Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions
Which elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries ?
The religious, artistic and literary elements of Greek and Roman culture were revived in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Compare details of Italian architecture of this period with Islamic architecture.
Following are the points of comparison:
- Huge buildings were constructed under both the Italian and the Islamic architectures.
- Decoration was prominent in both the styles.
- Arch and pillars were the important characteristics of both the Italian and the Islamic architectures.
- Beautiful cathedrals and monasteries were constructed in Italian architecture, whereas large and magnificent mosques were constructed under the Islamic style of architecture.
Why were Italian towns the first to experience the ideas of humanism?
The towns of Italy were the first to experience the ideas of humanism because of the following reasons:
- Education spread in Italy by the 13th and 14th centuries.
- Humanism as a subject was first taught in Italian schools, colleges and universities. Italian people were made aware of humanist views and ideas.
- Universities were first of all developed here to spread education.
- A number of classical books were composed by Roman and Greek scholars.
Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.
Venice was an Italian city. This city was free from the influence of the church and feudal lords. In Venice, bankers and rich merchants played a significant role while there was absolute monarchy in France. In France, common people were deprived of their rights.
Answer In A Short Essay
What were the features of humanist thought?
Humanist thought laid stress on skills and ideas that were developed by individuals through debate and discussions. These revolutionary ideas attracted attention of many other universities particularly in the newly established university in Petrarch’s native town, Florence. The humanist thought increased dignity of human beings. Humanism embodied the mystical and aesthetic temper of a pre-scientific age. It laid stress on logic, natural science and metaphysics. It laid emphasis not only on intellectual learning, but also on physical and moral development. Humanism relied on flexible thinking. After Petrarch, the humanist philosophy spread first through Italy, then into other parts of Europe. Humanist thought was reflected in contemporary art and architecture. Petrarch represented conservative Italian humanism.
Humanism embodied the mystical and aesthetic temper of a pre-scientific age. The intellectuals of antiquity were relatively unconcerned about the supernatural world and the eternal destiny of the soul. They were mainly interested in a happy, adequate and efficient life on earth.
The leading intellectual trait of the era was the recovery of the secular and humane philosophy of Greece and Rome. The writings of Dante and particularly the doctrines of Petrarch and humanists like Machiavelli emphasized the virtues of intellectual freedom and individual expression. In the essays of Montaigne, the individualistic view of life received the most persuasive and eloquent statement in the history of literature and society. Leonardo daVinci’s ‘The Last Supper’, Mona Lisa, Michelangelo’s The Last Judgement, Fall of Man and Raphel’s Madonna were the important works.
Write a careful account of how the world appeared different to seventeenth century Europeans.
Renaissance movement brought about rational and scientific approach in the life of mankind. But the world appeared quite different. Scientists used the methods of experimentation, observation and new thoughts. It was just contrary to Christian beliefs.
Scientific discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Isaac Newton brought about new changes in the world. The Italian scientist Galileo invented telescope. Newton gave the theory of gravitation. He systematized scientific valuations about the universe. Copernicus, tried to prove that the earth rotates round the sun. Marco Polo’s invention of the compass made voyage easier. The explorations of the sailors like Vasco da Gama, Columbus etc. led to discoveries of new lands. Their explorations revolutionized trade.
The invention of the printing press made books available to the people in various towns and cities. Rome, Florence and Venice became the centers of art and learning. Many artists, scholars and writers were patronized by the rich people in the cities and towns. Town became the center of art and learning activities. Thomas Moore’s “Utopia” ridiculed the malpractices of the contemporary society. On above basis, it can be said that the world appeared different to 17th century Europeans.
More Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What do you mean by Renaissance? From where did it start?
The meaning of Renaissance is rebirth. It is a French word. It gave a new dimension to art and culture and created awareness among the people. It started from Italy.
Who made the first Printing press?
Johannes Gutenberg made the first printing press.
Who was ‘Renaissance Man’?
The term ‘Renaissance Man’ stood for the person who had interest in various fields, skills and innovations. Many individuals of the Renaissance period had deep interests in art and culture.
Mention a few reasons that were responsible for the emergence of Renaissance.
Following reasons were responsible for the emergence of Renaissance:
- Emergence of middle class.
