Chapter 11 International Trade

Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Trade between two countries is termed as
(a) Internal trade
(b) External trade
(c) International trade
(d) Local trade
Answer:
(c) International trade

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following is a land locked harbour?
(a) Vishakhapatnam
(b) Mumbai
(c) Ennore
(d) Haldia
Answer:
(a) Vishakhapatnam

Question 1.(iii)
Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through
(a) Land and sea
(b) Land and air
(c) Sea and air
(d) Sea
Answer:
(c) Sea and air

Question 1.(iv)
Which bne of the following is India’s largest trading partner (2010-11)
(a) U.A.E.
(b) China
(c) Germany
(d) U.S.A.
Answer:
(a) U.A.E.

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
Mention the characteristics of India’s foreign trade.
Answer:
The nature of India’s foreign trade has changed over the years. Though there has been an increase in the total volume of import and export, the value of import continued to be higher than that of exports. There has also been an increase in trade deficit over the last couple of years. This increase in deficit is attributed to the price rise of crude petroleum, which forms a major component of India’s international trade. The share of primary products has decreased in the total export of India, whereas share of petroleum products has increased, share of manufactured products has remained constant over the years.

Question 2.(ii)
Distinguish between port and harbour.
Answer:

Question 2.(iii)
Explain the meaning of hinterland.
Answer:
Hinterland is the area served by a port. It is the area of influence of a port. It is a region lying inland from a coast or river. Eg. UP, Bihar, Jharkhand are hinterlands of Kolkata port.

Question 2.(iv)
Name important items which India imports from different countries.
Answer:
The major of items of India’s import as per 2009-2011 are food and allied products, fuel, fertilisers, paper board manufacturing and news print, capital goods, chemicals, pearls, precious and semi precious stones, gold and silver.

Question 2.(v)
Name the ports of India located on the east coast.
Answer:
Ports on the eastern coast of India are:

  • Kolkata port – West Bengal
  • Haldia port – West Bengal
  • Paradip port – Odisha
  • Vishakhapatnam port – Andhra Pradesh
  • Chennai port – Tamil Nadu
  • Ennore port – Tamil Nadu
  • Tuticorin port – Tamil Nadu

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Describe the composition of export and import trade of India.
Answer:
Composition of Export trade in India: The composition of commodities in India’s international trade has been undergoing change over years. The share of agriculture and allied products have declined whereas shares of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased. The shares of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant over the years from 1997-98 to 2003-04. The increase in share of petroleum products is due to rise in petroleum price as well as India’s refining capacity. The decline in traditional products is largely due to the competition from the international market. Amongst the agricultural products, there is a great decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc. though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar, etc.

Manufacturing sector alone accounted for 68 per cent of India’s total value of export in 2010-11. Engineering goods have shown a significant growth in the export list. China and other East Asian countries are our major competitors. Gems and jewellery contribute a larger portion of India’s foreign trade.

Composition of Import trade in India: Machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals largely make the import basket. There has been a steep rise in imports of petroleum products. It is used not only as a fuel but also as an industrial raw material. It indicates the tempo of rising industrialization and better standard of living. Sporadic price rise in the international market is another reason for the same. Import of capital goods maintained a steady increase due to rising demand in the export-oriented industrial and domestic sectors. Non¬electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufacturers of metals and machine tools were the main items of capital goods. Import of food and allied products declined with a fall in imports of edible oils. Other major items of India’s import include pearls and semi precious stones, gold and silver, metalliferrous ores and metal scrap, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc.

Question 3.(ii)
Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade of India.
Answer:
In 1950-51, India’s external trade was worth Rs. 1,2140 million, which rose to Rs. 22,09,270 crore in 2009-10. The main reasons for the rise in the quantum of trade is momentum piched up by the manufacturing sector, the liberal policies of the government and the diversification of markets. The nature of India’s foreign trade has changed over the years. Though there has been an increase in the total volume of import and export, the value of import continued to be higher than that of exports. There has also been an increase in trade deficit over the last couple of years. This increase in deficit is attributed to the price rise of crude petroleum, which forms a major component of India’s international trade.

