Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D

Textbook Questions Solved

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the main Mahajanapada of Rajasthan?
Answer:
The main Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan are – Jangal, Matsya, Shursen and Shiva.

Question 2.
What was the name of Greek Ambassador who came in the period of Bindusara?
Answer:
Diamccus.

Question 3.
Wht is the name of Ashoka mentioned in Puranas?
Answer:
Devanampiya and Devananpiyadassi.

Question 4.
Who was the last Mauryan Samrat?
Answer:
Vrihadratta.

Question 5.
What was the function of the officer named Samaharta?
Answer:
The functions of Samaharta officer were collection of revenue, keeping record of income and expenditure, preparation of annual budget.

Question 6.
Name the book of Kautilya.
Answer:
Arthashastra.

Question 7.
In whose reign Patanjali belong?
Answer:
Samudragupta.

Question 8.
What was the name of the most brave king of the Satvahana Dynasty?
Answer:
Gautami Putra Shatakarni (23rd Ruler of Satvahana Dynasty).

Question 9.
Who was the writer of the ‘Illahabad Prashaste? He was the court poet of which king?
Answer:
Harisena wrote Allahabad Prashst. He was the court poet of Samudragupta.

Question 10.
Which lake was built by the Mauryas that was renovated by the Skandagupta?
Answer:
Sudarshan lake.

Question 11.
Name the literary work of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Nagananda, Ratnavali, Priyadarshika.

Question 12.
Kings of Pala Dynasty were the followers of which Religion?
Answer:
Buddhism.

Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D RBSE Class 10 Social Science Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the republics mentioned in Mahajanapadas.
Answer:
The main Republics of 16 Mahajanapadas were Sakyas of Kapilvastu, parts of Sunsumangiri, buly of Alkappa, Kalam of Kesputta, Koluja of Ramgram, Malla of Kushinara, Malla of Pava, Mauriya of Pippalivan, Lichavi of Vaishali and Videh of Mithila.

Question 2.
Give the abstract of Ashoka’s Dhamma.
Answer:
The definition of Ashoka’s Dhamma is given in the seventh pillar edict. According to it, salvation from Sin deeds, world welfare, kindness, charity, truth and karmashudhi is only Dhamma. Behaviour of goodliness, doing welfare work, sinless, bringing politeness in behaviour, kindness, doing charity, cleanliness, not killing of animals, obeying mother-father and other elders, respect towards guru, charity towards friends, strangers, relatives, Brahmans – shramans and behaving with them righteously are the essential terms of Dhamma propounded by the Ashoka. According to third edict – In Dhamma small collection (Aparigriha) and small expenditure was also a principle or law. According to Bhabru rock edict Ashoka apparent his devotion (Astha) towards triratnas of Buddha Dhamma and Sangha.

Question 3.
Explain the cultural contribution of Samudragupta.
Answer:
Gupta Dynasty has an important place in the cultural history of India. Gupta rulers were the followers of vedic religion. Samudragupta and Kumargupta I did Ashwamegha Yagya. They give shelter to Bodh and Jain religion also. In the period of Chandragupta II Chinese traveler Fa-hien came to India. From his descriptions it is known that Gupta Empire was well administered. There were less enemies and burden of taxes was also very less. State’s official language was Sanskrit. The writer of Dramas Raghuvansham and \ Abhigyan Shakuntlam Kalidasa, writer of Drama Mrichkatikam, Shudrak, writer of the play Mudra Rakshasa Vishakhadutta and the great famous Koshkar Amar Singh were belonged to Gupta period only. 1’he present form of the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Manu Samhita came in the Gupta period only. Aiyabhatt, Varahmihir and Brahamagupta gave their great contribution in the development of Mathematics and Astrology during Gupta period. Decimal system was discovered in this period which reached to Europe through Arabs. The evidences of the architecture of that period are found in proofs of drawing art and metal art in remains of Jhansi and Kanpur, some caves of Ajanta, Iron Pillar located at Delhi, 80 feets high copper Idol of Budha in Nalanda and 7 14 feet high copper idol of Budha located at Sultanganj.