- Growth of printing press and literature.
- Fall of feudalism.
What was the status of women in business families?
In business families, the women used to co-operate with their husbands. They looked after the business because their husbands were away from work.
Name a few who played a crucial role in bringing Renaissance movement.
- Thomas Moore
Who was Martin Luther?
Martin Luther was one of the greatest exponents of the reformation of Catholic Church. He vehemently opposed the excesses of the church.
How did the invention of printing press prove a deciding factor for the Renaissance movement?
- It made people aware of new literature.
- It played an important role in awakening of people.
- It provided intellectual knowledge.
Who was Michelangelo?
Michelangelo was a great artist of Renaissance. “The Fall of the Man” and “The Last Judgement” are considered to be the masterpieces of art throughout the world. His paintings gave deep interpretation to human life and humanity.
Who was Ibn Rushd?
Ibn Rushd was the philosopher of Spain. He made an attempt to resolve the differences between philosophical knowledge and religious beliefs.
What had the students in universities to do prior to the starting of printing?
Before the start of printing, the students had to read a few hand written copies or texts of manuscript. It was very difficult to make available every student a copy of that text.
Who was Andreas Vaselius?
Andreas Vaselius (1514-64) was a professor of medicine in Padua University. He dissected the human body. It led to the beginning of modern physiology.
What do you understand by realism?
Anatomy, physics, geometry and a sense of beautification gave a new form to Italian art. Later on, it came to be known as realism.
What was the name of the book composed by Jacob?
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy.
When was humanism adopted in curriculum of the universities in Italy?
Humanism was adopted in curriculum of the universities in Italy during 14th century.
What do you understand by classical architecture?
During the period, the Roman history was read and the remains were dug up by archaeologists. It inspired a new style of architecture that was revival of the imperial Roman style. It was called classical architecture.
Who was Thomas Moore?
Thomas Moore was a great writer of England. ‘Utopia’ was his literary masterpiece.
What do you know about Ptolemy’s ‘Almagest’?
Ptolemy’s Almagest was a work on astronomy. It was written in Greek before 140CE. Later it was translated
Write any two features of humanist thought.
Two features of humanist thought were:
- To encourage dignity of humans beings.
- Freedom of human life from control of religion.
‘All men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature’. Who said this and why?
It was said by Machiavelli. He was of the opinion that human desires are insatiable and he was motivated to face every fair and unfair means to meet them.
What kind of impression do you get about the status of women in business families?
Women were very supportive. They co-operated their husbands in every bit of business. In families of merchants and bankers , wives looked after the business when the male members were away on work.
What were the thoughts of Balthasar Castiglione?
Balthasar Castiglione was an author and diplomat. She wrote a book named, “The Courtier in which she defined the potentials of men and women and suggested women to bear certain delicate tenderness with an air of feminine sweetness in all their gestures and actions whatever they do.
What was the view of German reformers in regard to salvation?
According to German reformers, salvation can be attained only when all kinds of social oppression is ended. They opined that God has created all people equal and they were not supposed to pay taxes and had the right to choose their priests.
What was the view of the Christians about the earth?
The Christians believed that the earth was at the center of universe around which moved the celestial planets .It was a sinful place. The earth became immobile because of the burden of sin.
What was the declaration of Copernicus about the earth?
The Christian society believed that the earth was at the center of universe. But Copernicus rebutted this belief and told that the earth including all the other heavenly bodies rotate round the sun.
What was the concept of Humanism?
Humanism laid stress on the importance of man and his sentiments rather than the religious views. The worldly problems of man should be solved first then men should think about God.
Who propounded the theory of earth as part of solar system?
Johannes Kepler propounded this theory. Kepler in his Cosmographical Mystery demonstrated that the planets move around the sun not in circle but in ellipses.
Who was the leader of the Protestant Reformation Movement? What were its chief gospels?
Martin Luther was the leader of the Protestant Reformation Movement. Its chief gospels were the following.
- A person is not required to be priest in order to establish contact with God.
- It is faith that guides people to the right path and entry into Heaven that is salvation.
Define ‘Document of Indulgences’.
The church issued ‘Document of Indulgences’. The church opined that these documents could free man from the burden of the sins that he had committed. By selling these documents, the church was earning money.
