Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Democracy

Textbook Questions Solved

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

The word ‘Democracy’ has been derived from which Greek words? What is the popular and accepted meaning of this word?

Answer:

This term is composed of two Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratia’. The popular and accepted meaning of democracy is ‘people’s power.

Question 2.

Which are the two main types of democratic government?

Answer:

Following are the two types of democratic government:

  • Direct or pure democracy
  • Indirect or representational democracy

Question 3.

Which are the two main types of liberal representative (indirect) democracy?

Answer:

Following are the two types of indirect democracy:

  • Parliamentary democracy
  • Presidential democracy

Question 4.

What do you mean by ‘Social Democracy’ as one of the forms of democracy?

Answer:

Social democracy is a form of democracy in society. The main goal of social democracy is the idea of social equality. In other words, social democracy means that there should be no discrimination on the basis of race, skin colour, caste, religion, language, gender, prosperity, birth, etc. and each citizen should be considered as equal in the society.

Question 5.

What do you mean by ‘Moral Democracy’ as one of the forms of democracy?

Answer:

Some thinkers have accepted the democracy in the form of moral and spiritual philosophy of life. This moral perspective of democracy is called moral democracy. Moral democracy is the practical form of the whole democratic philosophy; which considers the human values as the root of society and government.

Question 6.

Write two arguments against the pluralistic theory and concept of democracy.

Answer:

Pluralistic theory and concept of democracy has following drawbacks:

  • It may turn into majoritarianism.
  • It may not resort to the principle of ‘limited governance’.

Question 7.

The elitist theory of democracy is always seen which suspicion. Why?

Answer:

The elitist democracy means power is in the hands of the elite class. More often than not, the elite class does not give equal opportunity and rights to people from middle class or lower class. Civil liberties may also be suppressed in the name of protecting elitist values. Hence, elitist theory of democracy is always seen with suspicion.

Question 8.

Write any three merits of democracy.

Answer:

Following are the three merits of democracy:

  1. Growth in public welfare
  2. Government is answerable to people
  3. It ensures economic and social equality

Question 9.

Write any three demerits of democracy.

Answer:

Following are the three demerits of democracy:

  1. Decision making is often very slow
  2. Political parties pursue self interest rather than pursuing national interest
  3. It promotes the rule of foolish people because foolish people are in majority in any society.

Question 10.

Write any three conditions which are necessary for the success of democracy.

Answer:

Following are the three conditions which are necessary for the success of democracy:

  1. Law and order
  2. Strong Economy
  3. Equality

Question 11.

Write any three obstacles in the success of democracy in India.

Answer:

Following are the three obstacles in the success of democracy in India:

  1. Economy is still in developing stage
  2. Rich-poor divide is very wide
  3. Lack of internal democracy in political parties

Question 12 .

Write any three factual reasons which indicate towards a bright future of democracy in India.

Answer:

Following facts indicate towards a bright future of democracy in India:

  1. In spite of all the ills, democracy has survived in India
  2. Many incumbent governments have lost power which indicates towards people’s power in electing a government of their choice.
  3. Free and fair elections are held at fixed intervals.

Democracy Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

What do you understand by democracy? Explain its different forms.

Answer:

Democracy is a system of governance which is based on the power of people. Following are the different forms of democracy:

1. Political Democracy: Political democracy was known as individual democracy during ancient period but is now known as liberal democracy. Political democracy of modern period has originated in western countries and hence it is also referred to as the western democracy. The Marxists often call it the capitalist democracy.

2. Social Democracy: Social democracy is a form of democracy in society. The main goal of social democracy is the idea of social equality. In other words, social democracy means that there should be no discrimination on the basis of race, skin colour, caste, religion, language, gender, prosperity, birth, etc. and each citizen should be considered as equal in the society.

3. Economic Democracy: The form of democracy in economy is called economic democracy. The Marxists and socialists have proposed the theory of economic democracy in modern times. Even individualists had mooted the idea of democracy in economic sphere; in the 18th and 19th centuries. But their concept is quite contrary to the concept of economic democracy of Marxists and socialists.

4. Moral Democracy: Some thinkers have accepted democracy in the form of moral and spiritual philosophy of life. This moral perspective of democracy is called moral democracy. Moral democracy is the practical form of the whole democratic philosophy; which considers the human values as the root of society and government.

Question 2.

“Democracy is considered to be a form of government, a theory of social organization, and a type of lifestyle.” Why?

Answer:

There are many forms of government, viz. monarchy, autocracy, democracy, etc. Different forms of government have their own sets of features, merits and demerits. Democracy is one of the forms of government.

