Class 10 English Grammar Clauses

Clauses ( उपवाक्य )

A clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb of its own, but it forms part of a sentence. A clause has no independent existence.
उपवाक्य (clause) ऐसे शब्दों का समूह होता है जो किसी पूर्ण वाक्य का अंश होता है और जिसका अपना अलग subject तथा predicate होता है। इसका कोई स्वंतत्र अस्तित्व नहीं होता है। जैसे,
(i) The fact is that India was a prosperous country.
(ii) He has a ring which is made of gold.
(iii) He came when the sun set.

  • इस वाक्य में that India was a prosperous country एक Clause है। यहाँ यह complement की तरह प्रयोग किया गया है। क्योंकि यह एक Noun का कार्य करता है, इसलिए यह Noun Clause है।
  • इस वाक्य में which is made of gold ,एक clause है। इससे अंगूठी की जानकारी प्राप्त होती है। अत: यह Adjective Clause है।
  • इस वाक्य में when the sun set एक Clause है। इसका अपना Subject – the sun एवं predicate – set है। लेकिन वाक्य में यहाँ Adverb का कार्य करता है। अत: यह Adverb Clause है।

इस प्रकार clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं-
(a) Noun clause,
(b) Adjective clause,
(c) Adverb clause.

किसी complex sentence में एक Principal Clause तथा एक या एक से अधिक Subordinate Clause होते हैं। इसके साथ ही Principal Clause में Complex Sentence किसी Main Verb (मुख्य क्रिया) और Main Subject की तरह कार्य करते हैं। मुख्य रूप से किसी Complex Sentence में Subordinate Clause/ Clauses, Principal Clause पर आश्रित होकर पूरे वाक्य (Sentence) में किसी Noun, Adjective या Adverb की तरह कार्य करते हैं।
इस प्रकार Subordinate Clause को निम्न प्रकार से भी विभाजित किया जा सकता है:

  1. Noun clause
  2. Adjective clause
  3. Adverb clause

1. Noun Clause

हम जान चुके हैं कि Noun Clause वाक्य में Noun का कार्य करता है अर्थात वाक्य में Noun Clause का प्रयोग Noun के स्थान पर किया जाता है।
Noun Clause निम्नलिखित Connectives के साथ प्रारंभ होते हैं।

  • Pronouns: What, which, who, whom, whose.
  • Adverbs: When, where, why, how.
  • Conjunctions: If, that, whether.

जैसे,

  1. You can see what we have done.
    I don’t know which book he has bought.
    Can you tell me who had done it?
    I can say whom I should believe.
    Do you know whose car it is?
  2. I can’t tell you when he will come.
    I don’t know where he has gone.
    Please tell me why he is always late.
    Does anyone know how it has happened?
  3. I wonder if the weather is going to be all right.
    I can tell you that he is a good boy
    She asked whether the train will leave on time.

Function of the Noun Clause ( Noun Clause के कार्य)
(i) Subject to a verb ( किसी verb के Subject के रूप में)
(a) He does something. It is not known to me.
What he does is not known to me. (What से जोड़ा गया)
…………..(What/which/Why) he does is not known to me. (What – सही)
(b) He will recover soon. It is certain.
That he will recover soon is certain. (That)
………….. (That/Which/Who) he will recover soon is certain. (That)
(c) When will the train arrive? The time is uncertain.
When the train will arrive is uncertain. (When)
…………..(When/How/What) the train will arrive is uncertain. (When)
(d) He got the first class. It is the result of his hard work.
How he got the first class is the result of his hard work. (How)
………..(What/How/When) he got the first class is the result of his hard work. (How)

(ii) Object to a verb ( किसी verb के Object के रूप में)
(a) He promised. He will help me.
He promised that he would help me. (That से जोड़ा गया)
He promised ………….. (that/who/whose) he would help me. (that – सही)
(b) I can swim. I know swimming.
I know how to swim. (How)
I know …………..(what/how/whose) to swim. (how)
(c) I have no idea. She read.
I have no idea what she read. (what)
I have no idea ………….. (whose/what/which) she read. (what)
(d) I remembered him. He helped me.
I remembered who had helped me. (who)
I remembered ………….. (who/whom/where) helped me. (Who)

(iii) Object to a Preposition ( किसी Preposition के Object के रूप में))
(a) Please attend to. I say something
Please attend to what I say. (What से जोड़ा गया)
Please attend to ………….. (which/who/what) I say. (what – सही)
(b) You said something. You are sorry for it.
You are sorry for what you said. (what)
You are sorry for ………….. (whom/who/what) you said. (what)
(c) He says something. There is truth in it.
There is truth in what he says. (what)
There is truth in ………….. (who/where/what) he says. (what)