What virtues were equally necessary for both men and women as per Castiglione?
As per Castiglione, the following virtues were equally necessary for men and women.
- To shun affection
- To be naturally graceful
- To be naturally well mannered
- To be clever and prudent
- To be neither proud, envious nor evil tongued
Which factors took Italian cities and courts beyond the world?
Following factors took the cities and the courts of Italy beyond the world:
- Trade and travel
- Military conquests
- Diplomatic contacts
Short Answer Type Questions
Mention a few characteristics of Venice and Genoa cities.
Characteristics of Venice and Genoa cities:
- These were independent states.
- Both were different from the parts of the European cities.
- Both these cities were governed by an assistance from wealthy merchants and bankers.
- Ideas of citizens sprout on surface in these cities.
Which factors were responsible for the widening of European skills? (HOTS)
Following factors were responsible for the widening of European skills:
- Archaeological discoveries
- New technologies of navigation
- Classical consideration of Rome and Greece
- Expansion of Islam and the Mongol conquests
- Opportunity to learn from India, Arabia, Iran, Central Asia and China
Do you think that the Renaissance started a new age? (HOTS)
Undoubtedly, it can be said that the Renaissance started a new age. The reasons are as follows:
- The Renaissance broke the feudal bonds and established nation-states.
- Before the Renaissance period, the church was the supreme authority. People had complete faith in the authority of the church. But in the Renaissance period, rational thinking and logical thought were dominant.
- It brought about new ideologies in art and literature. Art and literature began to prosper and reached at its glory. Intellectuals and philosophers attacked on the social norms of the society through their writings. Many painters showed the evils of society through their paintings.
Enlist the names of women intellectually creative during the period of Renaissance in Europe.
The women like Cassandra Fedele and Isabella d’Este were educated in Latin and Greek. Fedele proved that woman can also become a humanist scholar and requested every woman to acquire humanist education. She said, “Even though the study of letters promises and offers no reward for women and no dignity, every woman ought to seek and embrace these studies”. Her writings brought into focus the general regard for education in that age. Another lady Isabella d’Este ruled the state while her husband was absent and the court of Mantua was famed for its intellectual brilliance. Women’s writings revealed their conviction that they should have economic power, property and education to achieve an identity in the male dominated world.
Why did the movement break out against the Catholic Church?
The movement broke out against the Catholic Church due to the following reasons:
- The Catholics were closely related with the king and power for many centuries.
- They preferred a life full of luxury.
- Their life was completely different from common man.
- The Catholics were regarded more as the representatives of king than God as they had the power of extracting taxes.
- Because of such powers, they became unscrupulous which finally led to revolt by common man.
Which factors led to voyages discoveries?
Following factors led to the voyages discoveries:
- Motive of enslaving people
- Encouragement to trade and commerce which led to earning money
- Desire to earn name and fame
Which factors indicate success of nation-states?
The following points indicate the success of nation-states:
- It brought an end to all forms of slavery.
- New ideas emerged.
- There was much progress in the field of agriculture, industry and trade.
- It was responsible for the establishment of constitutional form of government in many countries.
- Rise of educated people, i.e. intellectual middle class.
The humanists made distinction between middle age and modern age. How?
The humanists opined that after the collapse of Roman empire, the dark age had begun. Later on, scholars followed them and assumed that a new age had begun in Europe from 14th century. After the fall of Roman empire, they used the term ‘Middle Age’ for one thousand years. They argued that the church had complete control over the people. The period of Modem age started from 15th century.
What was the view of Leon Batista Alberti on architect?
According to Alberti, an architect was a professional who beautifully fixed or assembled the parts of architecture and amassed bodies by the varied skilled and unskilled persons. The same is used by mankind for shelter. His expertise in his work made them immortal.
What did William Tyndate say in favor of Protestantism?
William Tyndate said that clergy had forged the process, order and meaning of the ancient texts particularly because it was in Greek and Latin, not accessible to the common man. It was with a view to maintain their authority above the king and even above God himself. William Tyndate even intended to translate the Bible in mother tongue in order to lead the mass with real light.
What was the contribution of Galileo?
