Chapter 6 Introduction to LINUX Desktop

Introduction to LINUX Desktop Long Answer Type Questions (8 Marks)

Question 1.
Explain security management in LINUX. (UP 2005, 19)
Or
Explain the security features available in LINUX. (UP 2007, 08, 10)
Or
“LINUX has very good security management.” Explain it with suitable example. (UP 2011)
Answer:
The Red Hat Linux System provides the different ways of protecting your computer system like Password protection, Network filtering, and Security audits.
Password Protection: This is one of the most fundamental security tools of any operating system. Choosing good passwords is the first and most necessary step for having a secure system.
The following points are to be avoided when choosing a password:

  • Do not use any variation of your login name or your full name.
  • Do not use a dictionary word.
  • Do not use proper names of any kind.
  • Do not use any contiguous letters on the keyboard

You may change your password periodically. It is even possible to set an expiration date of Linux password by using the change command to change the expiration date of password on your Red Hat Linux System. For example: To set the password expiration so that user RajCev is prompted to change his password every 30 days, you would log in as root and type the following command:

#change – M 30 Rajeev

Here M parameter tells the change command that you are setting the maximum number of days to keep the password.
Setting the Root Password: The installation program will prompt you to set a root password for your system. The root password must be of minimum six characters long, the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter a password twice, and if both the passwords couldn’t match, the installation program will ask you to enter them again. Remember that the password is case sensitive. Write down the password and keep it in a secure place.
The root user has complete access to the entire system. For this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.

Question 2.
What is GNOME desktop in LINUX? (UP 2010, 15)
Or
Give a brief introduction of LINUX desktop giving its main points? (UP 2011, 12)
Answer:
Using GNOME Desktop: It is a stable and reliable desktop environment, with a few cool features in it. To use your GNOME desktop, you should know about the following components:

1. Metacity: This is the default window manager for GNOME in Red Hat Linux. It can provide you with the themes, windows, borders and window controls.

2. Nautilus: It is a File Manager or Graphical shell. It provides window opens and displays the contents of the selected folder. It can also display other types of content, such as shared folders from Windows computer on the network.

3. GNOME Panel: It is intended to be the place from which you manage your desktop, and by this panel, you can start applications. You can also change the panel in many ways by adding applications or monitors, by changing the placement. The GNOME Panel menu contains a lot of functions, and these are the menu, Add to the panel, Delete this panel, Properties, desktop application launchers, a workspace switcher window list, a clock, Help and About GNOME.

4. Desktop Area: The windows and icons you use are arranged on the desktop area. It supports a drag-and-drop between applications, a desktop menu, and icons for launching applications.

Question 3.
Explain Metacity Window Manager.
Answer:
Metacity Window Manager: The basic metacity functions that are interesting will be keyboard shortcuts and the workspace switcher. Some commonly used keyboard shortcuts to get around the Metacity window manager are as follows:

Shortcut Keys → Meaning
+ → Minimize/restore all windows.
Esc → Close menu.
Alt + Tab → Cycle forward, with pop-up icons.
Alt + Tab + Shift → Cycle backward, with pop-up icons.
Alt + Esc → Cycle forward, without pop-up icons.
Alt + Esc + Shift → Cycle backwards, without pop-up icons.
Alt + Ctrl + Tab → Cycle forward among panels.
Alt + Ctrl + Tab + Shift → Cycle backward among panels.
Ctrl + Alt + (→) → Cycle to next workspace.
Ctrl + Alt + (<-) → Cycle to previous workspace.

Another interesting feature of metacity is the workspace switcher.
There are four virtual workspaces in the switcher. By clicking any of them, you may make it your current workspace.
Each window is represented by a small rectangle in a workspace, click any of these windows to drag-and-drop it to another workspace.
You can add more workspaces by right click the workspace switcher.
You can change the name of the workspaces by right click the workspace switcher and select preferences.

Question 4.
Write about Nautilus File Manager of LINUX.
Answer:
Nautilus File Manager: Nautilus file manager moves around the file system, open directories, launch applications, and browse the web. Icons in Nautilus often indicate the type of data that a particular file contains. The contents or file extension of each file can determine which application is used to work with the file.
Features of Nautilus:

SideBar: By using this, you can click on tabs that represent different types of information you can select.
If your computer is connected to a LAN on which windows computers are sharing file and printers, you can view those resources by using Nautilus. Type smb: in the location, box to see available workgroups.
MIME types and file types are used to handle different types of content that may be encountered in the Nautilus windows, and you can set applications to respond based on MIME type and file type.
Nautilus window can support drag-and-drop features between the Nautilus and the desktop, or between multiply Nautilus window.

Question 5.
What is the Home Folder? Write its features.
Answer:
Home Folder: By doing double-click the “Home” icon on the desktop, the window that appears shows your file manager window as it displays the contents of your home folder. The location of the home folder on your computer is generally/home/user, where the user is replaced by your user name. The home folder (icon) contains:

  • Folders: Create folders and sub-folders to store your work.
  • Open with: Click the right mouse button on any object and select open to see several programs you can use to open the object.
  • Side Panel: It is used to show the information about the selected folder or file.
    Click on View → Side Pane.
  • Backgrounds: Drag-and-drop patterns or colours you like into the pane on your folder window.
    Click on Edit → Backgrounds.
  • Organize Your Work: Home folder or any sub-folders are used to organize created documents, add music, or download images from the internet.

As with any files you can do move, delete and rename, you can also do with any window like a window shade, minimized/unminimize/maximum/delete.

Introduction to LINUX Desktop Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)

Question 1.
Name two desktop environments provided by LINUX.
Answer:
The two desktop environments provided by LINUX are GNOME and KDE.

Question 2.
Name the web browser which is used in LINUX. (UP 2017)
Answer:
Mozilla is the name of the web browser used in LINUX.

Question 3.
What are the three steps of working on desktop?
Answer:
The three steps of working on the desktop are HOME FOLDER, PREFERENCES and CONFIGURE YOUR PANEL.

Question 4.
By default, Red Hat Linux starts you off with which desktop?
Answer:
GNOME.

Question 5.
Which window provides a command-line interface with GUI’s features?
Answer:
Terminal window.

Question 6.
What is the file manager of LINUX? (UP 2012)
Answer:
Nautilus is the name of file manager of LINUX.

Question 7.
What is the name of window manager of LINUX?
Answer:
Metacity is the name of window manager of LINUX.

Introduction to LINUX Desktop Objective Type Questions (1 Marks)

There are four alternative answers for each part of the questions. Select the correct one and write in your answer book:

Question 1.
Whenever you click right button, a menu appears on the screen which is known as:
(a) Pop-up-menu
(b) Menu-item
(c) Applications
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Pop-up-menu

Question 2.
The GUI feature of LINUX is known as :
(a) KDE
(b) GUI
(c) GNOME
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) GUI

Question 3.
The first option of KDE Desktop is:
(a) Application
(b) Preference
(c) System settings
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Application

Question 4.
The second option of Linux Desktop is:
(a) System settings
(b) Application
(c) Preference
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Preference

Question 5.
The third option of Linux Desktop is:
(a) Application
(b) Preference
(c) System Setting
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) System Setting