base balance in blood and tissues.

Question 11:
What are the functions of iron in the body?
Answer:
Formation of RBC, oxidation in tissues

Question 12:
What is potable water?
Answer:
Water that is fit for human consumption is called potable water.

Question 13:
What is systolic blood pressure?
Answer:
The pressure during contraction or systole of left ventricle is called systolic blood pressure.

Question 14:
What is diastolic blood pressure?
Answer:
The pressure during relaxation or diastole of left ventricle is called diastolic blood pressure.

Question 15:
What is hypertension?
Answer:
When blood pressure is constantly higher than the normal range, it is called hypertension or high blood pressure.

Food and Human Health Solutions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
What is blood pressure?
Answer:
The pressure exerted by arteries to the blood flow is called blood pressure. In a healthy person, the blood pressure is 80/120 mm Hg. This figure shows two types of blood pressure, i.e. systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.

Question 2:
What are the harms of alcohol?
Answer:
Following are the harms of alcohol:

  • Lack of alertness.
  • Lack of control on cognitive functions.
  • Liver damage in the long run.
  • Blindness and even death may happen in case someone consumes spurious liquor.
  • Alcohol consumption can put a severe strain on one’s pocket.

Question 3:
Write a short note on nutrient.
Answer:
Various constituents of food which are necessary for growth and nourishing life are called nutrients. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are the nutrients. Carbohydrates and fats provide energy to the body. Hence, they are known as energy-giving food. Proteins facilitates growth and repair and hence it is called the body-building food. Vitamins and minerals help the body in fighting diseases. So, vitamins and minerals are called protective food.

Question 4:
Write a short note on marasmus.
Answer:
When the diet lacks both protein and energy giving food, it leads to marasmus. The patient becomes thin. The body appears like a skeleton. Eyes become sunken. This disease usually affects children who are less than one year of age. When the mother of such a child becomes pregnant, the child is weaned away from mother’s milk. Because of poverty, the child does not get enough nutrition and hence, starts suffering from marasmus.

Question 5:
What is the importance of water for our body?
Answer:
Following is the importance of water for our body:

  • Water is needed for every biological function.
  • Water helps in proper bowel movement.
  • Water helps in proper digestion of food.
  • About 70% of our body weight is composed of water.

Question 6:
What are the desirable properties of drinking water?
Answer:
Following are the desirable properties of drinking water:

  •  It should be colourless.
  •  It should be odourless.
  •  It should be free of any visible impurities.
  •  It should have right balance of minerals.

Question 7:
Write a short note on naru disease.
Answer:
Dracunculus medinensis or Guinea worm is a nematode and lay its egg in water and using this contaminated water causes dracunculiasis or Guinea worm disease or ‘naru’ disease. This disease had once created havoc in Rajasthan. Thanks to untiring efforts by the health workers, this disease has been eradicated from Rajasthan.

Question 8:
Write a short note on hypertension.
Answer:
When blood pressure is constantly higher than the normal range, it is called hypertension or high blood pressure. Obesity, diabetes and old age can cause hypertension. A fat-rich diet results in high level of cholesterol in blood. Cholesterol blocks the arteries and blocked arteries cause high blood pressure. In the long run, high blood pressure progresses to
Coronary Artery Disease which is a type of heart disease.

Question 9:
Write a short note on hypotension.
Answer:
When blood pressure falls below the normal range, it is called hypotension or low blood pressure. Hypotension results in reduced blood supply to important organs; like heart, brain and kidneys. This may result in permanent damage to these organs and may also result in death.

Question 10:
What do you understand by misuse of some medicines?
Answer:
There are many medicines which can cause sedation if taken in higher dose. Morphene, diazepam, nitrazepam, buprinorphin, pathadene, codeine, etc. are examples of such medicines. Many medicine sellers often sell these medicines without prescription. Many young people consume these medicines in order to get their daily fix.

Food and Human Health Rajasthan Board Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
What is nutrition? What do you understand by balanced and unbalanced food?
Answer:
The process of obtaining and utilizing food by living beings is called nutrition.
On the basis of presence of different nutrients, food can be divided into two types, which are as follows:

  1.  Balanced Food: A food which has all the nutrients in right proportion is called balanced food. A balanced diet is necessary for proper growth and development. Even for grown up adults, a balanced diet is necessary to maintain good health.
  2. Unbalanced Food: A food which does not have all the nutrients in right proportion is called unbalanced food. Unbalanced food can have many short-term and long-term consequences. Malnutrition, diseases and permanent debility are some of the consequences of taking unbalanced food.

Question 2:
Why do we suffer from shortage of water? Suggest some ways to conserve water.
Answer:
The earth has plenty of water but more than 95% of total water on earth is in the form of saline water. Less than 2% of total water on earth is available as drinking water. Due to this, people often have to face shortage of drinking water. We should always keep in mind that water is precious.

Following steps can be taken to conserve water:

  • Use a bucket for bathing instead of shower to reduce consumption of water.
  • Do not keep the tap open while brushing your teeth.
  • Use the water left after washing clothes for watering of plants and for washing car or scooter.
  • Reuse the water left after washing vegetables.
  • Repair any leakage in tap or pipeline.

Question 3:
What is blood pressure? What is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure?
Answer:
The pressure exerted by arteries to the blood flow is called blood pressure. In a healthy person, the blood pressure is 80/120 mm Hg. This figure shows two types of blood pressure, i.e. systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.

Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure
This is the pressure during contraction of left ventricle. This is the pressure during relaxation of left ventricle.
This is on higher side, i.e. 120 mm Hg This is on lower side, i.e. 80 mm Hg

Question 4:
What do you understand by addictive substances? Briefly explain any three addictive substance.
Answer:
Some substances have such properties that people become addicted to them. These are called addictive substances. These are very harmful to the body. Some addictive substances are given below:

  1.  Gutkha: This is a mixture of betel nut, lime, catechu and some flavouring agents. People often mix tobacco along with it.
  2. Tobacco: Tobacco is consumed in variety of ways. Some people use tobacco for smoking. Some people use chewing tobacco. Both gutkha and tobacco cause mouth cancer. They can also cause lung cancer.
  3. Alcohol: Alcohol is highly addictive substance. Ethanol or ethyl alcohol is used in different ratios in different alcoholic beverages.

Question 5:
What are the harms of addictive substances?
Answer:
Following are the harmful effects of addictive substances:

  • A person may become slave of the addictive substance.
  • An addicted person becomes less productive in economic activities.
  • An addicted person becomes a burden to the family and society.
  • Addiction to a substance results in drain on money and affects the normal life of the whole family.
  • An addicted person can become ill due to various side effects of addictive substance.
  • Addiction to a substance may result in hypertension, heart disease and cancer.
  • Addiction can reduce the life span of a person.
  • An addicted person may resort to crime to arrange money for the desired intoxicant.