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Chapter 3 Population Composition

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following has caused the sex ratio of the United Arab Emirates to be low?
(a) Selective migration of male working population
(b) High birth rate of males
(c) Low birth rate of females
(d) High out migration of females
(a) Selective migration of male working population

Question 1(ii)
Which one of the following figures represents the working age group of the population? (in years)
(a) 15-65 years
(b) 15-54 years
(c) 15-66 years
(d) 15-59 years
(d) 15-59 years

Question 1(iii)
Which one of the following countries has the highest sex ratio in the world?
(a) Latvia
(b) United Arab Emirates
(c) Japan
(d) France
(a) Latvia

Question 2.(i)
What do you understand by population composition?
People of any country are diverse in many respects. Each person is unique in his own way. People can be distinguished by their age, sex and their place of residence. The entire gamut of people residing in a particular place along with their growth, distribution and variety may be termed as its population composition.

Question 2.(ii)
What is the significance of age-structure?
Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. This is an important indicator of population composition, since a large size of population in the age group of 15-59 indicates a large working population. A greater proportion of population above 60 years represents an ageing population which requires more expenditure on health care facilities. Similarly high proportion of young population would mean that the region has a high birth rate and the population is youthful.

Question 2(iii)
How is sex ratio measured?
Sex ratio in the world is calculated as number of males per thousand of females in a population.
Sex ratio = (No. of males)/(No. of females) × lOOO
In countries like India sex ratio is calculated as number of females per thousand of males.
Sex ratio = (No. of females)/ (No. of males) × 1000

3. Answer the following questions in not more than 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Describe the rural-urban composition of the population.
The division of population into rural and urban is based on the residence. This division is necessary because rural and urban life styles differ from each other in terms of livelihood and social conditions. The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban population is also dependent on the state of development of a countiy.

The more progressed a country is with respect to its development, more number of people are engaged in non-primary activities, thus leading to shift from rural areas to urban areas. Moreover, industrialization also makes headway into the rural countryside, constructing new towns in hitherto traditionally agrarian areas, and therefore the population that was originally rural, becomes urban now. The criterion for classifying settlement as rural or urban varies from country to country. In general terms in rural areas more people are engaged in primary activities whereas in urban areas majority of population is associated with secondary or tertiary sectors.

The sex composition of rural and urban settlements varies between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries like the Western European nation due to security and availability of jobs women move out to urban areas. Farming is mostly mechanized there hence men tend to stay in rural areas and look after farming activities. Whereas a completely contrary picture can be seen in developing countries like India where due to lack of security, housing, job opportunities females tend to stay back in rural areas and look after farming whereas male members move out to urban areas in search of working opportunities,

Question 3.(ii)
Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.
The factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world with focus on occupational structure are as follows:

The working population (in the age group of 15-59) takes part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services, being employed in the four sectors of the economy.

That work force is a clear indicator of the level of development, particularly economic and social development. This is because only a developed economy with industries and infrastructure can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities would be high as it involves extraction of natural resources. Moreover, the age structure of a country also is an indicator of the level of development. A large working population shows the progress of a nation, and a large dependent population of children and retired citizens show a burden on the economy of the country, dragging its developmental processes down. A higher participation of women in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors also is a strong indicator of the progress of a nation.

The sex composition of rural and urban settlements varies between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries like the Western European nation due to security and availability of jobs women move out to urban areas. Farming there is mostly mechanized hence men tend to stay in rural areas and look after farming activities. Whereas a completely contrary picture can be seen in developing countries like India where due to lack of security, housing, job opportunities, females tend to stay back in rural areas and look after farming whereas male members move out to urban areas in search of working opportunities.

Question 1.
What is the average sex ratio of the world?
Average sex ratio of the world is 102 males per 100 females.

Question 2.
Define sex ratio.
It is the ratio between the number of women and men in the population of a country.

Question 3.
Which regions have unfavorable sex ratio towards women?
In region where gender discrimination is rampant and where practice of female foeticide, infanticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent have unfavorable sex ratio towards women.

Question 4.
Which country has the highest sex ratio in the world?
Latvia with 85 males per 100 females has the highest sex ratio in the world.

Question 5.
Name the country with lowest sex ratio in the world.
Qatar has the lowest sex ratio with 311 males per 100 females.

Question 6.
Why have many European countries have deficit males?
Many European countries have deficit of males because of better status of females and male-dominanted out migration to different parts of the world.

