Chapter 7 Human Environment–Settlement, Transport and Communication

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

  1. What are the four means of transport?
  2. What do you understand by the term ‘settlement’?
  3. Which are the activities practiced by the rural people?
  4. Mention any two merits of railways.
  5. What do you understand by communication?
  6. What is the mass media?


  1. Four Means of Transport:
    • Roadways
    • Railways
    • Waterways
    • Airways
  2. Settlement:
    • The settlement is the group of houses where people live with their families.
  3. Activities Practised by the Rural People:
    • Primary Activities:
    • Agriculture
    • Animal rearing/Pastoral activities
    • Fisting
    • Mining
    • Extracting and collecting
    • Trading of products related to primary activities.
    • Services related to primary activities.
  4. Merits of Railways:
    • Quick means of transport
    • Carrier of bulk goods over long distances
      Cheap means of transport. (Any two)
  5. Communication:
    • By communication we mean transmitting messages, ideas and words, written or oral.
  6. Mass Media:
    • Mass Media is the medium of communication to the masses.
    • They are print media, radio, and television.

2. Tick the correct answer:
(a) Which is not a means of communication?
(i) telephone                       (ii)   books                               (iii)    table.
(b) Which type of road is constructed under the ground?
(i) flyover                          (ii)    expressways                     (iii)    subways.
(c) Which mode of transport is most suitable to reach an island?
(i) ship                              (ii)   train                                 (iii)   car.
(d) Which vehicle does not pollute the environment?
(i) cycle                             (ii)    bus                                  (iii)    aeroplane.
Answer: (a)—(iii), (b)—(iii), (c)—(i), (d)—(i).

3.Match the following:
(i) Internet                                        (a) areas where people are engaged in manufacturing,                                                                         trade and services
(ii) Canal route                                    (b) closely built area of houses
(iii) Urban areas                                 (c) houses on stilts
(iv) Compact settlement                   (d) inland waterways
                                                               (e)a means of communication
Ans. (i)—(e), (ii)—(d), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(b).

4. Give reasons:
Today’s world is shrinking.
Today’s world is shrinking because of the following reasons:

  • Airways have become popular, more and more people use aeroplanes to travel to
    far off places. Airways have reduced time taken in journeys.
  • Means of communication have reduced both distances and time. We can talk, see, and interact with people sitting thousands of kilometers away within no time.
  • We can strike business deals in seconds through superfast means of communication, like the internet, satellite phones, etc.

5. For Fun:
(i) Conduct a survey in your locality and find out how people commute to their respective workplaces using:
(a) more than two modes of transport
(b) more than three modes of transport
(c) stay within walking distance.
(ii) Mention which mode of communication you will prefer most in the following situations:
(a) your grandfather has suddenly fallen ill How will you inform the doctor?
(b) your mother wants to sell the old house. How will she spread this news?
(c) you are going to attend the marriage of your cousin for which you will be absent from the school for the next two days. How will you inform the teacher?
(d) your friend has moved out with his/her family to New York. How will you keep in touch on a daily basis?
(i) (a) on foot, metro, and auto-rickshaw
(b) on foot, bus, metro, and rickshaw
(c) on foot.

(a) By telephone or mobile.
(b) Through newspaper or through realty brokers.
(c) Through written application.
(d) Through telephone, mobile, e-mail, internet, etc.


1. Why did settlements grow near the river valleys? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Settlements grew near the river valleys because plenty of water was available there and the land was fertile.

2. What are called temporary settlements? [Imp.]
Answer: Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements.

3. What do people living in temporary settlements practice?
Answer: They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation, and transhumance.

4. Why do people who rear animals move from place to place?
Answer: They move from place to place in search of new pastures according to changes in seasons.

5. Differentiate a compact settlement from a scattered settlement.
Answer: A compact settlement is a closely built area of dwellings wherever flat land is available. In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area.

6. Where are scattered settlements found? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Scattered settlements are found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate.