Question 4.
Give a short introduction of Rashtrakuta Dynasty.
Answer:
This dynasty was founded by Dantidurga in 736 A.D. He made Nasik his capital, 14 kings belonged to this dynasty, Dantidurga was a Samanta under the Chalukyas of Vatapi. He ended the power of Chalukyas in South by defeating the last Chalukyas ruler, Kirtiverma II. Krishna I constructed the world famous Kailasha Natha temple of Ellora. The forth ruler of the dynasty Dhruva defeated Vatsaraja King of Gurjar- Pratiharas and fifth ruler defeated the Gurjar Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II and Pala ruler Dharmapala. He expanded the power of Rashtakutas from Malwa region to Kanchi. The sixth ruler Amoghvarsha was peace loving person who ruled for 64 years. He made Manyakhet (Malakhed) capital of Rashtrakutas. Arab traveller Suleiman considered Amoghvarsha among the four great rulers. Krishna II and Indra III defeated Mahipal, the ruler of Kanauj and forced him to flee away. In the period of 12th ruler Krishna III, a long struggle was started between Rashtrakutas and Cholas of south.

Rashtrakutas were defeated by the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The Chalukya dynasty took control over Manyakhet by defeating Karka II of Rashtrakuta dynasty in 973 A.D. Rashtrakuta rulers were great supporter of the vedic religion. They constructed many splendid and huge temples. They were nurturer of Sanskrit and Kannada literature. The rulers of this dynasty were called Balhara (Ballraj) by the Arabs.

Question 5.
Write a short note on Chola Administration.
Answer:
Chola’s administration was based on Gram – Panchayat system. In the view of smooth administration whole Chola state was divided into six provinces, which were called Mandalam, the sub-departments of mandalam, were ‘Kottam’, sub-parts of kottam, nadu, kurram and grama. In Abhilekhas Sabhas of Nadu ‘Nattar’ and Nagar Shrenis were called ‘Nagartar’. The representatives of the village were elected every year regularly. Every mandlam was autonomous but to control or check the king, there was not any central legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). Approx l/6th part of the produce was received by the Government in the form of lagan. Lagan can be paid either in the form of grain or in gold currency (Mudra). The gold coin in trend of Chola state was called ‘Kasu’ which was of 16 ounce. Beside a huge infantry Chola kings had a powerful navy. Chola kings completed the big plans of irrigations.

Question 6.
What do you know about Pallava Dynasty?
Answer:
The rulers of this dynasty ruled over the modern districts of Arcot, Madras, Trichnapalli and Tanjore. In rock edicts the name of the first Pallava king is mentioned Vishnugopa of Kanchi. In Pallavas Singhvishnu ascended the throne of later half of the 6th century A.D. After that up to the two centuries Pallavas ruled. The names of the main Pallava kings – Mahendra Verma I (Approx 600 – 25 A.D.), Narsingh Verma I, Mahendra Verma II, Parmeshwar Verma, Narsingh Verma II, Parmeshwar Verma II, Nandi Verma, Nandi Verma II and Aparajta. The Mahendra Verma was a great architect and builder. He built many temples by carving stones. Mahendra Verma I wrote a play named ‘Matta Vilas Prashasan’. He also dug a pond named Mahendra,

He was defeated by Chalukya king Pulakeshin II in 610 A.D. The successor and son of Mahendra Narsingh Verma (Mahamalla) defeated Pulakeshin II in 642 A.D. and took control over his capital Vatapi, but Chalukyas took revenge of this defeat in 655 A.D., Chalukya king Vikramaditya I defeated Parmeshwar Verma Pallava king and took control over his capital, Kanchi. Former Pallava kings established the Mammalpuram or Mahabalipuram Nagar and built five Ratha temple there. Here idols are engraved by carving rocks. Pallava kings also built temples in Kanchi. Among Pallava rulers some were devotees of Vishnu and some of Shiva.

