Chapter 2 Freedom
Textbook Questions Solved
What is meant by freedom? Is there a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation?
Freedom refers to do all those things which do not harm to others and, are essential for a person’s own development. There is a close relationship between the freedom for individual and for the nation because:
- If a nation is free, every individual of it, will be free to enhance their creativities and capabilities.
- Development of a nation depends on cooperation, creativity and capabilities of individuals, which can be exercised in the absence of external constraints.
- A free society enables all its members to develop their potentials with the minimum of social constraints
- Though, no society can be imagined without the absence of constraints but it is necessary to determine whether it is acceptable or justified.
- Social constraints are necessary to be examined through debates, discussions between individual and the society.
What is the difference between the negative and positive conception of liberty?
Negative conception of liberty:
- It implies the absence of restraints and rights to do whatever one likes.
- This conception may make the powerful person more powerful to keep the weaker ones on their mercy.
- This conception of liberty faces the following drawbacks:
(a) Liberty is concerned with the area control, not with its source, hence, this is not necessary to have democracy to enjoy freedom.
(b) The state should control the liberty of an individual only up to the limit where he interferes in other’s such liberty. Positive conception of liberty:
- It refers to the society in which adequate facilities are available for each and every section of society to enjoy desirable rights.
- This believes that any individual or section should not hinder the progress of others.
- People can enjoy all freedoms which are permissible by laws.
- It ensures the growth of poor, weak and downtrodden people also.
- It interprets that liberty lies in the removal of hindrances.
What is meant by social constraints? Are constraints of any kind necessary for enjoying freedom?
Social constraints refer to the restrictions imposed by the society whosoever is unauthorized for the same.
Necessity of constraints:
- There are various sections who demand a ban on films, books, articles, journals, etc.
- Though banning is an easy solution for the short term to meet the demand immediately, but it is very harmful for long term prospects due to development of this habit only.
- If we willingly accept restrictions to pursue our goals or ambitions our freedom is not limited. In any case if we are not coerced into accepting the conditions we cannot claim to be curtailed freedom.
What is the role of the state in upholding freedom of its citizens?
- Freedom of citizens of the state determines the scope of freedom, i.e. freedom of citizens depend on the will of rulers in a monarchy, democratic state grants fundamental right to the citizens.
- A state is controlled by the government because, whatever the government does, it affect, the freedom of citizens and if any conflict becomes violent, it hinders the day-to-day life of state.
- If state is unable to manage army and police, it disrupts the law and order of the country.
- A welfare state always initiates to protect the freedom of backward people along its all citizens.
What is meant by freedom of expression? What in your view would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give examples.
- It is a right of non-interference by the state.
- It is a fundamental value and hence, society must be willing to bear some inconvenience also to protect it from people whosoever wants to restrict it.
- At various times the demands have been raised to ban on books, play, films and academic articles, etc.
- Freedom has been classified as positive and negative liberty which requires some justifiable constraints only.
- But these constraints are supposed to be supported by the people, and moral arguments.
Extra Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What do you know about Nelson Mandela?
Nelson Mandela has been recognized as the greatest leader of South Africa who always fought against racial discrimination.
Name the autobiography of Nelson Mandela.
Long Walk of Freedom.
What is the theme of ‘Long Walk of Freedom’?
- Personal struggle of Nelson Mandela against Apartheid.
- Resistance of people to the segregating policies of the White minorities.
What do you mean by Apartheid?
Apartheid is a policy of racial discrimination between the Blacks and the Whites, which was largely practicised after Second World War.
What is freedom?
Freedom refers to an individual who is allowed to do all those things which do not harm anyone but, essential for one’s own development.
Mention the two aspects of freedom.
Positive and negative freedom.
What is personal liberty?
Personal liberty refers to have freedom in personal and individual matters by human beings as marriages, religion, food, clothing, etc.
What is economic liberty?
Economic liberty refers to ensure employment to the citizens and to make them free from tyranny of employers also along with the provisions of minimum wages also.
What is political liberty?
- It exists only in democracy.
- Citizens participate in government by choosing their representatives.
- Citizens have the right to be elected themselves also.
What is religious liberty?
The citizens enjoy the right to adopt and preach any religion without interference of state until it is in the interest of nation and individuals.
What is natural liberty?
Natural liberty refers to a man to be born free. With the advancement of civilisation, men formed the state or society himself and sacrificed his freedom. In his free state or natural liberty man was very happy and satisfied. But state binds him everywhere on chain.
What is a legal liberty?
Legal liberty or freedom refers to framing of one’s own constitution by any country to run their administrative system as per their own will.
What is freedom of speech and expression?
Freedom of speech and expression gives the right to express one’s own ideas by speaking or writing. But the freedom is subject to the following limitations:
- Defamation of any citizen
- Security of state
- Contempt of court
- Friendly relations with foreign countries.
How can we argue in favour of positive freedom?
- Positive freedom refers to the absence of unjust and oppressive restraints.