Changing Nature of India’s Export: The composition of commodities in India’s international trade has been undergoing change over years. The share of agriculture and allied products have declined whereas shares of petroleum and crude products and other commodities have increased. The shares of ore minerals and manufactured goods have largely remained constant over the years from 1997-98 to 2003-04. The increase in share of petroleum products is due to rise in petroleum price as well as India’s refining capacity. The decline in traditional products is largely due to the competition from the international market Amongst the agricultural products, there is a great decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc. though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar, etc.

Manufacturing sector alone accounted for 68 per cent of India’s total value of export in 2010-11. Engineering goods have shown a significant growth in the export list. China and other East Asian countries are our major competitors.
Gems and jewellery contribute a larger portion of India’s foreign trade.

Changing Nature of India’s Import: India faced serious food shortage during 1950s and 1960s. The major item of import at that time was foodgrain, capital goods, machinery and equipments. The balance of payment was adverse as imports were more than export in spite of all the efforts of import substitution. After 1970s, foodgrain import was discontinued due to the success of green revolution but the energy crisis of 1973 pushed the prices of petroleum, and import budget was also pushed up. Fertilisers and petroleum replaced foodgrain import. Machine and equipment, special steel, edible oil and chemicals largely make the import basket.

There has been a steep rise in imports of petroleum products. It is used not only as a fuel but also as an industrial raw material. It indicates the tempo of rising industrialisation and better standard of living. Sporadic price rise in the international market is another reason for the same. Import of capital goods maintained a steady increase due to rising demand in the export-oriented industrial and domestic sectors. Non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufacturers of metals and machine tools were the main items of capital goods.
Import of food and allied products declined with a fall in imports of edible oils. Other major items of India’s import include pearls and semi precious stones, gold and silver, metalliferrous ores and metal scrap, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc.

Extra Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What changes have taken place in exports of India due to increased competition?
Answer:
Due to tough international competition, amongst the agricultural products, there is a great decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc. though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar, etc.

Question 2.
Which goods were being imported in 1950-60?
Answer:
India faced serious food shortage during 1950’s and 1960’s. The major item of import at that time was food grain, capital goods, machineries and equipment’s. The balance of payment was adverse as imports were more than exports in spite of all the efforts of import substitution.

Question 3.
In the decade of 1970 which goods had replaced food items from imports.
Answer:
After 1970’s, food grain import was discontinued due to the success of green revolution programme but the energy crisis of 1973 pushed the prices of petroleum, and import budget was also pushed up. Food grain import was replaced with fertilizers and petroleum. Machines and equipment’s, special steel, edible oil and chemicals largely made the import items.

Question 4.
Why did India’s external trade increase rapidly between 1950-51 and 2009-10?
Answer:
India’s external trade increased rapidly due to the sharp rise in overseas trade, the momentum picked up by the manufacturing sectors, the liberal policies of the government and the diversification of market.

Question 5.
Why is the export of agricultural and allied products declining continuously after 1997-98?
Answer:
There is a great decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc due to the tough international competition amongst agricultural products. Though an increase has been registered in floricultural products, fresh fruits, marine products and sugar, etc.

Question 6.
After attaining a peak in 1999-2000, why has the export of manufacturing goods started decreasing?
Answer:
Engineering goods have shown a significant growth in the export list. But the share of petroleum 8s other commodities have increased.

Question 7.
Name the major items of India’s import list of 1994-2005?
Answer:

  • Engineering goods, capital goods
  • Gems and jewellery
  • Chemical and related products
  • Petroleum products (fuel).

Question 8.
Name the trading partners of India ] except the USA.
Answer:
The UAE is India’s largest trading partner and the most important destination of India’s export followed by China. Other countries in order of significance include, Belgium, Germany, Korea, Switzerland, Hong Kong, Singapore and Indonesia.

Question 9.
By which routes does most of international trade take place in India?
Answer:
Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea and air routes. However, a small portion is also carried through land route to neighboring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Question 10.
What natural factors are favorable for international trade in India?
Answer:
India is surrounded by sea from three sides and is bestowed with a long coastline. Water provides a smooth surface for very cheap transport provided there is no turbulence. India has a long tradition of sea-faring and developed many ports with place name suffixed with pattan which means port.

Question 11.
Give share of India’s foreign trade with important partners.
Answer:
Asia and Oceania accounted for 57 per cent of India’s export followed by West Europe (23.80 per cent) and America Europe and America in 2004-05.

Question 12.
Why is the West Coast having more seaports as compared to the East Coast?
Answer:
West Coast have more ports as compared to East Coast because of the availability of indented coastline.