Question 7.
Give the contribution of Kanishka.
Answer:
He is considered among main Kushana kings of India. During his period Fourth Buddhist Council was held under the Presidentship of Acharya Parshwa in Kundalvan of Kashmir. His first capital was Peshwar (Purishpur) and second capital was Mathura. He started a new Samwat in the 78 A.D. which is known as Saka Samwat. Kanishka established Nagara named Kanishkpur in Kashmir after conquering it. He got victory over Kashgar, Yarkand and Khetan also. On golden coins found in Mahasthan (Bogra) Kanishka’s standing idol is marked. A statue of Kanishka is found in Mathura. In this statue he is wearing a Choga long up to the knees and heavy boots. On one copper coin Kanishka is shown doing sacrifice on a vedi. In the court of Kanishka intellectuals like Parshwa, Vasumitra, Ashwashosha, famous mathematician like Nagarjun and doctors like Charka were present. The origin and spread of Mahayana sect of Budhism was held in Kanishka’s period.

Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D Class 10 Social Science RBSE Solutions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mentioning the Mahajanapadas, give the introduction of the main janapadas of Rajasthan.
Answer:
Many powerful and vast states were indepenadently established in North India in the sixth century B.C. which were named as Mahajanapadas. According to Budhist scriptures and ‘Agguttarnikaya’, there were 16 Mahajanapadas existing in that period.

There were two types of states in above mentioned 16 Mahajanapadas – Monarchism and Republic. In the sixth century B.C. many republics also prevailed. Among them main were – Shakyas of Kapilvastu, parts of Sunsumargiri, Buly of Allakappa, Kalam of Kesputta, Koliya of Ramgram, Malla of Kushinagara, Malla of Pava, Maurya of Pippalivan, Lichchavi of Vaishali and Videh of Mithila.

Main Janapadas of Rajasthan

In the chain of the development of vedic civilization origin of Janalpadas is seen in Rajasthan also. Due to invasion of Greeks, tribes like Malav, Shivi, Arjunayan etc. of Punjab which were famous for their courage and bravery migrated to Rajasthan and settled here. In this way Janapada system originated in Eastern part of Rajasthan.

The main Janapadas were are follows

Jangal : Present district of Bikaner and Jodhpur were called Jangadesh in the Mahabharat period. Somewhere its name is found as Kuru – Jangala and Madey – Jangala. The capital of this Janapada was Ahichatrapur which is present day Nagpur.

Matsya : The region near – around present day Jaipur was known as Matsya Mahajanapada. Its extension was from near the hills of Chambal up to Jangal region of the river Saraswati. Its capital was Viratnagar which is known as Bairath in present time.

Shursen : This Mahajanapada was located in modem Braj region. It’s capital was Mathura. The ancient Greek writers called this state as ‘Shursenoi’ and capital as ‘Methora’.

Shivi : Shivpur was the capital of Shivi Janapada and the king Sushin defeated it with other castes in the battle of ten kings. The recognition of ancient Shivpur is done with the Sherkota place in present Pakistan. In later period this Shivi caste of Southern Punjab inhabited in Mewar Region of Rajasthan city located near of Chittorgarh was the capital of this Janapada.

Question 2.
Describe the Mauiyan period’s administration and society.
Answer:
Central Administration system was established in India during Mauiyas. Though all the powers were centralized in King but he was not autocrat. Kautilya has illustrated seven organs of state; King, Amatya, Janapada, Durga, Kosha, Sena and Mitra. King appointed the chief minister and Purohita after thorough checking. This process was known as Updha Parikshan (observation). These were the integral members of the ministry. Beside ministry there was Parisha Mantrinah which was like a ministers council (Mantri Parishad).

Central Administration : In arthshastra there is illustration of 18 departments, which are called Teerth’. The President of the Teerth is called Mahamatra. The most important Teerths were Mantri, Purohita, Senapati and Yuvraj.

Samaharla : Its function was to collect revenue, keeping detail of income and expenditure, preparing Annual Budget,

Sannidhata (Treasurer) : Maintaining of treasury and granary in different departments of empire. In Arthshastra 26 head of the departments is mentioned.

Regional Administration : There is illustration of 5 regions in Magadha empire in Ashoka’s period – Uttarpath (Taxila), Avanti Rashtra (Ujjayani), Kalinga (Tosli), Dakshinapath (Suvarngiri), Madhya Pradesh (Patliputra). Administration of regions was looked after by the Aryaputra post holders or princes. Prantas were divided into subjects (Vishyas) which were under Vishyapaties.

City Administration : According to Magasthanese a city administration was managed by mandal of 30 members, which was divided into 6 samities.