7. Name the materials used in building houses in rural areas?
Answer: Stones, mud, clay, straw, etc

8. Name some animals used for carrying goods in India.
Answer: Donkeys, mules, bullocks, and camels,

9. Where do you find a dense network of roads?
Answer: In plains

10. What has replaced the steam engine? [Imp.]
Answer: Diesel and electric engines have replaced the steam engines.

11. Name any two important ports of the world.
Answer: Singapore and Rio de Janerio.

12. When are helicopters proved to be very useful?
Answer: Helicopters are proved to be very useful in the time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes, and medicines,

13. How have satellites proved themselves helpful?        [V. Imp.]
Answer: Satellites have helped in oil exploration, a survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning,

14. Why is air travel very expensive?
Answer: Air travel is very expensive due to the high cost of fuel.


1. What do you mean by a site? Mention the natural conditions for the selection of an ideal site?  [V. Imp.]
Answer: The place where a building or a settlement develops is called its site. The natural conditions of an ideal site are:

  • Favourable climate
  • Availability of water
  • Suitable land
  • Fertile soil.

2. Write down the features of houses built in rural areas.
Answer: The houses built in rural areas suit to the environment. In regions of heavy rainfall, people build houses with slanting roofs. Places where water accumulates in the rainy season the houses are constructed on a raised platforms or slits,

3. How did people in the early days travel long distances? What changes came with time?     [V. Imp.]
Answer: In the early days people have no means of transport. Whenever they had to go somewhere they walked on foot. They used animals to carry their goods. It took a great deal to time. The invention of the wheel proved to be a boon for the people. It made transport easier. By and by different means of transport such as railways, airways etc. developed. Airplanes have made travel faster. Now, we can cover a long distance within hours,

4. Write a short note on the airways.
Answer: Airways is the fastest mode of transport today. It is very expensive due to high cost of fuels. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities of rescuing people and distributing essential. Some important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.

5. How has Internet made our lives more comfortable?   [V. Imp.]
Answer: Internet is the latest development in the field of information technology. It not only provides us with worldwide information and interaction but has also made our lives very comfortable. In this age of internet we can reserve tickets for railways, airways and even cinemas and hotels silting at home. We can chat with our friends and relatives living far off places.


1. How settlements become a necessity? What are its different types? [V. Imp.]
Answer: Settlements are places where people build their homes to live in. Early human beings did not need to develop settlements because they lived on trees and in caves. When they started to grow crops, it became essential to have a permanent home. Thus, settlements began to grow near the river valleys as the water was available and land was fertile. By and by settlements became larger because trade, commerce, and manufacturing developed.
Settlements can be permanent or temporary.

  • Temporary Settlement. Settlements which are occupied for a short time Eire called temporary settlements. The people living in deep forests, hot and cold desserts, and mountains often dwell in such settlements. These people are engaged in hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation, and transhumance.
  • Permanent Settlement. Under permanent settlements, people build homes to live in.

2. Give a detailed description of waterways.
Answer: Waterways are the cheapest mode of transport. They carry heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are mainly of two types—inland waterways and sea routes.

  • Inland Waterways. Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great Lakes in North America, and the river Nile in Africa.
  • Sea routes. Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports. Some important ports are Singapore, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Sydney, etc.

3. What are the major means of transport? Explain each of them [Imp.]
Answer: There are four major means of transport:

  1. Roadways
  2. Railways
  3. Waterways
  4. Airways

Roads the most commonly used means of transport. Roads are of two types—metalled roads also known as pucca roads and unmetalled roads also known as Kutcha roads. The plugins have a dense network of roads. Roads built underground are called subways or underpass. Flyovers are built over raised structures.

The railways carry people and bulky goods. They cover long distances quickly and cheaply. The railway network is well developed over the plain areas. With the development of advanced technical skills, we have now railway lines laid in difficult mountain terrains also. The Indian railway network is well developed and the largest in Asia.

Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. They carry heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are of two types—inland waterways and sea routes. Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways— for example, the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system. Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another.

Airways are the most expensive means of transport. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are useful in most inaccessible areas and in times of calamities.

Chapter 7 Human Environment–Settlement, Transport and Communication