Question 13.
Who decides the policy and plays regulatory role for ports?
Answer:
At present, India has 12 major ports and 185 minor or intermediate ports. In case of the major ports, central government decides the policy and plays regulatory functions. The minor ports are there whose policy and functions are regulated by state governments.

Question 14.
With what objective did British develop ports in India?
Answer:
The British used the ports as suction points of the resources from their hinterlands. The extension of railways towards the interior facilitated the linking of the local markets to regional markets, regional markets to national markets and national markets to the international markets.

Question 15.
Name newly constructed ports of India.
Or
Name the port constructed on west coast immediately after independence.
Answer:
The partition of the country snatched away two very important ports, i.e. Karachi port went to Pakistan and Chittagong port to the erstwhile east-Pakistan, (now Bangladesh. To compensate the losses, many new ports like the Kandla in the west and the Diamond Harbour near Kolkata on the river Hugli in the east were developed.

Question 16.
What is the cargo capacity of Indian ports at present?
Answer:
The capacity of Indian ports increased from 20 million tonnes of cargo handling in 1951 to more than 500 million tonnes at present.

Question 17.
Why is Marmagao Port called natural port?
Answer:
Marmagao Port is situated at the entrance of the Zuari estuary. Therefore, it is a natural harbour in Goa. It gained significance after its remodelling in 1961 to handle iron-ore exports to Japan. Construction of Konkan railway has considerably extended the hinterland of this port.

Question 18.
Why is Vembanad Kayal famous?
Answer:
Kochchi port which is popularly known as the “Queen of the Arabian Sea” is situated at Vembanad Kayal. It is also a natural harbour. This port has an advantageous location being close to the Suez-Colombo route. It caters to the needs of Kerala, southern-Karnataka and south western Tamil Nadu.

Question 19.
What do you know about Visakhapatnam port?
Answer:
Visakhapatnam Port in Andhra Pradesh is a land-locked harbour, connected to the sea by a channel cut through solid rock and sand.

Question 20.
How many ports are there in India at present?
Answer:
At present, India has 12 major seaports and 185 minor or intermediate ports.

Question 21.
Which port has the deepest harbour?
Answer:
Paradwip port has the deepest harbour. It is situated in the Mahanadi delta, about 100 km away from Cuttack.

Question 22.
Which port is situated at downstream Kolkata? Which goods does it handle?
Answer:
Haldia port is located at 105 km downstream from Kolkata. It has been constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port. It handles bulk cargo like iron ore, coal, petroleum, petroleum products and fertilisers, jute, jute products, cotton and cotton yarn, etc.

Question 23.
Name the port which has been constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port.
Answer:
Haldia port has been constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port.

Question 25.
Which is the Biggest port of India?
Answer:
Mumbai Port.

Question 26.
Which is one of the oldest artificial ports in easten coast?
Answer:
Chennai

Question 27.
Which ports have been built to relieve the pressure of Chennai?
Answer:
Ennore & Tuticorin ports

Question 28.
Which is the riverine port?
Answer:
Kolkata on river Hugli.

Question 29.
Which is a land-locked harbour port?
Answer:
Vishakhapatnam

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is international trade necessary?
Answer:
International trade is beneficial as no country is self sufficient. It bridges the gap between surplus regions and deficit regions through export and imports. Countries need to trade to obtain commodities, they cannot produce themselves or they can purchase elsewhere at a lower price. It helps countries in maintaining the specialisation in the production of goods and services. It increases international cooperation and understanding. In early times it played significant role in the cultural diffusion.

Question 2.
Explain the causes behind increase in foreign trade in India.
Answer:
There are numerous reasons for this sharp increase in foreign trade:

  • The momentum picked up by the manufacturing sectors.
  • The liberal policies of the government.
  • The diversification of markets.

Question 3.
What factors are responsible for change in nature of international trade?
Answer:
Many changes have taken place in foreign trade of India over time. There has been an increase in the total volume of import & export, but the value of import remained higher. The share of agriculture and allied products has declined while that of petroleum has increased. The increase in deficit is attributed to the price rise of crude petroleum which forms a major component of India’s import list.

