Chapter 10 Displacing Indigenous Peoples
Comment on any points of difference between the native peoples of South and North America.
Owing to topographical differences, South Americans were hunter-gatherers, agriculturists and herders. They were simple people contended with their means. In North America, native people used to live in band in villages along the river valleys. They ate fish and meat and cultivated vegetables and maize. The natives of South America maintained empire, while the natives of North America did not maintain it.
Other than the use of English, what other features of English economic and social life do you notice in 19th century USA?
In the 19th century, the landscapes of America changed immensely. The Europeans treated the land in a different way. Some of the migrants from Britain and France were eager to have their own land in America. In the prairie grasslands, people from Poland were happy to work. They wanted to buy huge properties at low cost. They cleared land and developed agriculture. They introduced crops which could not grow in Europe and therefore, could be sold for the profit. To protect their farms they hunted wild animals. With the invention of barbed wire in 1873 they felt totally secured.
What did the ‘frontier’ mean to the Americans?
The conquest and purchase of land by the Americans resulted in the extension of boundaries. The natives of America were compelled to move accordingly. The boundary where natives reached was known as ‘Frontier’.
Why was the history of the Australian native peoples left out of the history books?
European settlers and native peoples interacted on the issue of land after the emergence of North America. They were displaced by the Europeans. Early settlers were convicts deported from England. Hence, they were unknown to the area. They had not even their own tradition and history. Nothing has been written in American and Australian history textbooks about the native peoples. That is why the Australian native peoples were left out of history. It could be made possible from the decade of 1960’s that native peoples started keeping their records.
Answer In A Short Essay
How satisfactory is a museum gallery display in explaining the culture of a people? Give examples from your own experience of a museum.
A museum gallery displays the culture of a people in the following ways:
- In museum, we seek information regarding dialects and languages.
- Remains of pots, apparels, ornaments and other things are displayed.
- Books, research papers, survey reports and works of historians and archaeologists are kept in the gallery of museum.
- Icons of the ancient periods, the theology in its basic forms and coins are also found in the museum.In fact, the museum is a storehouse of all the things symbolizing cultures of human beings from prehistoric period to the present. These things display cultures of the respective periods.
Imagine an encounter in California in about 1880 between four people: a former African slave, a Chinese labourer, a German who had come out in the Gold Rush, and a native of the Hopi tribe, and narrate their conversation.
It is an activity based question. Students are advised to attempt it with the help of their teachers.
More Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Define the term ‘native’.
The term ‘native’ refers to the birthplace of a person where he/she lives in. This term was used by the Europeans to describe the inhabitants of colonised country.
Which three European nations began to increase their trading activities after 17th century?
The three European nations which began to increase their trading activities after 17th century were France, Holland and England.
Who established themselves as a political power in South Africa and how?
The East India Company established themselves as a political power in South Africa. The company defeated the local leaders and annexed their territories to firmly establish its power.
Explain the term ‘Settler’.
The term ‘Settler’ was used to describe the people who came from outside and settled at a particular place or region. It was used for Britishers in Ireland, Dutch in South Africa and the Europeans in America.
Which names were given by Europeans to the countries of the New World?
- New Zealand
What are the various terms used to describe the native peoples of New World?
The various terms used for the native peoples of New World are aborigine, aboriginal, First Nations peoples, Indigenous peoples, Native Americans and Red Indians.
What do you know about Wampum belts?
These belts were made of colored shells sewn together. These belts were exchanged by native tribes after signing a treaty.
Write about the lifestyle of native peoples of North America.
- They lived in bands, in villages along river valleys.
- They also practiced agriculture and grew crops and vegetables.
- They ate fish and meat. To get quality meat, they also went on to long journeys in its search.
Write three points about the life of native peoples of North America.
- They spoke various languages.
- They believed that time moved in cycles.
- They could understand the climates and different landscapes.
Where did John Cabot reach?
John Cabot reached New Found land in 1497.
List the items of exchange between the natives and Europeans.
The items of exchange between the natives and Europeans were the following:
- The Europeans gave them iron vessel and alcohol.
- In return, they (the natives) gave Europeans fish and fur.
Why did the Europeans consider natives of America as uncivilized?
The Europeans believed that literacy and urbanization are the basis of a civilized society. The natives of America lacked all these. That’s why they considered them uncivilized.
What enabled the Europeans to dictate their terms to the natives of North America?