Military Management : There was a separate department for the organization of the army. It was divided into six samities. Each Samiti had 5 members. These samities looked after 5 departments of the army.

Judiciary System : Samrat was the highest officer of Judicial administration. At lower level were Grama courts, where Gramnl and Gram Vridh (senior citizens) gave their decision. Above them were Sangrahan, Dronmukh local and Janapada courts. At the top most was the central court of Patliputra. Except Gram Sangh and king’s court all other courts were of two types Dharmsthiya, Kanthak Shodhan.

Mauryan Society : Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Magasthanese’s Indica and Ashoka’s edicts gave information about the social system of Maurya period. Kautilya has considered Varna system as the base of social organization. Kautilya has fixed the occupations of all four Varnas. Beside four Vamas, Kautilya has mentioned other castes also like – Nishad, Parsnav, Rathkar, Kshata, Vedehak, Suta, Chandala, etc. In Magasthenese’s Indica classification of the Indian society is done into seven castes – Darshnik, Kisan, Pashupalak, Shikari, Artisans or Shilpi, soldier, Inspector, Sabhasad and other administrative class. Magasthenese has forgotten the differences of caste, varna and trade in his classification.

In Maurya period status of women cannot be said to be, still they were in good position compared to Smriti period and they were allowed to remarry and Nujoga.

Question 3.
Write an article on cultural contribution of Gupta Dynasty.
Answer:
The founder of this dynasty was the Shri Gupta. Samudragupta, has told himself in the Prayag Prashasti ‘the Prapautra (the great grandson) of Srigupta. After Srigupta Ghatotkach Gupta became the ruler. He adopted the title of Maharaj’.

Gupta Dynasty has an important place in the cultural history of India. Gupta samrats were the followers of vedic religion. Samudragupta and Kumargupta I did Ashwamegha Yagya. They gave shelter to Bodh and Jain religion also. In the period of Chandragupta II, Chinese traveler Fa-hien came to India. From his descriptions it is known that Gupta Empire was well administered, there were less enemies and burden of taxes was also very less. State’s official language was Sanskrit. The writer of Dramas Raghuvansham and Abhigyan Shakuntlam Kalidasa, writer of Drama Mrichkatikam, Shudrak writer of the play Mudra Rakshasa Vishakhadutta and the famous Koshkar Amar Singh belonged to Gupta period.

The present form of the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Manusamhita came in the Gupta period, Aryabhatt, Varahmihir and Brahamagupta gave their great contribution in the development of Mathematics and astrology in Gupta period. Decimal system was discovered in this period only, which reached to Europe through Arabs. The evidences of the Architecture of that period are found in proofs of drawing art and metal art in remains of Jhansi and Kanpur, some caves of Ajanta, Iron Pillar located at Delhi, 80 feet high copper Idol of Buddha in Nalanda and 7 Vn feet high copper idol of Budha located at Sultanganj.

Question 4.
Describe in detail the states of the Chola of South and Chalukyas.
Answer:
It was one of the main states of the ancient Dakshinapath, other two were – Pandyas and Chera. In Ashoka’s edicts this state is described in the form of an independent state. People of Chola state were Tamil speakers. They encouraged writing of high quality literature in Tamil language ‘Kural’ written by Tirvalluver is an excellent example. Karikal (100 B.C.) was a Chola king, who founded the foundation of Puhar or Pugar nagar. He fought war with Singhalas and constructed 100 miles long dam at the bank of the river kaveri by the prisoners. He took capital of Cholas from Uraspur (Uryur) to Kaveripattnam. Aditya successor and son of Chola king Vijayalaya (880-907 A.D.) defeated Pallava king Aprajita. Parantaka I, son of Aditya completely ruined the power of the Pallavas. He also took control over Madurai, capital of Pandyas.

Chola took ahead the architecture of Pallavas. The chariacterstics of Cholas Dravida style temple art are – Square Viman, Mandapa, Gopuram Varihad Sadan with artistic pillars, for decoration traditional Lion (Chali), Bracket and joint pillars etc.