(iv) Object to an Infinitive (किसी Infinitive के Object के रूप में )
(a) I am glad. I hear that you have passed.
I am glad to hear that you have passed. (that से जोड़ा गया)
I am glad to hear ………….. (where/what/that) you have passed. (that – सही)
(b) I was shocked. I heard that she had lost her father.
I was shocked to hear that she had lost her father. (that)
I was shocked to hear …………. (that/which/whose) she had lost her father. (that)

(v) In Apposition to a Noun or pronoun ( Noun या Pronoun के Apposition के रूप में )
(a) The news is that you have passed. It is very interesting.
The news that you have passed is very interesting. (That से जोड़ा गया)
The news ………. (where/who/that) you have passed is very interesting. (that – सही)
(b) It is strange. You said it.
It is strange that you said it. (That)
It is strange ………….. (who/ that/which) you said it. (that)
(c) He has passed the examination. It is true.
It is true that he has passed the examination (That)
it is true ………….. (where/whom/that) he has passed the examination. (that)

ध्यान दें: Noun Clause और वह Noun या Pronoun जिसके साथ वह Noun Clause Apposition में होता
है, दोनों समान होते हैं |उपर्युकत वाक्य में, जैसे,
The news that you have passed is very interesting.
The news और that you have passed एक समान अर्थ रखते हैं।
निम्नलिखित Adjectives जैसे, sure, afraid, annoyed, aware, amused, certain, delighted, confident, determined, glad, sad, happy, horrified, pleased, proud, surprised आदि के बाद that clause का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे

  1. I am confident. He will get good marks.
    I am confident that he will get good marks. (that – clause)
    I am confident ………….. (where/who/that) he will get good marks. (that – सही)
  2. Father is pleased. Aman will do good in his life.
    Father is pleased that Aman will do good in his life. (that – clause)
    Father is pleased ……………(that/where/who) Aman will do good in his life. (that)
  3. Ravi is surprised. Father is at home.
    Ravi is surprised that father is at home. (that – clause)
    Ravi is surprised ……………(that/who/which) father is at home. (that)
  4. The boys are horrified. A monkey is in their classroom.
    The boys are horrified that a monkey is in their classroom. (that – clause)
    The boys are horrified ………….. (where/who/that) a monkey is in their classroom. (that)

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences by choosing the most suitable word given in the bracket.

  1. ………….. (Who/Which/That) he will stand first is sure.
  2.  ………….. (Which/Who/What) you said surprised me.
  3. Have you decided ………….. (who/that/where) you will go for your holidays?
  4. This is ………….. (where/here/which) she works.
  5. There is no complaint except ………….. (who/which/that) you often come late.
  6. I am not sure …………..(which/where/how)he has gone.
  7. She wants to know ………….. (what/who/which) is going on there.
  8. Thinking ………….. (that/which/who) he would die, they took him to a hospital.
  9. No one is aware of …………..(which/how/which) he has opened the lock.
  10. She denied ……………(who/that/which) she had written the letter.

Answers.

  1. That,
  2. What,
  3. where,
  4. where,
  5. that,
  6. where,
  7. what,
  8. that,
  9. how,
  10. that

Question 2.
Combine the following sentences by using a noun clause.

  1. You said something. it is true.
  2. When will the bus arrive? The time is uncertain.
  3. I was wrong, the teacher told me this.
  4. You are repentant. I will not forget it.
  5. He had written something. I found him revising it.
  6. You won a scholarship. I am happy to learn it.
  7. He will improve. This is our hope.
  8. You will pass. I am confident.
  9. I said something. I am happy for it.
  10. He has been telling a lie. It is quite clear.

Answers.

  1. What you said is true.
  2. When the bus will arrive is uncertain.
  3. The teacher told me that I was wrong.
  4. I will not forget that you are repentant.
  5. I found him revising what he had written.
  6. I am happy to learn that you won a scholarship.
  7. Our hope is that he will improve.
  8. I am confident that you will pass.
  9. I am happy for what I said.
  10. It is quit clear that he has been telling a lie.

Exercise For Practice

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences by choosing the most suitable word given in the bracket.

  1. It is certain … (that/whose/why) you will be late.
  2. I cannot say … (what/whether/where) he may be guilty.
  3. The teacher told me … (who/where/that) I was right.
  4. I am sure … (who/whose/that) he is the culprit.
  5. It is certain …(it/that/whether) my brother shall stand first in the examination.

Question 2.
Combine the following sentences by using a noun clause.

  1. He will not come in time. I am quite sure.
  2. The patient will soon recover. The doctor said so.
  3. I am giving to my friend’s place. Everybody knows this.
  4. I was delighted. I heard about my brother’s safe arrival.
  5. Will you help me in this case? I want to know this.