The natives of North America were quite ignorant about alcohol. But the Europeans gave them alcohol and made them addicted to it. It became their weakness. This way the Europeans became capable of dictating their terms to the natives of North America.
When did Britain recognize the USA as an independent country?
Britain recognized the USA as an independent country in 1781.
Describe the views expressed by Washington Irwin about the natives of America.
- They did not have faith in the working of white settlers or white people.
- They used to entertain themselves by imitating the white people.
What were the opinions of Europeans and the natives regarding trade? (HOTS)
The Europeans believed fish and fur to be the commercial commodities and wished to earn more profit by selling them. On the other hand, natives taught them about the exchange of goods as a goodwill gesture.
Name the crops grown by Europeans on their land in America. Why did they raise them?
The crops grown by Europeans were rice and cotton in their land in America. They raised them because these crops could be sold for profit.
Why did the British and the French come to settle in America in the 19th century?
The British and the French came to settle in America in the 19th century. Because according to a tradition, the eldest son had the right to inherit the patriarchy. They came to America in search of property and settled here.
Why did the people of Poland shift towards America during 15th century? Give two reasons.
The people of Poland shifted towards America because of the following:
- Large tracks of land were available at cheaper rates.
- The pasture land available here was of good quality.
How did the native peoples lose their land?
After the expansion of the USA settlement, the natives were forced to move after signing treaties and selling their land. The natives were paid very low price for the land they sold.
Write any two steps taken by the Europeans for the development of agriculture in the USA.
Steps taken by the Europeans for the development of agriculture in the USA were:
- They cleared large tracks of forest to develop agriculture.
- To protect their farms from the danger of wild animals, they enclosed the field with barbed wire.
Who made the historic declaration regarding slavery?
The historic declaration regarding slavery was made by the US President Abraham Lincoln.
Write any two factors responsible for the displacement of the natives by the Europeans.
The factors responsible for the displacement of the natives were the following:
- The natives did not make the optimum use of their land.
- They did not try to follow European dress code or learn English.
What do you know about Gold Rush?
The Europeans were quite optimistic about gold in North America. In the 1840s, traces of gold were found in the USA. They created a mad race among the Europeans to enter America in the hope of making good fortune. They just wanted to obtain gold to control over the deposits of gold. This race among the Europeans is called Gold Rush.
Discuss any two reasons to show that Gold Rush proved to be a blessing for the USA.
‘Gold Rush’ proved to be a blessing for the USA on account of the following reasons:
- Railway lines were laid down across the continent of America.
- Thousands of Chinese workers were employed for this.
Discuss a few objectives for the development of industries in North America.
- To manufacture railway equipment to connect people from distant places.
- To make farming easier and production oriented various types of machines were prepared.
By which name wild buffaloes were known in the USA? When were they completely exterminated?
Wild buffaloes were known as ‘Bison’ in the USA. They were completely exterminated by 1890 CE.
What was the aim of Indian Reorganisation Act? When was it implemented?
Indian Reorganisation Act gave natives in reservations the right to buy land and take loans. It was implemented in 1934.
Name the various terms used for the native peoples of North and South America and the Caribbeans.
The various terms used for native peoples of North and South America and the Caribbeans were American-Indian, Amerind or Amerindian.
What do you know about Red-Indians?
Red-Indians, i.e., brown complex people is the name given to the people living in the island of Guanhani in the Bahamas.
When was America discovered?
America was discovered in 1492 by Christopher Columbus.
Why was the ‘Indian Reorganization’ Act of 1934 considered as a landmark in the history of USA?
This act is considered to be a landmark in the history of USA because it gave natives the right to buy land and take loan.
When and by whom was “Declaration of Indian Rights” prepared? What was its significance?
In 1954, “Declaration of Indian Rights” was prepared by the US natives. It is significant because it was thought that they will assert their right to their own culture.
What did the term ‘Join the mainstream’ imply?
‘Join the mainstream’ implied that the natives would adopt European culture and abandon their modes of separate identity.
Why did the natives experience Europeans were giving more things in exchanges while less at other times?
Natives were simple and complacent people. They had nothing to do with the market activities, upheavals and effects of demand and supply in the market for the things.
What is the significance of “The Declaration of Indian Rights”? When was it prepared?
“The Declaration of Indian Right” implied that the natives were much reduced in numbers from what they had been in the 18th century. They were able to assert their rights to their own cultures. It was prepared in 1954.