Question 4.
Name the goods of imports from 2009 to 2011 whose quantity kept on increasing.
Answer:
Import of Petroleum products & capital goods maintained steady rise in imports due to rising industrialisation and better standard of living. Non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, manufacturers of metals and machine tools were the main items of capital goods. Import of food and allied products declined with a fall in imports of edible oils. Other major items of India’s import include pearls and semi precious stones, gold and silver, ferrous ores and metal scrap, non-ferrous metals, electronic goods, etc.

Question 5.
What steps have been taken by India to • increase its share in international trade?
Answer:
India aims to double its share in the international trade within the next five years. India has started adopting suitable measures such as import liberalization, reduction in import duties, de-licensing and change from process to product patents for attaining these goals.

Question 6.
What steps have been taken for modernization of Indian ports?
Answer:
Today Indian ports are handling large volumes of domestic as well as overseas trade. Most of the ports are equipped with modern infrastructure. Previously the development and modernization was the responsibility of the government agencies, but considering the increase in function and need to bring these ports at par with the international ports, private entrepreneurs have been invited for the modernization of ports in India.

Question 7.
Explain the hinterland of Kolkata port.
Answer:
Hinterland is the influence area which is closely connected to the port with roads and railways. The products of this area are sent to the port for export and imported material is distributed here for sale and consumption.

Kolkata port is also confronted with the problem of silt accumulation in the Hugli river which provides a link to the sea. Its hinterland covers U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Sikkim and the north-eastern states. Apart from this, it also extends ports facilities to our neighbouring land-locked countries such as Nepal and Bhutan.

Question 8.
Explain the features of Kandla Port.
Answer:
Features of Kandla Port:

  • Objective: Kandla Port situated at the head of Gulf of Kuchchh has been developed as a major port to cater to the needs of western and north western parts of the country and also to reduce the pressure at Mumbai port.
  • Goods Handled: The port is specially designed to receive large quantities of petroleum and petroleum products and fertiliser. The offshore terminal at Vadinar has been developed to reduce the pressure at Kandla port.
  • Hinterland: Demarcation of the boundary of the hinterland would be difficult as it is not fixed over space. In most of the cases, hinterland of one port may overlap with that of the other. Covers the western 8s north western states.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
India’s international trade has undergone a sea-change in recent years. Discuss.
Answer:
India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the commodities of export, whose share is significant over the last few years till 2010¬11, are agriculture and allied products (10 per cent), ores and minerals (4 per cent), gems and jewellery, chemical and allied products, manufactured goods (12 per cent) and petroleum products (17 per cent). The commodities imported to India include petroleum & coal petroleum products (31 per cent), pearls, precious stones (10 per cent), inorganic chemicals (5.2 per cent), machinery (12.56 per cent). Fertilisers cereals, edible oils and newsprint on other imports. International trade has undergone a sea change in the last fifteen years. Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level. It is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology. .

Question 2.
Describe the changes in composition of India’s exports.
Answer:.
Composition of export of India:

  • The percentage share of the agriculture and allied products have declined. There is a decline in the exports of traditional items such as coffee, spices, tea, pulses, etc.
  • The share of petroleum and crude products have increased due to rise in petroleum prices and increase in India’s refining capacity.
  • The share of ore & minerals and have largely remained constant over the years from 1997- 98 to 2003-04.
  • Manufacturing goods are the largest exporting commodities in the year 2003¬04 (75.96%). The percentage share of other commodities has increased due to an increase in fruits, marine products and sugar.
  • Engineering goods are the largest commodities on the export list. Crude and petroleum products also occupy a significant place in the list.
  • Textile sector could not achieve much inspite of liberal measures taken by government due to competition from China and other Asian countries.

Question 3.
Describe the changes in composition of India’s imports.
Answer:
Composition of India’s imports:

  • During 1950-60s the major items of imports were foodgrain because India at that time faced food crisis.
  • After 1970s import of foodgrains stop due to Green Revolution.
  • Foodgrains were replaced by fertilisers and petroleum.
  • Petroleum is the largest imported commodity because it is used as a fuel as well as industrial raw material.
  • The capital goods like non-electrical machinery, transport equipment, machines and tools have increased on the import list.
  • Special steel alloy, edible oils are also imported.
  • The other major items of import include pulse, precious gold and silver, metal ores, scraps, electronic goods, etc.