2. Adverb Clause of Condition
(शर्तसूचक क्रिया-विशेषण उपवाक्य)

Adverb clause of condition वाक्य if, unless, whether जैसे शब्दों से प्रारंभ होते हैं। इन शब्दों को वाक्य में principal clause के बाद भी रखा जा सकता है; जैसे

  • If you run fast, you will catch the train.
    या
    You will catch the train if you run fast.
  • Unless you work hard. You will not pass.
    या
    You will not pass unless you work hard.
  • Whether he will come early or late, it depend upon you.
    या
    It depends upon you whether he will come early or late.

RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Clauses 1
(a) If it rains, I will go indoors.
(b) If you request me, I shall help you.
(c) You can take mine if you need a pen.
(d) You must work harder if you want to get good marks.
(e) You will be a good boy if you help others.
सामान्यत: Main clause का स्वरूप: shall/will/may/can/must & first form of the verb.
जैसे
If you work hard, you will pass.
(a) If you work hard — if clause/ conditional clause/subordinate clause.
(b) You will pass — main clause with will.

(ii) एक समान परिणाम से संबंधित शर्त की स्थिति में If clause में Simple Present Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है। ऐसी स्थिति में Main Clause या Principal Clause में भी Simple Present Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे –
(a) If the engine gets too hot, it starts to smoke.
(b) If you heat ice, it melts.
(c) If you boil water, it evaporates.
(d) If you beat a child, he weeps.
(e) If you listen to old songs, you feel pleasure.

(iii) यदि किसी Conditional Clause का संबंध वर्तमान यदा भविष्य के unlikely (असंभाव्या) या improbable (असंभावित) शर्त स्थिति से हो तो Conditional Clause/Subordinate Clause में Simple Past Tense/Past Indefinite Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है। साथ ही Main Clause/Principle Clause मे should, could, might, would, etc. + the first form of the verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे –
(a) If you ran fast, you might catch the train.
(b) If I won a lottery, I would buy a car.
(c) I would tell you if I know the answer.
(d) If a thief entered your house, what would you do?
(e) if I were rich, I would open a school for the poor.

(iv) यदि किसी Conditional Clause का संबंध भूतकाल की ऐसी घटना से हो जो घटित न हुई हो ,तो Conditional Clause/Subordinate Clause के साथ Past Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है। साथ a Main Clause/Principal Clause के साथ would have/should have/could have/might have + third form of the verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे –
(a) If she had worked hard, she could have passed
[i.e. She didn’t work hard, so she didn’t pass]
(b) If he had left early, he might have caught the train.
(c) If he had informed me, I would have received him at the railway station.
परंतु जब Main Clause/Principal Clause का संबंध वर्तमान काल से हो, तो बिना have के would, could, might, etc. का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे If you had followed my advice, we would be home by now.

(v) यदि किसी Conditional Clause का संबंध भविष्य की किसी for a fan of unlikely (असंभाव्या) शर्त स्थिति से है तो Simple Past Tense/Past Indefinite Tense के स्थान पर कभी-कभी ‘were to’ या should के साथ Infinitive का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे –
(a) If you should meet him, tell him to come here.
(b) If she were to die before you, who would look after your children.
(c) If you should need any help, ring me up.

(vi) Present या Future समय के संदर्भ में wish (इच्छा) व्यक्त करने के उद्देश्य से If only’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है| जैसे –
(a) If only I were rich.
(b) If only I could swim.
(c) If only I knew her name

(vii) भूतकाल में घटित किसी अन्य घटना के संदर्भ में wish (इच्छा) व्यक्त करने के उददेश्य से भी ‘If only’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसै
(a) If only I had remembered to post that letter.
(b) If only I had met her.
(c) If only he had spoken the truth.

Some other ways of expressing conditions
(viii) Interrogative sentences to के माध्यम से -जैसे-
(a) Have you finished your homework? Then you may go out to play.
[If you have finished your homework, you may go out to play]
(b) Will she go to Delhi? Then she will meet my mother.
[If she goes to Delhi, she will meet my mother.]
(c) Do you play cricket? Then you can join our team.
[If you play cricket, you can join our team.]

(ix) Unless के माध्य से। इस का अर्थ है – If ………….. not. Unless से प्रारंभ होने वाले Clause में not
का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है Main Clause में not का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसै
(a) Unless you are kind, he will not help you.
[If you are not kind, he will not help you.]
(b) Unless you get up early, you will not catch the train.
[If you do not get up early, you will not catch the train.]

(x) Once के माध्यम से
(a) One you drink this juice, you will like it.
[If you drink this juice, you will like it.]
(b)Once we do hard work, we shall develop a taste for it.
[Once we do hard work, we shall develop a taste for it.]

(xi) Had, on condition that, provided that, supposing that, so long as, as long as, etc.
शब्दों का प्रयोग प्राय: Simple Adverb of Condition of को व्यक्त करने के उददेश्य से किया जाता है| जैसे
(a) Had you worked hard, you would have become first in the class.
(b) On condition that you speak the truth, I will help you.
(c) So long as you are here, you needn’t bother about anything.
(d) Supposing that you fail this time, you will do better in the next time.
(e) Provided that I read this book, I can tell a lot about the heroine.
(f) As long as my health is sound, I can play good cricket.