How did the landscapes of America change?
A number of people migrated to America from Germany, Sweden, Britain, France and Poland. Britain and France occupied a large area of Northern America in fair way. Then they changed this landscape into a number of colonies.
Why was the discrimination made in the Constitution of America?
- Only the white men were given the right to vote for representatives to Congress and for President.
- They were also given the right to property. The Constitution was criticized on the ground that it did not give these rights to non-whites or those who migrated from South East Asia.
Define the concept of‘Aborigines’.
‘Aborigines’ refers to the indigenous inhabitants of a country, colonised by Europeans. It is generally the name given to a number of different societies of Australia who arrived here and settled in the continent over 40,000 years ago.
How many native communities were in Australia in the late 18th century? What was their unique quality?
There were about 350 to 750 native communities in Australia in the late 18th century. Each community had its own language.
Why are past centuries called the ‘dream time’ in context to Australia?
The past centuries are called the ‘dream time’ because there is no distinction between the past and the present when we talk about Australia.
Who were Torres Strait Islanders?
Torres Strait Islanders were the large group of indigenous peoples living in North Australia. They belonged to different races and also migrated from elsewhere.
When was Canberra made the capital of Australia? What was it called before becoming the Australian capital?
Canberra was made the capital of Australia in 1911. The name is taken from a native word Kamberra which means meeting place.
Question 44. .
Who was Judith Wright?
Judith Wright was a famous Australian writer who fought for the rights of the Australian aborigines.
What do you know about W.E.H. Stanner?
W.E.H. Stanner was an Australian anthropologist who delivered a lecture in 1968 entitled ‘The Great Australian Silence’.
Who were the Cherokees?
The Cherokees were the original inhabitants of Georgia. It was an American state.
Short Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by ‘Imperialism’? Name a few countries who encouraged imperialism.
When a country establishes its economic and political control over any other country it is known as imperialism. The imperial country tries to maintain its strict control over the resources of colonial countries.
The countries which encouraged the policy of imperialism were the following:
- Great Britain
Discuss the physiographic features of the continent of North America.
Physiographic features of the continent of North America:
- This continent extends from Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
- The Rocky Mountain chain is to the east of the Great plains, the Great Lakes, the valleys of the Mississippi and the Ohio and the Appalachian Mountains.
- The Great lakes, the valleys of Mississippi and Ohio, and the great plains lie toward the east of the continent.
- Mexico is situated towards its south.
What do you know about the earliest inhabitants of North America?
It is estimated that the earliest inhabitants of North America came from Asia on a land bridge across the Bering Straits about 30,000 years ago. They moved towards the south during the Ice Age 10,000 years ago. The oldest artefact was found in America about 11,000 years ago. About 5000 years ago due to climatic stability population began to increase. Before the advent of Europeans, the native Americans used to live along the river valleys and produced crops such as maize and several kinds of vegetables.
How did the exchange of goods between the European traders and the natives of North- America prove beneficial for the Europeans?
After arriving North America, the European traders came to know that the native peoples assembled regularly at the bank of the river Mississippi with an objective for exchange of goods. They exchanged handicrafts and food items. Only those goods were exchanged which were not available in a particular region. The European traders took part in the exchange of food items with an objective to boost their trade. They gave items like blankets, vessels, and gun. These items proved beneficial for the natives in one or another way. Before the advent of the Europeans the natives were not familiar with the wine. But the European made them addicted of wine. It proved very beneficial for the Europeans and succeeded in dictating their terms to the natives.
What were the views of natives regarding trade and the Europeans?
Natives’ views regarding trade:
They had different views as compared to Europeans. The natives considered exchange of gifts between friends as a social behavior but for the Europeans it was just for profit making. The European traders wanted to earn more money by selling items such as fish and fur. The natives were unable to understand why the European traders sometimes offer so much in lieu of exchange of goods and at other time they offer so little for the same. They did not know any thing about trade. Views about the Europeans: They remained unaware about the Europeans for quite a long-time. In their folk tales, they portrayed the white people, i.e. the European traders as greedy and foolish people.
Discuss the views of Washington Irving regarding the natives.
Washington Irving was a famous American writer who personally got a chance to meet North American natives. According to him, they lived with the white people and spoke less. Because they were unaware about their language. When they gathered together, they did not miss even a single chance to entertain themselves by mocking at the Europeans. The Europeans, on the other hand, believed that the natives respected them because they impressed the Indians with their magnificence and glory. But it was a fact that the Europeans did not treat the natives with respect.