Question 7.
Define age structure.
Age structure represents number of people of different age groups.

Question 8.
What does age-sex pyramid defines?
The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of males and females in different age groups. Population
pyramid is used to show age-sex structure of the population.

Question 9.
What do you mean by ageing population?
Population ageing is a process by which the -share of the older population becomes proportionately larger. In most of the developed countries it has increased due to increased life expectancy.

Question 10.
Divide population based on the place of residence.
Based on the place of residence population is divided into rural and urban.

Question 11.
What does literacy rate denote for India?
In India literacy rate denotes the percentage of population above 7 years of age, who is able to read, write and have the ability to do arithmetic calculation with understanding.

Question 1.
What does the literacy rate of a country indicate?
Proportion of literate population of a country is an indicator of its socio¬economic development as it reveals the standard of living, social status of females, availability of educational facilities and policies of government. Level of economic development is both a cause and consequence of literacy.

Question 2.
Why is unfavorable female sex ratio found in India and other South Asian countries?
In India and South Asian countries, female sex ratio is low due to:

• High mortality rate of female child during birth.
• Lower social-economic status of women.
• High female infant mortality due to negligence and lack of medical facilities.
• Preference to male child which results in high female foeticide and female infanticide.
• Domestic violence against women.

Question 3.
Females have a biological advantage over males as they tend to be more resilient than males. This is called Natural Advantage. Social disadvantage is that women are not preferred as a child in the society and people have a preference for a male child. The natural advantage is cancelled by the social disadvantage and discrimination against women.

Question 1.
How does sex ratio give important information about status of women in a country?
In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is bound to be unfavorable to women. Such areas are those where the practice of female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent. One of the reasons could be lower social-economic status of women in these areas. You must remember that more women in the population does not mean they have a better status. It could be that the men might have migrated to other areas for employment.

Question 2.
Describe the world pattern of sex ratio.
On an average, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 102 males per 100 females. The highest sex ratio in the world has been recorded in Latvia where there are 85 males per 100 females. In contrast, in Qatar there are 311 males per 100 females. The world pattern of sex ratio does not exhibit variations in the developed regions of the world. The sex ratio is favorable for females in 139 countries of the world and unfavorable for them in the remaining 72 countries listed by the United Nations. In general, Asia has a low sex ratio. Countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan have a lower sex ratio.
On the other extreme is greater part of Europe (including Russia) where males are in minority. A deficit of males in the populations of many European countries is attributed to better status of women, and an excessive male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Question 3.
How is occupational structure a good indicator of levels of economic development of a nation?
The working population (i.e. women and men of the age group – 15 to 59) take part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services. Agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining are classified as primary activities manufacturing as secondary, transport, communication and other services as tertiary and the jobs related to research and developing ideas as quaternary activities.

The proportion of working population engaged in these four sectors is a good indicator of the levels of economic development of a nation. This is because only a developed economy with industries and infrastructure can accommodate more workers in the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sector. If the economy is still in the primitive stages, then the proportion of people engaged in primary activities world be high as it involves extraction of natural resources.

Data Based Questions

Question 1.
What does the figure given below denote? What does the shape reflect?

The figure denotes the age-sex pyramid of Nigeria. It is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and is typical of less developed countries, it depicts expanding population, with large population in the lower age group due to high birth rates. The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population. The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of women in each group.

Question 2.
What does the shape of the below pyramid suggests and where do you find?

This population pyramid has a narrow base and tapered top, indicating low birth and death rates with higher percentage of people in middle age. This indicates declining population with zero or negative growth rate, generally found in the developed countries of the world.

Question 3.
Observe the given diagram and explain the rural urban composition in the developed and developing countries of the world.

The above figure shows rural urban sex composition of selected countries. The rural and urban differences in sex ratio in Canada and West European countries like Finland are just the opposite of those in African and Asian countries like Zimbabwe and Nepal respectively. In Western countries, males outnumber females in rural areas and females outnumber the males in urban areas.

In countries like Nepal, Pakistan and India the case is reverse. The excess of females in urban areas of U.S.A., Canada and Europe is the result of influx of females from rural areas to avail of the vast job opportunities. Farming in these developed countries is also highly mechanized and remains largely a male occupation. By contrast the sex ratio in Asian urban areas remains male dominated due to the predominance of male migration. It is also worth noting that in countries like India, female participation in farming activity in rural area is fairly high. Shortage of housing, high cost of living, paucity of job opportunities and lack of security in cities, discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas.