  1. Democracy not only talks about the type of government in a nation. It is also about the way the society functions. Democratic government promotes social equality by providing fundamental rights and freedoms. Hence, democracy can be termed as a theory of social organization.
  2. Democracy influences the lifestyle of people in a state. By learning the virtues of socio-economic equality, morality, patriotism, in discrimination, etc. people learn to follow a particular lifestyle. Hence, democracy can be termed as type of lifestyle.
  3. In the context of above arguments it can be said that democracy is considered to be a form of government, a theory of social organization, and a type of lifestyle.

Question 3.

What do you understand by democratic government? Make a critical analysis of democratic government.

Answer:

A democratic government is the government in which the real power is in the hands of people. Indirect democracy is the most prevalent form of government in the modern world. In this type, people elect their representatives who look after governance on people’s behalf. This is also called representational democracy.

  1. Democracy gives power to every stakeholder in the society. People have the right to change a government if the incumbent government is not working as per aspirations of people. Democratic government promotes individual freedom and public welfare. Hence, it is the most accepted form of government.
  2. But there are certain drawbacks of a democratic government. Decision making is often slow because it takes time to reach consensus on an issue. Partisan attitude of political parties results in erosion of basic tenets of democracy.
  3. In spite of all its lacunae, a democratic government is considered to be the best form of government because we don’t have better alternative.

Question 4.

What is the difference between direct and indirect democracy? Analyse the merits and demerits of indirect democracy.

Answer:

People directly make the government and appoint officers for administration: in direct democracy. Direct democracy was present in the city states of ancient Greece, and is present in five cantons of Switzerland in modern times. In fact, direct democratic government is only possible in very small units with small population. In case of indirect democracy, people elect their representatives who run the government on people’s behalf. Because of large size and large population, this type is more practical in most of modern countries.

Following are the key merits of democracy:

Democratic government ensures promotion of public welfare.

  1. It provides an efficient government.
  2. It encourages public education about governance.
  3. It imparts moral education of the people to make them responsible citizens.
  4. It educates people about patriotism.
  5. It provides safeguards against revolution and instability.
  6. It promotes equality and freedom.
  7. It provides independent and powerful judiciary in order to protect the rights of people.

Following are the demerits of democracy:

  1. When citizens get suffrage, we see mobocracy in place of democracy in actual life.
  2. Majority foolish people elect a foolish government in democracy.
  3. Political parties promote their own agenda and desist from educating the public.
  4. Rich people become fight elections and get elected because of the money power. When most of the members of the legislature are rich then they make laws which are in favour of rich.
  5. Excessive amount of money and time is spent in policy formulation and legislation in a democracy.

Question 5.

What are the theories and concepts of democracy? Give brief description of liberal, Marxist and socialist theories of democracy.

Answer:

Following are the theories and concepts of democracy:

  1. Traditional liberal theory and concept of democracy
  2. Pluralist theory and concept of democracy
  3. Elitist theory and concept of democracy
  4. Marxist theory and concept of democracy
  5. Socialist theory and concept of democracy

1. The Traditional Liberal Theory and Concept of Democracy: This theory of democracy has developed through liberal political thinking in the western world during the last three centuries. This theory considers people’s desire as the basis of power of government and hence the government is just a trustee of political power.

2. The Marxist Theory and Concept of Democracy: The Marxist theory of democracy presents a special form of democracy, which is a type of economic democracy in soul. But the Marxists prefer to call it as ‘People’s Democracy’.

3. The Socialist Theory and Concept of Democracy: The socialist theory of democracy is a combination of liberal theory and Marxist theory of democracy It aims to achieve the political freedom of individual; as enshrined in political democracy, and the economic equality as enshrined in Marxist democracy. The form of democracy stressed by socialist democracy is often called democratic socialism.

Question 6.

Write notes on following:

Question 6.(1).

Main features of liberal representative democracy

Answer:

Following are the main features of liberal representative democracy:

  1. People’s government: As a system of governance, democracy is the government of all people. Here, ‘public’ means “whole population and each individual’. Thus, this type of government is not related to any specific race, language, culture, etc.
  2. Government by people: Government is formed by people; in a democracy. In this system, people elect their representatives and the representatives form the government.
  3. Democratic government is a means and not an objective: In democracy, governance is never considered as an objective rather as a means. In fact, government in democracy is considered as a means to achieve these objectives
    • protection of freedom and dignity of individual, and
    • development of public welfare.
  4. Government answerable to people: The democratic government accepts the theory of ‘power of people’. Hence, a democratic government is answerable to people for its works. This means that if a government takes away the freedom of individual, does not respect people’s mandate and does not work towards public welfare then people can change the government.
  5. Democracy is an evolving government: The democratic system has went through many stages of development. Initially, it was individualistic democracy, which gradually changed to liberal democracy. Now-a-days, it has evolved towards the concept of public welfare state. The result of this development is that while democracy initially focused on individual freedom and equality and constitutional administration; it has now started to accept the theory of equality and justice in socio-economic sphere. Thus, evolution of democracy has enhanced its value.