It was Galileo who established knowledge distinct from belief. Galileo told that knowledge is based on observation and experiment. He further told that scientific process is required to know the things in their real forms. He also told that beliefs are based on hearsay, myth, concoction and conjecture which is always untrue.
Discuss the important changes that took place during Renaissance.
The important changes that took place during Renaissance was the separation of private and public spheres of life. According to this change, public sphere was meant by the area of Government and of formal religion while private sphere was confined to the family and personal religion. This way, a man was supposed not to be simply a member of one of the three orders but he was also a person in his own right. Later on it brought the sense of equal political rights to all individuals.
Write a note on the following:
(i) Spirit of Inquiry
(ii) Spirit of Humanism
- Spirit of Inquiry: It developed scientific ideas among the people and they abandoned the supersitious beliefs and rituals that sustained in the entire society. It paved way for new invention which changed the way of life.
- Spirit of Humanism: It is also one of the significant features of Renaissance. Writers of this age gave top priority to matters relating to the life of men and laid emphasis on human welfare. Humanism supported freedom to individual and criticized the unjust restriction imposed on people by religion.
What was Counter Reformation Movement?
Counter Reformation Movement came into being as a result of the Reformation movement. Many defects had come into Catholicism but the Roman Catholic Church did not pay heed to it. That is why this movement was spreading rapidly. According to the Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church tried to reform itself of some of its objectionable practices . For example, now the Bishops were appointed on the basis of ability.
Italian towns were the first to experience the ideas of humanism. Why?
A large number of classics were composed by the Roman and Greek scholars. Due to lack of education, these books remained unread. But during thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, education spread in Italy. After the spread of education these books were translated. These books introduced humanistic views to the people of Italy. Subjects of humanism started to be taught in schools and colleges of Italy. Anthropology, natural science, astronomy, medicine and mathematics fell under the category of this subject. These were the reasons responsible for Italian towns to experience the ideas of humanism first.
What was the political system that emerged in nation-states?
King was the supreme authority. He was considered to be the representative of God on the earth. The king was free from the intervention of pope and the feudal lords. The powerful monarchies had strong courts of appeal. The courts could challenge and condemn the decisions of the feudal lords. The rich middle classes financed, supported and strengthened the king.
What were the effects of Glorious Revolution?
Glorious Revolution occurred in England in 1688. Following were the effects of the Glorious Revolution:
- It ended the despotic rule of the Stuart King.
- It resulted in the formation of nation-state in England.
- It laid down the foundation of the independent judiciary.
- It established democracy.
- It marked the victory of Protestants.
Nation-states marked a step forward in man’s progress. Discuss.
Emergence of nation-states established humanism. The nation-states also struck a death blow to the feudal system. These states led the people on their way to social, economic and political growth. They united the people belonging to a common culture. These states were able to promote the spirit of nationalism by releasing their people from the clutches of the Pope and the priests.
Write the contributions of Leonardo-da-Vinci.
Leonardo-da-Vinci was a great artist of Italy. He was very talented. Vinci was a poet, singer, painter, sculptor, philosopher, scientist and engineer. He knew many languages During Renaissance period , he painted many pictures. ‘Mona Lisa’ and ‘The Last Supper’ are his famous paintings. These paintings are still admired throughout the world.
Discuss the underlying principles of presumptions constituting independent city states in Italy.
The government in those city states was of democratic type whereas government of Venice city was republican. Some others were court cities ruled by princess. Underlying principles of constituting these city-states can be summed up as under:
- It was an Institute of Commonwealth. It was the supreme authority of city-states through the Council.
- There was a Council constituted by members, all gentleman of the city who had attained the age of 25 years.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the different scientific aspects reflected in the works of sixteenth century Italian artists.
Following facts reflect the different scientific aspects in the works of Italian artists:
- Andreas Vesalius (1514-64), a Belgian and a professor of medicine at the university of Padua was the first to dissect human body. This was the beginning of modern physiology. The artists went to the laboratories and studied skeletons there. They started working once they learnt the body structure of human beings.
- Fragments of art discovered from the ruins of Roman Empire, became helpful to the Italian artists as perfectly proportioned men and women were sculpted there. On the basis of this study, one of the sculptors Donatello made life like statues in 1416.
- Leonardo da Vinci was a painter and artist. He painted Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. His self-portrait is vibrant and catchy.