Chalukya Dynasty : Pulkeshin I descendant of Chalukya dynasty and did Ashwamegha Yagya. The Chalukyas of Vatapi ruled over (550 A.D. – 757 A.D.) except a gap of 13 years of their obstacles (642 – 655 A.D.) Among Chalukya kings. Pulkeshin II is the most famous. He became the king in 608 A.D. Expansion of his kingdom was in the North from Narmada to Kaveri in the south. He was defeated by Pallava king Narsingh Verma in 642 A.D. Vikramaditya I son of Pulkishen reestablished the glory of Chalukya power. In 973 A.D. Chalukya king Vikramaditya II defeated Rashtrakut king and made Kalyani his capital and established a new Chalukya power from 973 – 1200 A.D. This state of Chalukyas had a continued struggle for a long period with Cholas of Tanjore, Chalukya king named Satyashrya was defeated by Chola king Rajraja, Someshwar I of Chalukya Dynasty not only took revenge of this insult by defeating very badly King Rajadhiraj in Kappam war but he killed Rajadhiraja in this war. Vikramadityashashtha 7th king, who was with the name Vikramank took control over Kanchi and gave protection to famous poet Vilhana. Vilhana wrote a Grantha named Vikramankdev Charitam based on Vikramaditya’s life. Though Chalukya kings of Vatapi and Kalyani were Hindus but gave shelter to Budha and Jain religion.

Chalukya kings built many temples. The author of the Vyakhya of Yagyavalakya’s Smriti ‘ Mitaakshra’ famous Vidhivetta Vigyaneshwar lived in the capital of Chalukyas, Kalyani. Mitakshra is considered the Adhikarik Grantha of Hindu Law.

Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D Class 10 Social Science Rajasthan Board Solutions Additional Questions Solved

Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D RBSE Solutions Class 10 Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is considered as the treasure of knowledge of the world?
Answer:
Vedas.

Question 2.
What brought a great revolution in people’s physical life?
Answer:
Iron Technology.

Question 3.
Name the main kings of Shunga Dynasty after Pushyamitra.
Answer:
Agnimitra, Jyeshthamitra, Bhadrak, Bhagwat and Devbhiti.

Question 4.
Who founded the Satvahan Dynasty?
Answer:
Simik.

Question 5.
Who founded the system of land donation to Brahmins?
Answer:
Satvahanas.

Question 6.
In whose reign Chinese traveler Fa- hein came to India?
Answer:
Chandragupta II.

Question 7.
Who wrote Abhigyan Shakuntalam and Raghuvansham Mahakavyam?
Answer:
Kalidasa.

Question 8.
Name the mixed races of Gupta period.
Answer:
Murdhavshakti, Karan, Ambashth, Parshav.

Question 9.
Name the greatest king of Pala Dynasty.
Answer:
The second ruler of Pala dynasty Dharmpala.

Question 10.
Name the two find architects of Pala Dyansty.
Answer:
(i) Dhiman
(ii) Vitapal

Question 11.
Where do we found the ponds of Pala Dynasty today?
Answer:
Dinapur District

Question 12.
Who was Danti Durga?
Answer:
Danti Durga was a samanta of Chalukyas of Vatapi.

Question 13.
Name the bravest ruler of Gurjar – Pratihar Dynasty.
Answer:
Raja Bhoj I also known as Mihir Bhoj.

Question 14.
Who wrote Karpur Manjari?
Answer:
Mahakavi Raj Shekhar.

Question 15.
Who built Vrihadeshwar Temple?
Answer:
Chola Rajaraja I.

Question 16.
Who built Mamallpuram or Mahaba- lipuram?
Answer:
Early Pallva Rulers Rajaraja I.

Question 17.
Which is considered as an authentic scripture of Hindu Law?
Answer:
Mitakshra.

Question 18.
Who first deciphered the Asokan rock edicts?
Answer:
James Princep.

Golden India – Beginning to 1206 A.D RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write an note on External Invasion and Assimilation.
Answer:
Saka, Huna and Kushana were foreign tribes. They ruled over but gradually these were intermingled with Indian society and culture. These Barbarian tribe castes became an organ of the Indian society. Kushana ruler’s devotion towards vedic Dharma and Shaiva cult was being unanimous. The service done by Kanishka towards Budhism established him among the great kings of India.