(xii) Even if a के माध्यम से सामान्य शर्त(Simple Condition)
(a) He did better even if he refused my suggestion.
(b) The judge did not believe the thief even if he told the truth.

(xiii) Whether – or के माध्यम से
Whether — or तथा If. …………. not में से किसी एक का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है। इस Adverb of Condition का प्रयोग दो विकल्पों में से एक विकल्प के चुनाव के उद्देश्य से किया जा सकता है। इसका उत्तर Yes’ या ‘No’ में भी दिया जा सकता हैं|जैसे
(a) I will go to Shimla. You allow me or not.
I will go to Shimla whether you allow me or not.
I will go to Shimla ………….. (if/where/whether) you allow me or not.
(b) I am going to give Rai Sir a party. You may accept it or not.
I am going to give Rai Sir a party whether you may accept it or not.
I am going to give Rai Sir a party ………….. (unless/whether/in case) you may accept or not.

(xiv) Otherwise के माध्यम से
(a) You have to work hard. Several students have failed.
You have to work hard otherwise you will fail like several students.
You have to work hard ………….. (unless/otherwise/even if) you will also fail like several students.
(b) Plant trees. We will suffer from air pollution.
Plant trees otherwise we will suffer from air pollution.
Plant trees ……….. (in case/unless/otherwise) we will suffer from air pollution.

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks choosing the most appropriate word given in the brackets.

  1. You can take money on loan…….(unless/provided that/in case) you will have to pay interest for it.
  2.  ………….. (If/Unless/Whether) he works hard, he will not get good jobs.
  3. Agriculture must be improved ………….. (as long as/if/ in case) there will be scarcity of food grains in the country.
  4. Rajasthan is the biggest state in areas ………….. (unless/in case/whether) you accept it or not.
  5. I will go for higher studies ………….. (if/whether/even if) I have problems.

Answer.

  1. provided that,
  2. Unless,
  3. otherwise,
  4. whether,
  5. even if.

Question 2.
Join the following pairs of sentences using the word/connectors given in the brackets.

  1. You are kind to others. They will love you. (If)
  2. The accused told the truth. The judge did not believe him. (Even if)
  3. The government should dig canals in Rajasthan. There is a great scarcity of water. (In case)
  4. You took regular exercises. You would have been healthy. (Had)
  5. Tell the truth or you will be punished. (unless)

Answer

  • If you are kind to others, they will love you.
  • Even if the accused told the truth, the judge did not believe him.
  • The government should dig canals in Rajasthan in case there is a great scarcity of water.
    • The government should dig canals in Rajasthan if there is a great scarcity of water.
  • Had you taken regular exercises, you would have been healthy.
    • If you had taken regular exercises, you would have been healthy.
  • Unless you tell the truth, you will be punished.
    • If you do not tell the truth, you will be punished.

3. Adverb Clause of Time
( समयसूचक क्रिया-विशेषण उपवाक्य)

Study the following sentences (निम्नलिखित वाक्यों का अध्ययन करें):
(a) When I went home, the door was locked.
(b) The patient had died before the doctor arrived.
(c) I was reading while my sister was watching T.V.
(d) As soon as I reached the school, the bell rang.
(e) I have been staying in Delhi since I left my village.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों के अध्ययन से यह स्पष्ट है कि ये Complex Sentences हैं। इन वाक्यों के दो भाग हैं – Principal Clause और Subordinate Clause। जैसे–
When I went home, the door was locked.
The door was locked — Principal Clause.
When I went home – Subordinate Clause.
इस प्रकार, when I went home, before the doctor arrived, while my sister was watching T.V. As soon as I reached school, since I left my village, आदि Subordinate Clauses हैँ और इनसे समय व्यक्त हो रहा है। इसे Time Clause भी कहा जाता है।
अब इस sentence (वाक्य) | को ध्यान से पढ़ें| इससे Time clause को विभिन्न तरीकों से व्यक्त किया गया है|जैसे
(a) When I reached home, the door was locked.
Or
The door was locked when I reached home.
अर्थात Time Clause को Main Clause/Principal के आगे रखा जा सकता है जैसे कि वाक्य
When I reached home ………….. से रुपष्ट है| इसी प्रकार Time Clause/Subordinate Clause को Main/Principal Cause के पीछे भी रखा जा सकता है, जैसे कि वाक्य- The door was locked when I reached home से स्पष्ट है। इसके अतिरिक्त Subordinate Clause को कभी-कभी in the middle of sentences मे भी प्रयोगं किया जा सकता है|जैसे
Mr. Dev, when he was working in Full Marks Publication, developed contents for Social Science. इस वाक्य में while का अर्थ है – जब। इस वाक्य को इस प्रकार भी लिखा जा सकता है:
When Mr. Dev was working in Full Marks Publication, he developed contents for Social Science.
Or
Mr. Dev developed contents for Social Science when he was working in Full Marks Publication,