Why did the Europeans start to come and settle down in America during 19th century? Write any three reasons behind it.
The Europeans started to come and settle down in America during 19th century. The possible reasons behind it were the following:
- In France and Britain the younger sons had no right to inherit their father’s property. Therefore, they were eager to buy their own property and took keen interest to settle down in America.
- The farmers of Germany, Italy and Sweden had lost their land to big landlords. Now, they wanted to own some land and migrated to the USA in search of pasture- land.
- The people of Poland also started migrating to America, because here land was available at comparatively less rates. The Polish people were quite happy to work in Prairie grasslands because it reminded them about the steppes to their home town. It encouraged them to buy more land here.
How will you justify that the Europeans and the natives of America had different perceptions regarding forests and agriculture?
Both the Europeans and the natives of America had different perceptions regarding forests and agriculture. The Europeans cleared the forests with iron tools to make it ready for agriculture. Doing so they wanted to increase the area under maize and other crops. The natives were surprised at their activities. They never used to grow crops as much as required for subsistence. They never taught about growing crops to make profit. They believed that forests are their source of strength and considered it a sin to cut them. In this way, they had different perceptions regarding forests and agriculture.
Discuss the methods adopted by the Europeans to displace the natives.
With the expansion of European settlement in America, natives were displaced from the region concerned. The methods adopted by the Europeans to displace the natives were the following:
- They used to inspire the native peoples to abandon those regions.
- In case the natives refused to abandon those areas, they were threatened.
- They had deceitfully acquired more land from the natives and forced them out from here.
How did the Europeans justify the displacement of the natives?
The Europeans justified the displacement of the natives by saying that they (the natives) did know the judicious use of their land. They criticized them by calling them sluggish. They were unaware about their crafts skill to produce goods for the market. Natives were also criticized on the ground that they were not interested in learning English and wearing western dress. So they deserved to die out. Wild bisons were killed on a large scale to clear prairies for farmland.
Write on the following:
(i) The Gold Rush
(ii) Position of natives in Australia
- The Gold Rush: It was expected that there was gold in America. Traces of gold were found in the USA, California in the 1840’s. It only led to the ‘Gold Rush’. A lot of Europeans went to America in the expectation of making a quick fortune. It
- also led to the building of railway lines throughout the continent. Thousands of Chinese workers were also recruited.
- Position of natives in Australia: In the late 18th century, there were about 350-750 native communities. Each community had its own language. Most of the communities resided in the north, i.e. called Torres Strait Islanders. Hence, the word, ‘aborigines’ is not used to describe them as they migrated from different places and belonged to a different race.
Why did the relations between the Europeans and native Australians become strained?
Captain Cook, a British sailor discovered Australia in 1770. Initially, the relations between the Europeans and native Australians were cordial. But with the assassination of James Cook by a native, the relations between the Europeans and the native Australians strained. They adopted a hostile attitude towards them.
Discuss the contribution of W.H.O. Stanner in understanding the culture of the natives.
The Europeans made no sincere efforts to understand the Australian natives and their culture. It was due to their hostile attitude towards the natives. In their books, the Europeans too described their achievements. It was projected that the natives had neither any indigenous culture, nor had they any history of their own. In 1968 W.E.H. Stanner published his famous book named, “The Great Australian Silence”. In it, he encouraged the Europeans to trace and understand the historical roots of the natives of Australia. It was indeed a commendable step.
What do you understand by Terra nullius?
Terra nullius means belonging to no body. The govt, of Australia always termed the land of Australia terra nullius. The rights of the natives were also undermined. Terra nullius was legally invalid.
Discuss the beginning of economic development in Australia with the establishment of European colonies.
With the coming of Europeans and establishment of their colonies in Australia, the process of economic development seeded up.
- The Europeans established larger sheep-rearing farms. They kept and reared the sheep Marino.
- They cleared forest for the development of agriculture.
- Production of wheat was encouraged and large vineyards were established to encourage the wine industry.
- Mining industry was also encouraged which laid the foundation of prosperity of Australia.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the features of the lifestyle of the native peoples of North America.
The features of the lifestyle of the native peoples of North America were as follows:
- Living of the people: In North America, the people lived in bands, in villages along the bank of the river valley.
- Diet: The people used to grow crops such as maize and different types of vegetation. They also ate fish and meat and went on hunting at far off places in search of wild buffaloes called bison.