- Scientific taste in arts like sculptures naturally had to emerge life-like vibrancy in the artifacts.
What were the demerits of the nation-states?
The nation-states were established in the Renaissance period. These states were governed by a strong political ruler. These states used to keep themselves free from all kinds of interference, i.e. political or religious.
Following were the demerits of the nation-states:
- Attitude of King: The king was the supreme authority. Being despotic, their self-interest was supreme. The Pope and feudal lords could not force them to work in the interests of the state and its people.
- National Interest: States became self-interested and individualistic after the creation of nation-states. International interests were ignored. An environment of animosity also appeared because of the clash of interests of different nation-states.
- Feeling of Selfishness: There developed a feeling of selfishness among the people. This resulted in the feeling of hatred in the minds of people for other nation-states.
Describe the changes brought by the Renaissance in the contemporary life of the people.
Renaissance brought the following changes in the contemporary life of the people:
- Old age superstitions and social evils came to an end.
- New ideas and scientific beliefs began to gain much importance.
- It also laid emphasis on humanism.
- People began to discard old values.
- It inspired the contemporary writers and philosophers.
- Many universities were established to provide education.
- Education and knowledge began to spread quickly.
How did the Italian culture revive after the fall of Western Roman empire?
There were some changes that took place after the fall of Western Roman empire. These changes revived the culture of Italy. After the fall of Western Roman empire, political and cultural centres in Italy were destroyed. There was no unified government at that time. Italy was a weak and divided country. Pope was sovereign in his own state but not quite strong in European politics. Regions of Western Europe were reshaped by feudal relations. These regions were unified under the Latin church. The Byzantine empire brought changes in Eastern Europe. A common civilization was being created by Islam in the west.
The above-mentioned changes were responsible for bringing about the revival of Italian culture.
The seventeenth century Europeans witnessed the world as different. Explain.
Europeans witnessed the world different due to the following reasons.
- A distinct urban culture was developed. People living in towns started thinking as more civilized than rural people.
- Towns started to grow in many European cities.
- Florence, Venice and Rome were the main towns which became centres of art and learning.
- The rich and aristocratic people patronized artists and writers.
- Invention of printing press made books available to many people.
- People began contrasting their modem world with the ancient one of the Greeks and Romans. This was the beginning of the development of a sense of history in Europe.
What were the causes of Renaissance in Western Europe?
Following were the main causes of Renaissance in Western Europe:
- The Crusades : Many fanatic lords and barons died during the crusades. Besides this, people came in contact with the developed culture of the Arabs. The new ideas inspired them to think freely. They started learning about the superstitions and narrow mindedness which proved helpful in bringing Renaissance.
- Spread of Islam : During the period of the Middle Ages, Islam spread rapidly. Constantinople was conquered by Turks in 1493.This resulted in the fleeing of most of the Christians from Constantinople to Italy and some other places. They spread among the people the spirit of reasoning and free thinking. All these led to the Renaissance.
- Emergence of cities and towns : Growth of free cities took place due to the decline of feudalism. In these cities, trade, commerce and industry grew quite rapidly. The trading class became rich. They did some welfare works also. They set up many schools and colleges.
What were the main characteristics of Renaissance?
The meaning of Renaissance is rebirth. Renaissance resulted in coming out of nation-states out of darkness of medieval ages. Because of Renaissance, these nation-states saw the light of modern era. Men became rational and scientific in their approach. New ideas and style came into prominence.
The main characteristics of Renaissance are as follows:
- Cities of Italy emerged as the first centre of the Renaissance.
- Architecture and literature developed.
- A new style came into prominence.
- New towns came into existence.
- Humanism, free thinking and reasoning emerged.
- Men became rational and scientific in their approach.
Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
Niccolo Machiavelli wrote about human nature in the fifteenth chapter of his book, The Prince (1513).So, leaving aside imaginary things, and referring only to those which truly exist, I say that whenever men are discussed (and especially princes, who are more exposed to view), they are noted for various qualities which earn them either praise or condemnation. Some, for example, are held to be generous, and others miserly. Some are held to be benefactors, others are called grasping; some cruel, some compassionate; one man faithless, another faithful; one man effeminate and cowardly, another fierce and courageous; one man courteous, another proud; one man lascivious, another pure; one guileless, another crafty; one stubborn, another flexible; one grave, another frivolous; one religious, another sceptical; and so forth. Machiavelli believed that ‘all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature partly because of the fact that human desires are insatiable’. The most powerful motive Machiavelli saw as the incentive for every human action is self-interest.
