Chapter 4 Syntax

Exercise 1

  1. Trouser = trousers,
  2. month’s = month’s,
  3. rupees = rupee,
  4. was = were,
  5. are = is,
  6. spectacle = spectacles,
  7. furnitures = pieces of furniture,
  8. fish = fish,
  9. Sadhna = Sadhna’s
  10. Mohan’s sister’s song = song of Mohan’s sister,
  11. house is = houses are,
  12. are = is,
  13. dozens = dozen,
  14. informations = information or items of information,
  15. furnitures = pieces of furniture,
  16. a black shoe = a pair of black shoes,
  17. hundreds = hundred,
  18. have = has,
  19. sceneries = scenery, are = is,
  20. table’s leg = leg of table.

Exercise 2

  1. spirit = spirits,
  2. surrounding is = surroundings are,
  3. mark = marks,
  4. clothings = clothing,
  5. these informations = this information,
  6. was = were, lot of mistakes = a lot of mistakes,
  7. regard = regards,
  8. arm = up arms,
  9. lot = a lot,
  10. offsprings = offspring.

Exercise 3

  1. sceneries = scenery, are = is,
  2. surrounding = surroundings,
  3. light travels faster than sound.
  4. arrear = arrears,
  5. furnitures = furniture,
  6. hound = hounds,
  7. these news have = this news has,
  8. any brain = any brain,
  9. our room’s roof = the roof of our room,
  10. The son of Mr. Brown’s = Mr. Brown’s son.

Exercise 4

  1. Their = his,
  2. myself = 1,
  3. whom = who,
  4. he = one,
  5. either = any,
  6. whom = who,
  7. their = his,
  8. I = me,
  9. his = one’s,
  10. were = was, their = his/her, uniforms = uniform,
  11. are = is, their = her,
  12. that = whom,
  13. absents = lf
  14. life = lives,
  15. I = me,
  16. other = another,
  17. Everyone = Each, are = is,
  18. who = that,
  19. whom = who,
  20. are = am

Exercise 5

  1. Resigned = resigned myself,
  2. I = me,
  3. John and you = you and John,
  4. which = that,
  5. me = 1,
  6. neither = none,
  7. that = which,
  8. their = theirs,
  9. your house is large,
  10. none = neither,
  11. those of ours = ours,
  12. himself = him,
  13. the country of ours = our country,
  14. who Whom,
  15. what = that

Exercise 6

  1. latest = last,
  2. Remove ‘more’,
  3. than = to,
  4. any newspaper = all newspapers,
  5. the best = better,
  6. The great Ashoka = Ashoka the great,
  7. last = latest,
  8. than = to that,
  9. Haldwani = than that of Haldwani,
  10. than = to,
  11. than = to,
  12. much = very,
  13. latter = later,
  14. seven days = seventh day,
  15. the two first = the first two,
  16. a = the,
  17. any = any other,
  18. more = the most,
  19. little = the little,
  20. whole = the whole.

Exercise 7

  1. some = any,
  2. only = only for few days,
  3. older = elder,
  4. than = to,
  5. elder is correct,
  6. all the = all other,
  7. The easiest = easier,
  8. any = some,
  9. little = a little,
  10. outermost = outer.

Exercise 8

  1. will again = again
  2. were = was,
  3. are = is,
  4. are = is,
  5. has written = wrote,
  6. If you will run = If you run,
  7. is reading = has been reading,
  8. has = have,
  9. has = have,
  10. has = have,
  11. are = is,
  12. shall = should, tomorrow = the next day,
  13. was = is
  14. am = have been
  15. have been = are,
  16. have = has,
  17. did = had done,
  18. did he fail = he failed,
  19. have = has, their = his,
  20. are = is.