संक्षेप में:
Adverb Clause of time या Time Clause का प्रयोग

  1. Main Clause के पहले
  2. Main Clause के बाद या
  3. Sentence के बीच में किया जा सकता है।

अब तक हम जान चूके हैं कि Adverb Clause of time समय की ओर संकेत करता है। इसलिए इस Clause के साथ निम्नलिखित Subordinating Conjunctions of का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Since, after, when, whenever, while, as soon as, just as, till, until, before, hardly/scarcely — when, no sooner, — than.

Uses (प्रयोग)
(i) Since – एक निरिचत समय से/तब से/उस समय से | इसका प्रयोग Perfect Tense संबधी उपदाक् के साथ किया जाता हैं।
(a) I have not seen her. I left the school.

  • I have not seen her since I left the school.
  • I have not seen her ………….. (since/far/when) I left the school. (since)

(b) Mr. Sharma has not taught Ravi. He left school.

  • Mr. Sharma has not taught Ravi since he left school.
  • Mr. Sharma has not taught Ravi ………….. (since/far/when) he left school. (since)

(c) Mukesh has not bought any book. He left job.

  • Mukesh has not bought any book since he left job.
  • Mukesh has not bought any book ………….. (since/when/after) he left job. (since)

(ii)(a) After – बाद में Past Tense भूतकाल में दो कार्यों में से एक कार्य के समाप्त होने पर दूसरा कार्य समाप्त हुआ हो।
(a) The patient died. The doctor came after.

  • The doctor came after the patient had died.
  • The doctor came ………….. (since/after/when) the patient had died. (after)

(b) Mahesh read the book. He returned it after.

  • Mahesh returned the book after he had read it.
  • Mahesh returned the book ………….. (since/when/after) he had read it. (after)

(iii) When – दूसरा कार्य पहले कार्य का परिणाम हो
(a) He ran fast. He got the first prize.

  • When he ran fast, he got the first prize.
  • ………….. (After/Before/When) he ran fast, he got the first prize. (When)

(b) He batted well. He made a century.

  • When he batted well, he made a century.
  • ………….. (When/After/As soon as) he batted well, he made a century. (When)
    भूतकाल में दो कार्य एक साथ घटित होना।

(c) I was reading. My mother was cooking food.

  • When I was reading, my mother was cooking food.
  • …………. (When/Since/Until) I was reading, my mother was cooking food. (When)

(d) My father was watching T.V. My little sister was sleeping.

  • When my father was watching T.V. my little sister was sleeping.
  • ………… (Since/Till/When) my father was watching T.V, my little sister was sleeping. (When)
    To express every time – हर बार के अर्थ में

(e) I read novels. I find it interesting.

  • I read novels when I find it interesting.
  • I read novels ………….. (when/since/after) I find it interesting. (when)
    Past Tense (भूतकाल) से संबंधित किसी आदत या स्थिति को व्यक्त करने के लिए।जैसे

(f) I was in class-X. I used to read story books.

  • When I was in Class-X, I used to read story books.
  • ………… (When/Before/After) I was in Class-X, I used to read story books. (When)
    Or
  • I used to read story books ………….. (when/before/after) I was in Class-X. (when)

(iv) Whenever – जब कभी। किसी विशेष स्थिति को व्यक्त करने के उददेश्य से | जैसे
(a) Sometimes you visit Delhi. You will see me.

  • Whenever you visit Delhi, you will see me.
  • …………… (After/Before/When) he ran fast, he got the first prize. (When)

(b) He batted well. He made a century.

  • When he batted well, he made a century.
  • ………….. (After/Before/Whenever) you visit Delhi, you will see me. (Whenever)

नोट: इस वाक्य को अन्य तरीके से भी व्यक्त किया जा सकता है।

(v) While —जब। जिस समय भूतकाल में दो कार्यों के साथ साथ घटित होने के संबंधा में। जैसे
(a) Ravi was reading novels. His sister solved 15 sums.

  • While Ravi was reading novels, his sister solved 15 sums.
  • …….. (Until/Till/While) Ravi was reading novels, his sister solved 15 sums. (While)

(vi) As – ठीक उसी समय। In the mean time अर्थात एक घटना के पूर्ण होने के पूर्व ही कोई दूसरी घटना प्रारंभ हो जाए।जैसे-
(a) I entered the house. The light went off.

  • As I entered the house, the light went off
  • ………….. (As/Before/Till) I entered the house the light went off. (As)
    Two events taking place at the same time at दो घटनाएं साथ साथ घटित होने पर।जैसे

(b) I was reading science, the teacher taught the class.