- To provide equal opportunities to all for self-development in a full potential.
What is the value of freedom for human progress?
Every individual is free to act to the extent that one’s activities do not curtail the freedom of others. Some restraints are put on freedom to limit one’s activities to avoid any type of harm to anybody or state or society, whichever is considered essential.
What are the two aspects of positive liberty?
- Adequate measures are supposed to be given for the freedom of citizens.
- No conflict should be arisen between the individual and society.
Short Answer Type Questions
“Liberty and equality may be complementary as well as opposed to each other”. Justify.
- An individual cannot develop one’s own personality in the absence of equality even though the freedom is given.
- Civil equality is possible only when everybody is treated equally before law.
- Liberty does not mean the equal work and equal wages for all.
- Liberty and equality are not the terms of implementations.
What does the negative liberty stand for?
- Negative liberty refers to limit state interference.
- Open competition is the best means of development.
But, it has following drawbacks:
- It is not possible in civilized life.
- Absence of all restraints is neither practical nor desirable.
“Liberty implies proper restraints rather than absence of restraints”. Justify the statement.
- Liberty refers to the absence of restraints upon the existence of those social conditions which are mandate guarantee of individual happiness.
- It is the duty of the state to create the opportunity to be developed best by an individual.
What are the necessary safeguards for the maintenance of liberty?
- Distribution of powers between the center and the state to make constituent units independent.
- Constitution guarantees fundamental rights not to be violated by any government.
- Independent judiciary has been set up as a guardian of rights.
- Democratic set up protects the authorities from becoming auto crate because person in authority are to face elections at regular intervals.
- There should be no privileged classes in the society.
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 28) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
At various times there have been demands to ban books, plays, films, or academic articles in research journals. Let us think about this demand to ban books in the light of our discussion so far which sees freedom as ‘the making of choices’, where a distinction is made between ‘negative and positive liberty’, where we recognise the need for ‘justifiable constraints’ but these have to be supported by proper procedures and important moral arguments. Freedom of expression is a fundamental value and for that society must be willing to bear some inconvenience to protect it from people who want to restrict it. Remember Voltaire’s statement — ‘I disapprove of what you say but I will defend to death your right to say it’. How deeply are we committed to this freedom of expression?
1. What are the two aspects of liberty?
2. What is a fundamental value among rights?
3. How can we support justifiable constraints?
1. Positive and Negative are the two aspects of liberty.
2. Freedom of speech and expression.
3. By proper procedures and important moral arguments
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 27) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The individual to develop his or her capability must get the benefit of enabling positive conditions in material, political and social domains. That is, the person must not be constrained by poverty or unemployment; they must have adequate material resources to pursue their wants and needs. They must also have the opportunity to participate in the decision making process so that the laws made reflect their choices, or at least take those preferences into account. Above all, to develop their mind and intellect, individuals must have access to education and other associated opportunities necessary to lead a reasonably good life.
1. What is a must for an individual’s development?
2. On what terms, individuals must not be constrained?
3. How can the laws reflect the citizen’s choices?
1. Positive conditions must be enabled to each and every individual in political, material and social domains.
2. By poverty and unemployment, hence everybody must have adequate material resources to pursue their requirements.
3. The citizens must have the opportunity to participate in decision making process.
Long Answer Type Questions
What is the relationship between liberty and authority? Explain.
- The one who thinks freedom is to do whatever one likes to do, is a wrong opinion. So the authority imposes restrictions which are a number of times undesirable.
- On the contrary, the basic idea is that liberty and authority goes hand-in-hand because authority not only guarantees the freedom but equal opportunities also.
- Both authority and liberty must remain within their limits for the existence of both the state and individuals.
- If one crosses the limits, one is bound to destroy the purpose for which it was being maintained.
- Excess of liberty may destroy authority and concentration of authority can abolish the existence of liberty.
Mention the elements of liberty.
- Liberty is not the absence of all restraints because peace and order in the society can be maintained only by putting some constraints on people.
- Freedom refers to power to do something worthy which should be desirable in society.
- Freedom is given to everybody on equal basis in place of giving to a particular person.
- Liberty or freedom can be enjoyed only in society within a positive framework.
- Freedom provides an opportunity to an individual to realise the best of one in one-self as per one’s potential.
Explain different kinds of liberty.
- Natural liberty is natural to man who is born free with it. But it has no existence in civilized society.
- Individual liberty refers to enjoy complete freedom in their personal and individual matters, i.e. food, clothing, religion, shelter, etc. But an individual should get the liberty up to the extent not to harm any other individual.
- Political freedom refers to the complete freedom to citizens to participate in formation of government and to elect their representatives as well as to be elected as a representative.
- Economic liberty refers to equal wages and work opportunities to all and absence of exploitation, unemployment, unfair wage, insecurity, etc.
- Religious liberty refers to the rights to adopt and preach any religion of their choices and no interference from the state in this matter.
- Civil liberty refers to enjoy all liberties to be permissible under the laws and everybody should be treated as equal before law.