Exercise 9

  1. Who went with you to the movie ?
  2. I don’t know where all the money has gone.
  3. What does all this lecture mean?
  4. When was your work completed ?
  5. Why do you not take the matter seriously.?
  6. How much does this book cost in the market ?
  7. The teacher asked me what languages I knew.
  8. I want to learn how to speak English.
  9. Which question will you answer first ?
  10. I can’t understand why Sudhir failed in Hindi.

Exercise 10

  1. is containing = contains,
  2. read = are reading,
  3. am never missing = never miss,
  4. are needing = need.
  5. knocks = is knocking,
  6. is usually getting = usually gets,
  7. are usually watching = usually watch,
  8. make = are making,
  9. is owning = owns,
  10. am hearing = hear,
  11. learns = is learning,
  12. am liking = like.

Exercise 11

  1. has returned = returned
  2. has sunk = sank
  3. finished = finish
  4. just spoke = have just spoken
  5. completed = have completed
  6. have passed = passed
  7. He has already paid his income tax
  8. hasn’t mentioned = did not mention
  9. have met = met
  10. have known = know.

Exercise 12

  1. has been not = has not been
  2. only wrote = wrote only
  3. not to copy = to copy
  4. too = very
  5. too very
  6. enough low = low enough
  7. too = very
  8. too = extremely
  9. chiefly wrote = wrote = wrote chiefly
  10. than = but
  11. have taught = have not taught
  12. comes late often = often comes late
  13. golden always = always golden
  14. easily walks = walks easily
  15. too = extremely
  16. fainted = almost fainted
  17. earnestly को end में लिखे
  18. no any’ = no
  19. Firstly = first
  20. than = but.

Exercise 13

  1. on a violin = the violin,
  2. Earth = The earth,
  3. a = an,
  4. Darkest = The darkest,
  5. a = an,
  6. is = is a,
  7. The both = Both the
  8. The gold = Gold,
  9. Kalidas = The Kalidas,
  10. Ganges = The Ganges,
  11. The man = Man
  12. an = a
  13. White cat = a white cat,
  14. The carriage = carriage,
  15. a beautiful = beautiful.

Exercise 14

  1. Moon = The moon,
  2. map = a map,
  3. Peacock = The peacock,
  4. best = the best, is sold = are sold,
  5. easy = an easy,
  6. in = of,
  7. such a = so,
  8. at early = at an early,
  9. The last = Last,
  10. scholar = a scholar,
  11. a valuable = valuable.

Exercise 15

  1. does not come = comes
  2. then = there,
  3. then = at that time,
  4. then = when
  5. but = yet,
  6. or = nor,
  7. do not request = request,
  8. then = when,
  9. only I was not fined but punished also = I was not only fined but also punished.
  10. Lions are both found in Asia and in Africa = Lions are found in both Asia and Africa.
  11. then = when,
  12. but = but also,
  13. Both teachers as well as students = Teachers as well students both
  14. Your are either a fool or a wicked.
  15. My friend will give me either a book or some money.

Exercise 16

  1. at = to,
  2. in = for,
  3. on = at,
  4. behind = after,
  5. with = beside,
  6. from Monday = since Monday,
  7. on = upon,
  8. I go on Sunday to temple.
  9. with = to,
  10. in = on,
  11. before = to, of = for,
  12. with = in.

Exercise 17

  1. of
  2. at
  3. between
  4. till
  5. at
  6. since
  7. into
  8. of
  9. to
  10. to, for
  11. with
  12. with
  13. of
  14. from, till.

Exercise 18

  1. 1. not to tell = not tell,
  2. 2. to weep = weep,
  3. 3. to invited to be invited,
  4. 4. to pass = to have passed,
  5. 5. to break = to have broken,
  6. 6. ought obey = ought to obey,
  7. 7. to prosper and to progress = to prosper and progress,
  8. 8. to sleep = sleep,
  9. 9. to see = to have seen,
  10. to have gone = to go,
  11. to immediately go = to go immediately,
  12. need not to come = need not come.