  • As I was reading science, the tea
  • ……… (As/Before/After) I was reading science, the teacher taught the class. (As)
    कारण व्यक्त करने के उद्देश्य से। जैसे

(c) He is a laborious boy. He stands first in the class.

  • As he is a laborious boy, he stands first in the class.
  • ………….. (When/As/Will) he is a laborious boy, he stands first in the class.

(vii) As soon as — ज्यों हीं । एक कार्य की समाप्ति पर दूसरा कार्य शीघ्र हुआ हों। जैसे
(a) My friend reached the station, the train left.

  • As soon as my friend reached the station, the train left.
  • ………….. (When/ After/As soon as) my friend reached the station the train left. (As soon as)

(viii) Just as — ठीक उसी समय। जैसें
(a) I had come back home from school. Ravi arrived.

  • Just as I had come back from school, Ravi arrived.
  • …………… (Since/Before/While) I had come back from school, Ravi arrived. (Just)

(b) Seema had finished painting. Her father called her.

  • Just as Seema had finished painting, her father called her.

(ix) Till/Until — जब तक, जब तक कि नहीं ,एक निश्चित अवस्था,स्थिति या समय तक ।जैसे
(a) I waited for her till/until she came back. (till/until)
(b) Let’s wait till/until the rain stops.

(x) Before — पहले। भूतकाल में किन्ही दो कायों में से एफ कार्य की समाप्ति पर दूसरो कार्य सपाप्ते समझा गया हो l जैसे
(a) You must have a bath before you go to school. (before)
(b) I had already taken medicine before my mother went for shopping. (before)

(xi) Hardly/Scarcely — when = जैसे ही
No sooner — than = वैसे ही
जैसे
(a) He bought the book. He began to read it.
No sooner did he bought the book began to read it.
(b) Mr. Sharma had finished the lesson the students showed good response.
No sooner had Mr. Sharma finished the lesson than the students showed response.
इसी प्रकार,
(a) Hardly/Scarcely had he reached the station when the train began to start.
(b) Hardly/Scarcely had the class teacher completed the book when the students began to ask questions.

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences by choosing the most appropriate words given in the brackets.

  1. Never cross the road ………….. (when/before/until) the traffic light is red.
  2. My father will give you a story book ………….. (before/until/when) he comes back from the tour.
  3. ………….. (While/As/ After) my friend was cycling, I was sitting on the carriage.
  4. You will get a prize ………….. (when/as/till) you are an intelligent boy.
  5. Hardly had Ravi completed the novel ………….. (when/as/before) his mind became full of new ideas.

Answer.

  1. until,
  2. when,
  3. While,
  4. as,
  5. when.

Question 2.
Join the following sentences by using the word given in the brackets.

  1. I finished the work. I went to school. (when)
  2. The boys had reached home, the mother cooked a sweet dish. (after)
  3. The bus arrived at the stand. They dropped down. (as soon as)
  4. Mr. Singh had taught Madhoo. He joined school. (since)
  5. Mukesh is reading English. Mr. Rai is reading Hindi. (while)
  6. He had reached home. It started raining. (hardly, when)

Answer.

  1. When I finished the work. I went to school
  2. The boys had reached home after mother cooked a sweet dish.
  3. As soon as the bus arrived at the stand they dropped down.
  4. Mr. Singh had taught Madhoo since he joined school.
  5. While Mukesh is reading English. Mr. Rai is reading newspapers
  6. Hardly had he reached home when it started raining.

4. Relative Clause
(संबंधसूचक उपदाक्य)

वाक्यों में Relative Clause किसी Adjective की तरह कार्य करता है। यही कारण है कि इसे Adjective Clause भी कहा जाता है। अर्थात वाक्य में यह किसी Noun या Pronoun को qualify करता है- यह अपनी Antecedent Noun के संबंध में कुछ विशेष जानकारी प्रकट करता है।
जैसे

  • The boy who came into the house was my friend.
  • The house which our neighbor bought is made of stone.
  • The book that I bought yesterday is very interesting.
  • The girl whom you helped is my sister.