- Economy: The people believed in subsistence economy. They used to grow as much crops as required to fulfil their basic needs.
- Land as a resource: They claimed their rights over the ownership of the land and were satisfied with the food and shelter available. There was no conflict with them for securing their rights over the ownership of land.
- Exchange of gifts: The natives of America used to live a life based on the principle of togetherness and mutual friendship. They did not indulge themselves into sale or purchase of goods. Thus, they used to exchange gifts amongst them.
- Language: The natives used to speak a number of languages. But names of these were not written down.
- Clothes: The natives of North America were skilled craftsmen and knew the art of weaving best quality of clothes.
How would you interpret the expansion of the USA? Also discuss the development of agriculture in the USA.
Expansion of the USA
The USA and Canada came into being towards the end of the 18th century. They occupied only a fraction of land. The imperial power of that time established 13 colonies on its eastern coasts with an objective to gain her independence from Britain. In 1776, they declared a war against Britain.
This war continued till 1783 and came to an half with the defeat of Britain. In this way, independence of the United States of America came into being. The USA took long time to reach the present boundaries. America started expansion towards the west. To reach its present boundary, the southern region was won from Mexico. This southern expansion of America resulted in the displacement of the natives time and again. By 1892, America reached its present strength.
The Europeans in America had purchased large size of landholdings. They cleared forests and brought more land under cultivation. They produced crops like rice and cotton. These crops were sold in European market to earn more profits. To protect the crops from the dangers of wild predators they hunted on larger scale. The invention of barbed wire proved to be a milestone in the development of agriculture in America.
What do you know about the slavery system in the USA? How was it abolished? Discuss.
The climatic condition of the southern region was too hot. The Europeans were not able to work outdoors. Their main intention was to employ slaves as workers. The natives of South American colonies who had been enslaved had died in great numbers. As a result, the plantation owners bought slaves in Africa. There was a wide protest by anti¬slavery groups that led to a ban on slave trade. But the Africans who lived in the USA remained slaves.
The economy of the north was completely different from the south. The northern states of America began to raise their voice against this practice. But the southern states were not interested in abolishing it. This led to a war between the two nations. This war continued till four years, i.e. from 1861 to 1865. The northern states emerged victorious in this war. Hence, the institution of slavery was finally abolished. Abraham Lincoln, the then President of America played a remarkable role in the abolition of slavery.
What do you know about wind of change in the USA and Canada?
Till 1920s, the position of the native peoples of the USA and Canada did not improve. In 1928, a survey was conducted by Lewis Menon in which he narrated the grim picture of terribly poor people. The factors responsible for the winds of change were as follows:
Indian Reorganisation Act, 1934 In 1934, the Indian Reorganisation Act was introduced. Under the provision of this act, the natives living in reserves were given the right to buy land and take loans. Indeed, it was a landmark step in the history of natives. Declaration of Indian Rights, 1954
Between 1950 to 1960, the Governments of America and Canada thought to abolish all special provisions for the natives. They hoped that the natives will support their ideas to abolish privileges. But the natives did not do it. As a result of this, in 1954 many prepared a document named Declaration of Indian Rights. In it, they said that they will accept the citizenship of America on the terms that their reserves will not be taken back and there will be no interference in tradition.
In 1969, the government announced that they would not recognise aboriginal rights in Canada. The natives gave their support. They organised opposition by holding debates and a series of demonstrations. By the Constitution Act of 1982, they accepted the existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the natives.
Write a description about the winds of change in Australia.
Several factors were responsible for the winds of change in Australia. An account of the factors responsible for winds of change are listed below:
- The Europeans were very hostile towards the natives of Australia. Since a long-time, they (Europeans) made no sincere efforts to improve their conditions. In their literature, the Europeans portrayed themselves superior as compared to the natives. In 1968, W.E.H. Stanner published a book entitled “The Great Australian Silence” that encouraged the Europeans to trace and understand the historical roots of the natives of Australia.
- Henry Reynolds in his book, “Why Weren’t We Told” criticised the tradition of writing of Australian history. According to the Europeans, the history of Australia began with its discovery by Captain Cook. He believed that the study of native culture and civilization must be encouraged. His ideas inspired the Europeans to know about historical antecedents of the natives.