Exercise 19

  1. to play = playing
  2. to go = going,
  3. to talk = from talking,
  4. to walk = of walking ,
  5. to win = in winning,
  6. Reading of = The reading of,
  7. friend = friend’s,
  8. to get= of getting,
  9. me = my,
  10. Time = the time
  11. at = to,
  12. knowing = knowing about us,
  13. to go for to see = to see,
  14. Hunting = The hunting,
  15. playing of = playing, studying of = studying,

Exercise 20

  1. Being = He being,
  2. retiring = retired,
  3. Being = It being
  4. Eating = Having eaten,
  5. Playing = While playing,
  6. tiring = tired,
  7. defeating = defeated,
  8. Reading = While reading,
  9. Being = It being
  10. The information of murder having got, he was arrested.
  11. Going = While going,
  12. killed = Having killed.

Exercise 21
(From U.P. Board Examination Papers) (2011)

1.
(i) Nitin is a university student.
(ii) Vipin is Rahul’s eldest brother.
(iii) Milk is preferable to coffee.
(iv) One hundred rupees is not a big sum these days.
(v) Your shirt is inferior to mine.
(vi) The train had started before he reached the station.

2.
(i) He has been ill ever since he left us.
(ii) He went to Lucknow yesterday.
(iii) The ship with all its passengers was sunk.
(iv) There is very little water in the glass.
(v) Kalidas is one of the greatest poets of India.
(vi) Unless you work hard, you cannot pass.

3.
(i) This is a useful book.
(ii) My friend is in great trouble.
(iii) It is they who have done this work.
(iv) I heard the news an hour ago.
(v) He was absent from the examination.

4.
(i) He has gone home.
(ii) The patient had died before the doctor came.
(iii) Love is its own reward.
(iv) I saw three deer in the forest.
(V) He is junior to my brother.
(vi) I want to study in a university.

5.
(i) Neither he nor his father was accident.
(ii) This pen is better than that of this make.
(iii) Mrs. Gandhi delivered her last speech at Bhubaneshwar.
(iv) The streets of Kolkata are wider than those of Varanasi.
(v) Few of the remarks that he made were very suggestive.

6.
(i) It is a world where the rich hate the poor.
(ii) Though he is poor yet honest.
(iii) You yourself are responsible.
(iv) For health, milk is preferable to tea.
(v) I do not pay heed to his nonsensical talks.
(vi) He is very proud.

7.
(i) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
(ii) The kind man will pity the poor.
(iii) Your information is false.
(iv) His poems are mystic.
(v) I like vegetables.
(vi) Some thief has robbed me of my watch. (2012)

8.
(i) He needs a pair of spectacles.
(ii) The game has come to an end.
(iii) Sohan and I were present.
(iv) Her eldest brother is not here.
(v) He reached the railway station in time.
(vi) Be kind of those who are poor.

9.
(i) I prefer walking to swimming.
(ii) He died of fever.
(iii) He goes to temple at 7 o’clock.
(iv) Of the two boys he was more intelligent.
(v) She resembles her father.
(vi) You are always late.

10.
(i) I came to Varanasi a month ago.
(ii) He prevented me from doing it.
(iii) Gopal has been ill for four days.
(iv) The rise and fall of the tide is due to the moon.
(v) The news of the war is good today.
(vi) One should not boast of one’s wealth.

11.
(i) She has done it.
(ii) If I were you I would never do that.
(iii) The news is true.
(iv) The furniture of my class was disposed of.
(v) She is senior to me.
(vi) He is coming from Varanasi.

12.
(i) The smell of these flowers is very sweet.
(ii) Two and two make four.
(iii) Her answer was. such as I had expected.
(iv) He is a university student.
(v) What kind of man is he ?
(vi) Seldom have I read such an interesting novel.

13.
(i) Where are you coming from ?
(ii) My trousers are dirty.
(ii) I will avail of this chance.
(iii) They themselves are responsible.
(v) You cannot find such a nice man anywhere.
(vi) There is a best solution to every problem. (2013)

14.
(i) Jealousy is bad.
(ii) This is a good poem.
(iii) He is in debt.
(iv) The Himalayas lie to the north of India.
(v) Is he in jail ?
(vi) The more you get the more you want.