Important Questions

Question 1.
What was the percentage of urban population in the world in 2011? (Delhi 2010)
45 per cent

Question 2.
Which country has the lowest sex ratio in the world? (CBSE 2011)
Qatar—311 males/600 females.

Question 3.
How is sex ratio calculated in different countries of the world? (CBSE 2013)
In some countries sex ratio is calculated by using the formula—

Question 4.
Name the country where sex ratio is most unfavourable to women in the world. (CBSE 2016)
Qatar, 311 males/100 females.

Question 5.
Why is the age structure considered an important indicator of population composition? Give one reason. (CBSE 2016)

• Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups.
• It helps in planning process and estimates future population.

Question 6.
Why is sex ratio in some European countries recorded favourable to females? Give one reason. (CBSE 2016)

• In some European countries, women have better socio-economic status.
• An excessively male-dominated out migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Question 7.
“In some countries of the world the sex ratio is unfavourable to women.” Give one reason. (CBSE 2016)
Because these areas practice female foeticide and domestic violence against women are prevalent and also low socio-economic status of women.

Question 8.
Which age group forms the working population? (A.1.2016)
The age group from 15-59 years forms the working population.

Question 1.
“The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.” Support the statement with examples. (Foreign 2011)
The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population. The left side shows the percentage of males while the right shows the percentage of women is each age group. There are different types of population pyramids:

• Expanding population:
Nigeria, Bangladesh, Mexico, India and other developing and under developed countries of the world is having the characteristics of expanding population which have triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base. These have larger population in lower age groups due to high birth rate.
• Constant population:
The developed countries like Australia, has age-sex pyramid of bell shaped and tapered towards the top. It shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
• Declining population:
The developed countries having low birth and death rates come under this category which shows the pyramid of narrow base and a tapered top. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative. Example; Japan, Britain, France, etc.

Question 1.
What is meaning of Age Structure of population? Describe in brief four main characteristics of age structure of the world population. (CBSE2006, 14)
Age structure represents the number of people of different age groups. This is an important indicator of population composition.
Following are the four characteristics of age structure of age composition of the world population:

• Population composition: The age group 0-15 is called young population, 15-59 age group of working population and above 60 years represents an ageing population which require more expenditure on health care facilities.
• Age-Sex Pyramid: The age-sex structure of the population refers to the number of females and males in different age- groups. ’
• Expanding population: Nigeria, Bangladesh, Mexico, India and other developing and under developed countries of the world is having the characteristics of expanding population which have triangular shaped pyramid with a wide box. These have larger population in lower age groups due to high birth rate.
• Constant population: The developed countries like Australia, has age-sex pyramid of bell shaped and tapered towards the top. It shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
• Declining population: The developed countries having low birth and death rates come under this category which shows the pyramid of narrow base and a tapered top. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative. Example; Japan, Britain, France, etc.

Question 2.
Describe the main characteristics each of the major groups of human occupations in the world. (CBSE 2006, 2007, 2011)
The working population of a country (between age group 15-59 years), who take part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, commercial activities, transport services etc. is called occupational structure. Four major group of occupations are:

• Primary occupation: Depends fully on nature. Example; agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining etc.
• Secondary occupation: People engaged in manufacturing. Example; industries.
• Service sectors: Transport and communication. Example; trade and commerce, teaching etc.
• Quaternary occupation: Job related to research and developing ideas etc. Example; computing, consultancy, etc. The proportion of working population engaged in these four sectors is a poor indicator of the levels of economic development of a nation.

Question 3.
What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure on the place of origin and destination? (CBSE 2018)
Migration leads to redistribution of population within a country. Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from rural areas have adverse effect on rural demographic structure. High out migration results in serious imbalance in age-sex composition. Male population within the working age group migrate out of rural areas leaving females, children and old aged people, which increases the share of dependent population in rural areas.

The situation is especially difficult for females because they have to look after both domestic and economic work in the villages, leading to higher participation of women in agriculture without decrease in their household workload. Also it leads to loss of human resource from the rural areas, leaving them with unskilled people thus reducing the total productivity and hence hampering the development of rural areas.
Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavourable for females, which gives rise to crimes against women and increases their vulnerability.

Question 4.
What is meaning of age structure of population? Describe in brief four main characteristics of age structure of the world population. (CBSE 2018)