- The Europeans established separate department in universities to study the culture of the natives. To understand the local culture they also established museums and galleries of native art. Undoubtedly, it was a commendable step. It encouraged the Australian government to adopt the policy of multiculturalism. It aimed at providing equal respect for the culture of natives.
- A great Australian writer, Judith Wright spearheaded a powerful movement for the rights of the natives. She was of the opinion that the policy of keeping the whites and the natives separate may pose a great threat to the coming generation. She wrote many impressive poems which had intense effects on the hearts of people.
- The natives realized that the Europeans had made no agreement with them. It was due to this fact that the Australian government always used to call the land, Terra Nullius, which means that land belongs to none. This verdict recognized their claims of natives over the land prior to 1770.
- There was also a long and agonising history of children of mixed blood that was being forcibly captured and separated from their native relatives. These children were denied all sorts of rights.
Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
It is interesting to note that another writer, Washington Irving, much younger than Wordsworth and who had actually met native people, described them quite differently.
‘The Indians I have had an opportunity of seeing in real life are quite different from those described in poetry…Taciturn they are, it is true, when in company with white men, whose goodwill they distrust and whose language they do not understand; but the white man is equally taciturn under like circumstances. When the Indians are among themselves, they are great mimics, and entertain themselves excessively at the expense of the whites… who have supposed them impressed with profound respect for their grandeur and dignity… The white men (as I have witnessed) are prone to treat the poor Indians as little better than animals.’
(i) Who is the author of this passage? How did he describe a native?
(ii) How did William Wordsworth and French philosopher Rousseau view the natives differently?
(iii) What are the different names used in English to describe native peoples of New World?
(i) This passage is written by Washington Irving. According to him, the native might be impressed by the grandeur and dignity of ‘whites’ but he saw through distrust and goodwill of the whites. He regarded them as great mimics who entertain themselves excessively at the expense of the whites.
(ii) Rousseau viewed the natives as ‘the noble savages’. The poet William Wordsworth depicted them as living amid wilds with limited powers of emotions and imagination.
(iii) Different names/terms that are used in English to describe the native peoples of New World are Aborigines, Aboriginal, American Indians, Amerind, Red Indians, Native Americans, etc.
Thomas Jefferson, third President of the USA, and a contemporary of Wordsworth,
spoke of the natives in words that would lead to a public outcry today:
This unfortunate race which we have been taking so much pains to civilize… have justified extermination.
(i) Who was Thomas Jefferson?
(ii) Why was Thomas Jefferson known for?
(iii) What were his views about native Americans?
(i) Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the USA.
(ii) Thomas Jefferson was a renowned author. He wrote the book “Declaration of Independence.”
(iii) Thomas Jefferson was always in favor of the native Americans. He was of the opinion that this unfortunate race has suffered a lot to civilize the others.
‘Kathy my sister with the torn heart,
I don’t know how to thank you
For your Dreamtime stories of joy and grief
Written on paperbark.
You were one of the dark children I wasn’t allowed to play with
Riverbank campers, the wrong colour (I couldn’t turn you white.)
So it was late I met you,
Late I began to know
They hadn’t told me the land I loved
Was taken out of your hands.’
-‘Two Dreamtimes’, written for Oodgeroo Noonuccal
(i) What do you know about Judith Wright?
(ii) How did the European settlers treat the natives?
(Hi) How did things begin to change for the natives in Australia?
(i) Judith Wright was an Australian writer, who championed for the rights of Australian aborogines. She also wrote many poems about the loss made by the white people and the natives apart.
(ii) The European settlers forced the natives to evacuate their lands and deprived them of their resources. Some of them were employed by European settlers in their farms under the conditions of work, which were very different from slavery.
(iii) “Multiculturalism” was adopted as the official policy in Australia. Under this policy, equal respect was given to native cultures and to the different cultures of the immigrants from Europe and Asia.
Karl Marx (1818-83), the great German philosopher, described the American frontier as “the last positive capitalist utopia…the limitless nature and space to which the limitless thirst for profit adapts itself.”
—‘Bastiat and Carey’, Grundrisse
(i) Who was Karl Marx?
(ii) What made him popular?
(iii) What was his opinion about the American frontier?
(i) Karl Marx was a great German philosopher. He wrote a lot in favor of laborers.
(ii) The theory of communism made him popular among the working class all over the world.
(iii) Karl Marx opined that the American frontier was the last positive capitalist utopia.
On the map of Australia mark and locate the following:
On the given map, mark and locate the extent of the U.S.A.