15.
(i) The general as well as the soldiers are running away.
(ii) I avoid going there.
(iii) My brother told me that the earth is round.
(iv) I move slowly lest I should get tired.
(v) He complained against Ram to the teacher.
(vi) This is the man who met me yesterday.

16.
(i) American people are rich.
(ii) Everyone of them has a blanket.
(iii) It is he who has done it.
(iv) Sarita is senior to me.
(v) She is cleverer than her sister.
(vi) The books on the table are mine.

17.
(i) Mumps is a dangerous disease.
(ii) This book is mine.
(iii) You are junior to me.
(iv) He is the best boy in the class.
(v) If you come, I shall help you.
(vi) Neither of these children has stolen your pen.

18.
(i) Neither of them was there.
(ii) I do not understand why is he so angry with the.
(iii) I have been ill for two days.
(iv) No fewer than five boys were absent.
(v) He o the man who I know is trustworthy. (2014)

19.
(i) This is better of the two.
(ii) Mohan is miser.
(iii) The Indus is a long river in the Punjab.
(iv) He has no book.
(v) He has been ill since Sunday.
(vi) We made him our captain.

20.
(i) Don’t hanker on money.
(ii) Please knock at the door before you enter the house.
(iii) She ordered his dismissal.
(iv) This food tastes sweet.
(v) I am very happy to see you.
(vi) Neither of the films is worth seeing.

21.
(i) That is the extreme view.
(ii) Sita is more charming than any living woman.
(iii) Can you lend me some money ?
(iv) I returned the book last Sunday.
(V) Iron is a useful metal.
(vi) He insisted him to leave the class.

22.
(i) The poor are unhappy.
(ii) One must do one’s duty carefully.
(iii) You are junior to me.
(iv) Gold is a costly metal.
(v) You need not go there.
(vi) It being Sunday, I did not go to college.

23.
(i) I saw a wounded bird.
(ii) The dog ran fast.
(iii) He knocked at the door.
(iv) It is I who did it.
(v) Sweet are the uses of adversity.
(vi) The rich prosper and the poor suffer. (2015)

24.
(i) It is the same watch that I purchased today.
(ii) He went to Mumbai yesterday.
(iii) I myself can do it.
(iv) Your claim is prior to your sister’s.
(v) Your knowledge is perfect.
(vi) My brother is elder to me.

25.
(i) I prefer coffee to tea.
(ii) He reached the Railway station well in time.
(iii) He is a European, not an Asian.
(iv) I like to read the Hindu.
(v) He runs very fast.
(vi) Many a patriot has died for his motherland.

26.
(i) He is taller of the two brothers.
(ii) He enjoyed himself during the holdings.
(iii) The philosopher and the poet have come.
(iv) Bid him for finishing the work.
(v) The coat being torn needs mending.
(vi) Although he was poor yet he was honest

27.
(i) He says he has a car besides a scooter.
(ii) The teacher called Ravi and asked him to describe the incident.
(iii) I have been in this profession for five years.
(iv) Bread and butter are what we usually have in breakfast.
(v) The population of Delhi is larger than that of Lucknow.
(vi) Of the two students, the one from Agra is the better.

28.
(i) The kind man will pity the poor.
(ii) I lost hundreds of books.
(iii) The game came to an end.
(iv) Where is the envelope of this letter?
(v) Columbus discovered America.
(vi) His poetry is mystic.

29.
(i) Ravi is the elder of his two sons.
(ii) This wood is superior to that.
(iii) He was a frightened child.
(iv) He went to Lucknow by car.
(v) He and I are working on a project.
(vi) Walk carefully lest you should fall.