उपरयुक्त वाक्यों में — who came into the house, which our neighbor bought, that I bought yesterday और whom your helped — Relative Clauses , हैं, जो अपने Antecedent Nouns जैसे, the boy, the house, the book, the girl आदि की विशिष्ट जानकारी देते हैं। इन दोनों वाक्यों को Relative Pronouns – who, which, that, whom आदि की सहायता से जोड़ा गया है। अतः ये शब्दो Relative Pronoun के उदाहरण हैं।

Kinds of Relative Clauses (Relative Clauses के प्रकार ): Relative Clauses दो प्रकार के होते हैं; जैसे
RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Clauses 1

1. Defining Relative Clause: इस clause को Restrictive Defining Relative Clause भी कहा जाता है। यह अपने Antecedent Noun की विशेषता प्रकट करता है, जिससे संज्ञा की पहचान पूर्ण हो जाती है। Defining Relative Clause के साथ Comma (,) का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
The teacher who teacher us English is a very good man.
इस वाक्य का अर्थ है- जो शिक्षक हमें अंग्रेजी पढाते हैं, वे एक अच्छे आदमी हैं। यहाँ एक विशिष्ट शिक्षक की बात की जा रही है। अतः who teaches us English. इस Relative Clause के द्वारा शिक्षक के अर्थ को सीमित कर दिया गया है।

2. Non-defining Relative Clause: इस Relative Clause को Non-Restrictive Relative Clause भी कहा जाता है। यह Antecedent Noun के संबंध में Additional Information (अतिरिक्त जानकारी) प्रदान करता है। इस Clause के साथ Comma (,) का प्रयोग अनिवार्य है। जैसे- the teacher, who teaches us English is a very good man.
अर्थात अनेक शिक्षकों में जो शिक्षक हमें अंग्रेजी पढ़ाते हैं, वे एक अच्छे आदमी हैं। इस प्रकार शिक्षक के अर्थ का विस्तार किया गया है।
Defining Relative Clauses और Non-defining Clauses में प्रयुक्त विभिन्न Relative Pronouns.
(a) Subject के बाद who का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • Mr. Singha is a teacher. He teaches Hindi. (who)
  • Mr. Singha who teaches Hindi is a teacher.
  • Mr. Singha …………………. (who/whose/which) teaches Hindi is a teacher. (who)

(b) Object के बाद who का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • I know Mr. Singha. He teaches Hindi. (who)
  • I know Mr. Singha who teaches Hindi.
  • I know Mr. Singha ……….. (who/whose/which) teaches Hindi. (who)

(c) Subject के बाद whom का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • The boy was the monitor of class. You taught him maths. (whom)
  • The boy whom you taught maths was the monitor of class.
  • The boy …….. (who/whom/whose) you taught English was the monitor of class. (who)

(d) Object के बाद whom का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • Everybody loves Ravi. The principal gave him a prize. (whom)
  • Everybody loves Ravi whom the principal gave a prize.
  • Everybody loves Ravi ……….. (who/whom/whose) the principal gave a prize.

(e) Preposition के Object के रूप में whom का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • My friend is a laborious boy. I have bought a Hindi dictionary for him. (whom)
  • My friend for whom I have bought a Hindi dictionary is a laborious boy.
  • My friend for……….. (who/whom/whose) I have bought a Hindi dictionary is a laborious boy.

(f) Whose – जिसका, जिसकी, जिसके के अर्थ में, person व्यक्ति के लिए।
Subject के बाद whose का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • My car is very good. Its colour is black. (whose)
  • My car, whose colour is black, is very good.
  • My car ……….. (whom/whose/who) colour is black, is very good. (non defining) (whose)

(g) Object के बाद whose का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • I like Ravi, His father is a teacher. (whose)
  • I like Ravi whose father is a teacher.
  • I like Ravi ……….. (which/whom/whose) father is a teacher. (whose)

(h) Which – जिसका, जिसकी, जिसके lifeless thing या Animal के लिए।
Subject के बाद which का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • The car was new. It was bought last year. (which)
  • The car, which was bought last year, was new. (non-defining)
  • The car ……….. (who/which/whom) was bought last year, was new. (non defining) (whose)

(i) Object के बाद which का प्रयोग। जैसे

  • I have seen this film. It is very interesting. (which)
  • I have seen this film which is very interesting.
  • I have seen this film ……….. (which/who/whose) very interesting. (which)

(j) Preposition के Object के रूप में which का प्रयोग

  • The mangoes were sweet. I bought them at Rs 50 a kilo. (which)
  • The mangoes, which I bought at Rs 50 a kilo were sweet.
  • The mangoes ……….. (which/who/whose) I bought at Rs 50 a kilo, were sweet. (which)

नोट:(याद रखे)-
• Relative Pronouns जैसे -which’, who’, whose’, whom’ का प्रयोग Defining और Non-defining
Relative clause में किया जाता है।
• Persons या things एवं case (कारक) के संदर्भ में relative pronouns में निम्नलिखित अंतर है; जैसे:
RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Clauses 1
• Relative adverbs जैसे- where’, when, why’ की सहायता से relative clauses प्रारंभ होते हैं।

  1. This is the house. We lived here. (where)
    This is the house, where we lived.
    This is the house …………….. (where/which/who) we lived. (where)
  2. This is the time. The winter season sets in. (when)
    This is the time when the winter season sets in.
    This is the time …………….. (where/which/when) the winter season sets in. (when)
  3. This is the reason, she left the place. (why)
    This is the reason why she left the place.
    This is the reason …………….. (why/which/where) she left the place. (why)