Question 4.
What are the advantages of sea port? Why are they termed as gateways of International trade?
Answer:

  • India is surrounded by sea from three sides and is bestowed with a long coastline.
  • Water provides a smooth surface for very cheap transport provided there is no turbulence.
  • India has a long traditional of sea-faring and developed many ports with place name suffixed with pattan which mean port. Since waterways is the cheapest means of transport for heavy and bulky goods and it is more favoured for international trading.
  • India’s west coast has more seaports than its east coast.
  • Availability of indented coastline.
  • Early arrivals of British to promote their trade.
  • British encouragement to establish and promote ports along the west coast to strengthen connectivity to Europe.
  • Opening of suez canal also promotes an encouraged seaports along the west coast.

Question 5.
Write the differences between Major ports and Minor ports.
Answer:

Major Ports

Minor Ports

(i) There are 12 major ports in India.

(i) There are 226 minor ports in India.

(ii) Central government makes the policy and plays regulatory functions.

(ii) State government makes the policy and functions.

(iii) It regulates foreign trade at international level.

(iii) It manages trade at national or inter-state level.

(iv) It handles huge traffic of metric tonnes per year.

(iv) It handles comparatively lesser traffic of metric tonnes per year.

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Question 1.
Explain the changing pattern of the international trade of India.
Answer:
Change in Export:

  • The share of agriculture and allied products has declined.
  • Share of petroleum and its products increased.
  • Share of mineral ores remained constant.
  • The decline in traditional items due to tough competition like jute products.
  • Significant growth in the export of engineering and leather goods.

Change in Import:

  • Share of food grains import is replaced by petroleum and fertilizers.
  • Import of capital goods has increased.
  • Import of edible oil and pulses in place of food items.
  • Gold and silver import has increased.
  • Import of professional instruments has also increased.

Question 2.
Why does India import edible oil and pulses in spite of being an agriculturally rich country?
Answer:
India imports edible oil and pulses in spite of being an agriculturally rich country due to the following reasons:

  • More demand due to rapid growth of population.
  • Most of the cultivated land is under food crops.
  • Per hectare productivity of pulses is low as compared to other crops.
  • The ‘package technology’ was not given for the the promotion of pulses & oil seeds production. So their production did not increase the desired amount.
  • Risky farming due to high vulnerability.
  • Increase in the purchasing power of the individuals.

Question 3.
Mention the measures adopted by the Govt, of India to double its share in the international trade.
Answer:
Following measures are adopted by the government of India to double its share in the international trade:

  • Liberalization of imports.
  • Reduction in import duties.
  • De-licensing and change from process to product patents.

Question 4.
Why has the west coast more seaports than the east coast of India?
Answer:
West sea coast has more ports than east coast because:

  • Availability of indented coastline.
  • Depth of sea water is relatively more near coast.
  • Early arrival of European traders and Arabs etc.
  • British encouraged to establish and promote the ports along the west coast to strengthen the connectivity from Europe.
  • Opening of Suez Canal also promoted and encouraged the emergence of seaports along the west coast.

Map Based Questions

Question 1.
Label and locate the following on the political map of India:
Kandla, Mumbai, Murmagao, Kochchi, Ennore, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip, Haldia
Answer:
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 11 International Trade Map Based Questions Q1

Question 2.
Locate and label the following on the political map of India.
Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Delhi, Amritsar, Panji, Kochchi (Kochi), Thiruvananthapuram and Hyderabad.
Answer:
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 11 International Trade Map Based Questions Q2

Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Which country is the largest trading partner of India? (CBSE 2009)
Answer:
UAE (United Arab Emirates).

Question 2.
Which one of Indian seaport provides port facilities to its landlocked neighbouring countries? Name any one such country. (Delhi 2009)
Answer:
Kolkata, Nepal.

Question 3.
Which export commodity of India has the highest value? (CBSE 2010)
Answer:
Manufacturing goods.

Question 4.
Which import commodity of India has the highest value? (Foreign 2010)
Answer:
Crude petroleum and products.

Question 5.
Which is the principal import commodity of India? . (Delhi 2010)
Answer:
Petroleum and its products.

Question 6.
Name the landlocked major port of India. (Foreign 2010)
OR
Which major sea port on the eastern coast of India has a land locked harbour? (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
Vishakhapatnam.

Question 7.
Name the oldest artificial sea port of India. (CBSE 2011)
Answer:
Chennai sea port.

Question 8.
Which sector of economy accounted for the highest percentage of India’s total value of exports in 2003-2004? (Delhi 2011)
Answer:
Manufactured goods.