30.
(i) The more you have, the more you covet.
(ii) Gold is a precious metal.
(iii) Mohan and Ram have lost their books.
(iv) Ask him to go.
(v) The water of Ganga and Yamuna is said to be different in colour.
(vi) Whose cattle are these? (2016)

31.
(i) We must help the poor.
(ii) Physics is an interesting subject.
(iii) I convey may thanks for his support.
(iv) One must love one’s country.
(v) He prefers coffee to milk.
(vi) He is braver than we expected.

32.
(i) The mother forbade the son to tell lies.
(ii) The scenes of Kashmir are charming.
(iii) He ran a hundred mile race.
(iv) Unless you work hard, you cannot succeed.
(v) A scorpion, sitting on the gate, stung him.
(vi) The soldiers are passing into the tunnel.

33.
(i) The sun rises in the east.
(ii) He gave alms to the beggar.
(iii) The wages of sin is death.
(iv) He reached the railway station quite well in time.
(v) He is my elder brother.
(vi) Both the brothers love each other.

34.
(i) This is one of the most interesting books that have ever been printed.
(ii) Knowledge is preferable to riches.
(iii) I forbade you to enter this room.
(iv) Two years have passed since my father died.
(v) He was angry with me.
(vi) He carefully investigated the case.

35.
(i) It is I who am to blame.
(ii) There is intimacy between him and me.
(iii) A modest man does not boast upon his merits.
(iv) You are right in holding that opinion.
(v) They repented on going on strike.
(vi) When a person is tired, he should relax for a while.

36.
(i) Two miles is not a long distance.
(ii) He returned only yesterday.
(iii) The news is too good not to be true.
(iv) He is much interested in games.
(v) I wrote this letter last evening.
(vi) The sun gives us light and life. (2017)

37.
(i) The gold is heavier than iron.
(ii) Kind man will pity poor.
(iii) I went out for a walk.
(iv) I know French and the English languages.
(v) Who
(vi) Who was the inventor of gunpowder?
(vii) His poetry are mystic.

38.
(i) He aims to stand first this year.
(ii) He is too weak to walk.
(iii) The step taken is either right or wrong.
(iv) He washed neither his hands nor his face.
(v) She has no other aim than to see her mother.
(vi) It is four by my watch.

39.
(i) Columbus discovered America.
(ii) I am not on taking terms with him.
(iii) On seeing the snake he got very much afraid.
(iv) A ship sail in water.
(v) I congratulate you on your success.
(vi) The climate of India is warmer than England.

40.
(i) Please inform me about the details of your publications.
(ii) Every book and every journal in the library is in a bad shape.
(iii) I find getting up early in the morning ignore preferable.
(iv) It is true that I had met her last year.
(v) He is the same man who came here yesterday.
(vi) Potatoes were introduced in India long before the arrival of the British.

41.
(i) His mother is confined to her bed.
(ii) He as well as you are innocent.
(iii) Pull chain to stop the train.
(iv) I doubt if he will pass.
(v) Hard work is the key to success.
(vi) I have not seen him lately.

42.
(i) Guests are encouraged to avail of themselves the full range of hotel facilities.
(ii) Police suspect a local gang.
(iii) There are many types of deer.
(iv) Each of the two houses was slightly different.
(v) The choice was of him.
(vi) Ram is the eldest of their two sons. (2018)

43.
(i) All the articles of furniture were destroyed.
(ii) The summons has been issued.
(iii) I have a ten-rupee note.
(iv) Can one not do what one likes.
(v) Neither of them was invited to the party.
(vi) I do not know who you are.

44.
(i) The stars were the only guide of ours.
(ii) He had gone before you came.
(iii) I am confident of winning.
(iv) What do you aim at?
(v) You need not worry.
(vi) Your examination will begin on Monday.

45.
(i) One of the members of his family is a brigadier.
(ii) I have disposed of my house.
(iii) They sat in the shade of a tree.
(iv) Either my son or those children have damaged this window.
(v) If get a promotion I will get a higher salary.
(vi) Five times five is twenty five.