(i) Who was Niccolo Machiavelli?
(ii) Why was he famous for?
(iii) What did Niccolo Machiavelli believe in?
(i) Niccolo Machiavelli was a famous historian of Florence. He is regarded as the Father of the Modern Political Science.
(ii) Machiavelli wrote ‘The Prince’ in 1513. In it, he described the political problems of that period which Italy had to face. He also laid the principles of administration.
(iii) He believed that all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature partly because of the fact that human desires are insatiable. The most powerful motive for every action is self-interest.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-94), a humanist of Florence, wrote on the importance of debate in On the Dignity of Man (1486). For [Plato and Aristotle] it was certain that, for the attainment of the knowledge of truth they were always seeking for themselves, nothing is better than to attend as often as possible the exercise of debate. For just as bodily energy is strengthened by gymnastic exercise, so beyond doubt in this wrestling-place of letters, as it were, energy of mind becomes far stronger and more vigorous.’
(i) What do you know about Giovanni Pico della Mirandola? What did he write?
(ii) What did he say about the importance of debate in ‘On the Dignity of Man’?
(iii) Name the two spheres in which Renaissance brought about revolutionary changes.
(i) Giovanni Pico della Mirandola was an Italian Renaissance philosopher. He wrote on the importance of debate in ‘On the Dignity of Man’. At the age of 23, he proposed to defend religions, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic against all the outcomes about which he had written a famous book “On the Dignity of Man.”
(ii) He discussed the importance of debate in “On the ‘Dignity of Man’. For Plato and Aristotle, it was certain that, for the attainment of the knowledge of truth they were always seeking for themselves, nothing is better than to attend as often as possible the exercise of debate.
(iii) The two spheres in which Renaissance brought about revolutionary changes were:
- Social sphere of life in Europe
- Political sphere of life in Europe
William Tyndale (1494-1536), an English Lutheran who translated the Bible into English in 1506, defended Protestantism thus: ‘In this they be all agreed, to drive you from the knowledge of the scripture, and that ye shall not have the text thereof in the mother-tongue, and to keep the world still
in darkness, to the intent they might sit in the consciences of the people, through vain superstition and false doctrine, to satisfy their proud ambition, and insatiable covetousness, and to exalt their own honour above king and emperor, yea, and above God himself… Which thing only moved me to translate the New Testament. Because I had perceived by experience, how that it was impossible to establish the lay-people in any truth, except the scripture were plainly laid before their eyes in their mother- tongue, that they might see the process, order, and meaning of the text.’
(i) What do you know about William Tyndale?
(ii) What were his objectives to translate the Bible into English?
(iii) What were the issues on which the Protestants criticised the Catholic Church? Write any two issues.
(i) William Tyndale was an English Lutheran. He translated the Bible into English.
- To make available the copies of the Bible to the layman.
- To expose the malpractises indulged by the church on the name of the text written in it (i.e. the Bible).
(iii) They criticised the Catholic Church on following issues:
- The Protestants also criticised the Catholic Church because of immoral and luxurious life led by the church men.
- Sale of ‘Letter of Indulgence’ by the church to those people who had committed sins.
This self-portrait is by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) who had an amazing range of interests from botany and anatomy to mathematics and art. He painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. One of his dreams was to be able to fly. He spent years observing birds in flight, and designed a flying machine. He signed his name ‘Leonardo da vinci, disciple of experiment’.
(i) Who was Leonardo da Vinci?
(ii) Mention the names of two paintings made by Leonardo da Vinci.
(iii) What was the area of interest of Leonardo da Vinci?
(i) Leonardo da Vinci was the famous painter of Italy.
- Mona Lisa
- The Last Supper.
(iii) Leonardo da Vinci took a seen interest in botany anatomy, mathematics and art.
On the map, mark and locate the following Italian States. Rome, Venice, Padua, Genoa, Mantua and Florence.