Question 6.(2).

Democracy is the rule of incapable.

Answer:

In democracy, every person gets the right to vote; without discrimination. The number of fools is always very high compared to the number of wise in any society. Hence, majority foolish people elect a foolish government in democracy. According to Carlyle, “for every capable person, there are nine fools. By virtue of giving equal political power to every person we tend to establish the rule of fools”.

Question 6.(3).

Democracy is the best form of government because we are yet to know a better form of government.

Answer:

Democracy has many demerits. For example decision making is slow because it takes time to reach consensus. Democracy involves wastage of public money and time; in the name of policies and election process. Democracy often ends up being a mobocracy. In spite of all the ills, democracy is the most accepted form of government. Hence, it can be said that democracy is the best form of government because we are yet to know a better form of government.

Question 6.(4).

Give some suggestions to remove the demerits of democracy.

Answer:

Following steps can be taken to remove the demerits of democracy:

  1. Internal democracy should be promoted in political parties.
  2. Political parties should be forbidden from asking for votes in the name of religion or caste.
  3. Right to information has helped in giving access of many important information to the people. It has helped in strengthening democracy.
  4. Local self-governance should be strengthened.
  5. Some time frame should be determined to formulate policies.

Democracy Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

What is a democratic state?

Answer:

In a democratic state, power resides in the public and hence people have the complete and ultimate power to form the government, to control the government and to remove the government.

Question 2.

What is parliamentary democracy?

Answer:

When the legislature is directly elected by people and government is formed by the members of legislature, it is called parliamentary democracy.

Question 3.

What is direct democracy?

Answer:

Under direct democracy, people directly utilize the power of the state. Public takes policy decisions, makes laws and appoints administrative officers.

Question 4.

Write the definition of democracy as given by Abraham Lincoln.

Answer:

Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is the government for the people, by the people and of the people.”

Democracy Additional Questions Solved

Question 5.

What is indirect democracy?

Answer:

Under indirect democracy, people elect their representatives. The representatives; in turn; govern on behalf of people. This system is practiced in most of the countries in modern times.

Question 6.

Which are the two popular forms of representative democracy in modern times?

Answer:

Following are the two popular forms of representative democracy in modern times:

  • Parliamentary democracy
  • Presidential democracy

Question 7.

What do you understand by parliamen¬tary democracy?

Answer:

In a parliamentary democracy, the head of the government leads the executive and the executive is answerable to legislative.

Question 8.

What is the main goal of social democracy?

Answer:

Social equality

Question 9.

What is the main goal of economic democracy?

Answer:

Economic equality

Question 10.

Write the definition of democracy, as given by Abraham Lincoln.

Answer:

Abraham Lincoln: “Democracy is the government for the people, by the people and of the people.”

Question 11.

What is the meaning of democracy?

Answer:

The meaning of democracy is a system of governance which is based on the power of people.

Question 12.

What is presidential democracy?

Answer:

The presidential democracy is a system in which the head of the government leads the executive branch, and the executive branch is separate from legislative.

Question 13.

What is the meaning of people’s power?

Answer:

In a democratic system, people elect the government, control the government and can remove the government. This concept of giving the final authority to people is called people’s power.

Question 14.

Direct democracy is being practiced in which modern country?

Answer:

Direct democracy is being practiced in five cantons of Switzerland.

Question 15.

Which is the ideal example of parliamentary democracy in the modern world?

Answer:

United Kingdom, India.

Question 16.

Write any five merits of democracy.

Answer:

Five merits of democracy are as follows:

  1. Growth in public welfare
  2. Efficient government
  3. Means of public education
  4. Means of moral education
  5. Education on patriotism

Question 17.

Write any five demerits of democracy.

Answer:

Five demerits of democracy are as follows:

  1. Wrong.notion about individuals in democracy
  2. Rule of Incapability
  3. Claims of educational importance are misleading
  4. Concept of democratic freedom and equality is misleading
  5. 111 Effects of Political Parties

Democracy Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

What are the fundamental concepts of complete political democracy?

Answer:

Following are the fundamental concepts of complete political democracy:

  1. Political democracy believes in liberal constitutionalism.
  2. It considers the power to be inherent in people.
  3. Democratic state is the theoretic facet of political democracy and its practical facet is democratic government.
  4. People elect the government, controls the government and can remove the government.
  5. Political democracy is not the objective but a means to attain democratic objectives and values.

Question 2.

Explain the statement, “democratic government is a means and not an objective’.

Answer:

In democracy, governance is never considered as an objective rather as a means. In fact, government in democracy is considered as a means to achieve these objectives:

  1. protection of freedom and dignity of individual, and
  2. development of public welfare.

Question 3.

How can we say that a democratic government is answerable to people?