Question 9.
Which sea port has been develop to relieve the pressure of Chennai Port. (CBSE 2012)
OR
Name the major seaport which has been developed. to relieve the pressure at Chennai seaport. (Delhi 2016)
Answer:
Ennore/Tuticorin Port.

Question 10.
Name the major sea port located on Hugli river. (CBSE 2013)
Answer:
Kolkata port.

Question 11.
Name the country which is the largest trading partner of India. (Delhi 2014)
Answer:
United Arab Emirate (UAE) is the largest trading partner of India.

Question 12.
Name the major seaport which was developed just after independence on the western coast of India. (Delhi 2014)
Answer:
Kandla Port.

Question 13.
Name the seaport which was constructed to reduce the congestion at Kolkata port. (Delhi 2014)
Answer:
Haldia Port.

Question 14.
Name the port developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at ‘Mumbai’ port. (Delhi 2014)
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru Port.

Question 15.
Name the port which was developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at the Mumbai port. (Delhi 2014)
OR
Why was Jawaharlal Nehru Port developed?
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva was developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at the Mumbai port.

Question 16.
Name the two countries which are the largest trading partners of India as per econmic survey report of 2011-12. (A.I. 2016)
Answer:
United Arab Emirates-Largest and Second largest is China.

Question 17.
State the major problem being faced by Kolkata sea port. (CBSE 2018)
Answer:
The major problem being faced by Kolkata seaport is the problem of silt accumulation in Hugli river which provides a link to the sea.

Question 18.
State any two advantages of air transport in the International trade. (CBSE 2018)
Answer:

  • Air transport is the fastest means.
  • Valuable cargo can be moved rapidly on a world-wide scale.
  • It has brought connectivity revolution even reaching inaccessible areas.
  • Highly suitable for handling perishable goods over long distances. (Any two points)

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Name the six major sea ports situated on the western coast of India and also write the state in which they are situated respectively? (CBSE 2000)
Answer:
The six major sea ports are:-

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru port at Nhava Sheva in Maharashtra.
  2. Mumbai in Maharashtra.
  3. Kandla in Gujarat.
  4. New Mangalore in Karnataka.
  5. Marmagao Port in Goa.
  6. Kochi in Kerala.

Question 2.
What is the role of sea-ports in the foreign trade of India? Write any three points in this regard. (CBSE 2005)
Answer:
The role of seaports in the foreign trade of India:

  1. They act as the gateways of international trade as exports and imports are handled through them.
  2. They handle large volumes of domestic as well as overseas trade.
  3. They act collection centers of commodities from hinterlands for further shipment to foreign destination.

Question 3.
Explain any three major changes in the export composition of India’s foreign trade since 1960-61. (CBSE 2007)
Answer:

  1. Agricultural allied products, 9.9%- cereals, tea, oil cake, cashew nuts, spices, fruits and vegetable.
  2. Ores and minerals: 4.0% remained constant over the past years.
  3. Manufactured goods, 68.0%-jewellery and gems, ready made garments etc.

Question 4.
Why do the maximum number of air routes converge on the three largest metropolitan cities of India? Write also the name of any two international airport related to these cities. (Foreign 2009)
Answer:
The maximum number of air routes converge on the three largest metropolitan cities of India because:

  • It has the advantage of taking the least time for carriage and handling high value or perishable goods over long distances.
  • Valuable cargo can be moved rapidly on a world-wide scale. Two international airport related to these cities are New York and London.

Question 5.
Why has Kolkata seaport lost its significance considerably? Give three reasons. (Foreign 2009)
Answer:
Kolkata seaport losts its significance considerably because:

  • On account of the diversion of exports to the other ports such as Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip and its satellite port, Haldia.
  • It is also confronted with the problem of silt accumulation in the Hugh river which provides a link to the sea.
  • Its hinterland covers U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Sikkim and the north-eastern states.

Question 6.
“ Most of India’s foreign trade is carried through sea routes”. Explain the statement giving three reasons. (A.I. 2014)
Answer:

  • India has long coast. It is suitable for developing ports.
  • India has all weather ports.
  • India has a good harboring facilities also.
  • India centrally located by sea routes.
  • It provides cheap transportation.
  • Huge load could be transported at one movement.
  • India has a long tradition sea faring and developed many ports.

Chapter 11 International Trade