Answer:

The democratic government accepts the theory of ‘power of people’. Hence, a democratic government is answerable to people for its works. This means that if a government takes away the freedom of individual, does not respect people’s mandate and does not work towards public welfare then people can change the government.

Question 4.

Democratic government is considered to be an efficient government. How?

Answer:

Democratic government is considered to be the most efficient government. There are many reasons for efficiency of democratic government. Policies are made according to popular mandate in democracy. Hence, public cooperation is ensured in implementing these policies. As the democratic government is answerable to people hence it strives to maintain efficiency.

Question 5.

The concept of democratic freedom and equality is a misnomer in democracy How?

Answer:

Democracy provides political freedom and equality to people but it doesn’t provide economic freedom and equality. Political freedom and equality become meaningless in the absence of economic freedom and equality. Rich people become fight elections and get elected because of the money power. When most of the members of the legislature are rich then they make laws which are in favour of rich. This shows that lack of economic equality makes political freedom and equality almost meaningless.

Question 6.

What do you understand by voter apathy in democracy?

Answer:

Emocracy is said to be the rule of the public but voters do not show adequate interest in the elections. In spite of all the efforts by political parties and their candidates; just 50 to 60% voters participate in the election process. This makes it clear that public does not consider it as a part of the government system because of demerits of democracy, j Moreover, when hundred percent voters don’t exercise their voting rights, this results in election of less capable and opportunistic candidates.

Question 7.

As per the traditional theory and concept of democracy, what are the fundamental rules of governance?

Answer:

As per the traditional theory and concept of democracy, following are the fundamental rules of governance: Governance should be done by people (by people’s representatives), theory of majority should be obeyed in formation and running of government, government should be answerable to the people, and

People’s interests should be the goal of governance.

Question 8.

Give one example of each of the parliamentary democracy, presidential democracy and a mix of both forms.

Answer:

Following are the examples:

  1. Parliamentary democracy: United Kingdom
  2. Presidential democracy: United States of America
  3. Mixed of both forms: Switzerland

Question 9.

How does democracy become a means of public education?

Answer:

In democracy; public gives its opinion on common problems of people. The common public expresses its opinions through means of opinion making and through general elections. Common public is aware of its rights and duties and learns to sacrifice its narrow interests to further bigger goals. Because of this, Gattel has said that democracy is a school which educates its citizens.

Question 10.

How does democracy instill a sense of patriotism among people?

Answer:

Democracy also strengthens the spirit of patriotism. In democracy, state is not considered a property of any ruling class rather as a property of the people. This helps in strengthening the patriotic spirit in public. According to Mill, “Democracy enhances the spirit of patriotism.”

Democracy Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

Write the fundamental beliefs and traits of the traditional liberal theory of democracy.

Answer:

The fundamental beliefs and traits of the traditional liberal theory of democracy are as follows:

A man is an intelligent animal and has the power to understand his interests and risks. All people are basically same. Government should be formed on the basis of democratic constitutionalism, i.e. theory of limited governance should be followed. People’s desire’ is the basis of the power of government hence government is just a trustee of political power. There are definite and fundamental rules of governance, e.g.

  1. Governance should be done by people (by people’s representatives),
  2. Theory of majority should be obeyed in formation and running of government,
  3. government should be answerable to the people, and
  4. People’s interests should be the goal of governance.

People should be given individual freedoms and rights and independent and impartial judiciary should be constituted to protect these rights. Free and fair polls should be conducted at fixed intervals and there should be more than one political party, Government should respect the mandate of people.

Question 2.

Explain any three essential conditions for a successful democracy.

Answer:

Following are the three conditions for successful democracy:

1. Law and Order: A normal internal condition and lack of threat of war or external attack is necessary for the success of democracy in any country. Decentralization of power is maintained in such condition and people enjoy their freedom. But when political stability or system of a country is challenged by movements or external attack, the government proceeds towards centralization of power in order to maintain security and integrity of the country. This results in restrictions on individual freedom. Democracy dies a slow death in this situation and paves the way for establishment of autocracy.

2. Strong Economy: A strong economy in the country is necessary for the success of democracy. If the national economic is suffering from industrial doldrums then economy turns into bad shape. Establishment of autocracies in Germany and Italy after the First World War was the result of a horrible economy. Similarly, communist regimes took hold in many countries of the Eastern Europe after the Second World War because of problems in the economy. The bad economy in the countries of modern Latin America is a major reason for the failure of democracy in these countries. Many Afro-Asian countries are suffering from similar problems.

3. Establishment of Economic Equality: Only a strong economy is not enough for the success of democracy, rather it is important to have lesser gap between rich and poor, i.e. to have economic equality to the maximum possible extent. This is possible only when the middle class is in reasonably large number in the country. Only this situation can prevent the class-struggle which weakens the democracy.