• That का प्रयोग
Nominative case में who या that का प्रयोग किया जाता है। Superlatives के बाद, that का प्रयोग किया जाता है और all, nobody, no one, somebody, someone, anybody आदि के बाद,हम या तो who या that का प्रयोग कर सकते हैं। जैसे

  1. This is the best that I could have done in that situation.
  2. The girl who cheated you is called Romola.
  3. All listened to his speech. They praised him. (who/that)

• Non-defining clauses में प्रयुक्त Relative pronoun.
RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Clauses 2
• कभी-कभी Relative Pronouns जैसे—’when, where’ और ‘why’ का प्रयोग preposition तथा Relative Pronoun ‘which’का स्थान ग्रहण करता है। जैसे
‘when’ समय को सूचित करता है।यह ‘in/on which’ का स्थान ग्रहण करता है।
‘where’ स्थान को सूचित करता है।यह ‘in/at which’ का स्थान ग्रहण करता है।
‘why’ से तात्पर्य है।यह ‘for which’ का स्थान ग्रहण करता है।

(i) That was the year in which this city was flooded.
That was the year when this city was flooded.

(ii) This is the house in which he lived.
This is the house where he lived.

(iii) This is the reason for which he was fined.
This is the reason why he was fined.

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences by choosing the most appropriate word given in brackets.

  1. My house ………… (where, which, whom) I paid rupees fifty lacs for, is beautiful.
  2. He introduced me to the man ………… (where, who, whom) I had known before.
  3. The boy………… (where, which, that) I met yesterday is named Kunal.
  4. The pen ………… (whose, which, whom) colour is black, is mine.
  5. The place ………… (where, which, who) our friend visited last year, is not known.

Answers.

  1. which
  2. whom
  3. that
  4. whose
  5. where

Question 2.
Join the following pairs of sentences using relative pronouns given in the brackets.

  1. Everybody knows Jitendra. He teaches students mathematics. (who)
  2. My brother has bought a motorcycle. Its colour is black. (whose)
  3. My pen is very attractive. I paid Rs 50 for it. (which)
  4. My friend lives in a village. His father works there. (where)
  5. This is the reason. She worked hard and got good marks. (why)

Answers.

  1. Everybody knows Jitendra who teaches students mathematics.
  2. My brother has bought a motorcycle whose colour is black.
  3. My pen which I paid Rs 50 for, is very attractive.
  4. My friend lives in a village where his father works.
  5. This is the reason why she worked hard and got good marks.

Dialogue Completion

Question 3.
Complete the dialogue by choosing the correct answers from the options given below:
Bhavesh : Your trouser is very fine. Please tell me (a) ……………
Kavish : I bought it from a showroom (b)……..
Bhavesh : Will you tell me (c) ……….
Kavish : It cost me nine hundred rupees.
Answers.
(a) where you bought it from.
(b) which is situated at Sarojini Nagar.
(c) how much it cost you?

Question 4.
Complete the dialogue by choosing the correct answers from the options given below:
Jayesh : Your writing is very fine. Could you let me know (a) …………
Rupesh : There is no secret. It is a constant practice (b) …..
Jayesh : Please tell me (c)…….
Rupesh : It will be enough if you spare an hour every day.
Answers.
(a) how you developed it?
(b) that is needed.
(c) how much time I should devote to it every day.

Board Questions Solved

Question 1.
Join the following sentences using the relative pronouns given in brackets:
(i) The merchant cheated him. He trusted the merchant very much. (who)
(ii) The woman was selling balloons. The police caught her. (whom)
Answer.
(i) He trusted the merchant very much who cheated him.
(ii) The woman whom the police caught was selling balloons.

Question 2.
Join the following sentences using the relative pronouns given in brackets:
(i) Rajveer helps the needy people. He is liked by everybody, (who)
(ii) My mother reads the book daily. My uncle gave it to me. (which)
Answer.
(i) Rajveer who helps the needy people is liked by everybody.
(ii) My mother daily reads the book which my uncle gave it to me.

Question 3.
Join the following sentences using the relative pronouns given in brackets:
(i) The woodcutter cut down the old tree. The tree was planted by my grandfather (which)
(ii) Anil supported the movement. The movement was started by his friend. (that)
Answer.
(i) The woodcutter cut down the old tree which was planted by my grandfather.
(ii) Anil supported the movement that was started by his friend.

Question 4.
Put the most suitable words in the spaces to complete the following sentences choosing from the brackets given against each space.
The moon was coming up in the east, ……………. (at, over, behind) me and the stars were shining …………. (over, in, under) the clear sky above me. There wasn’t a cloud in the sky. I was happy to be alone high up above the sleeping countryside. I thought about my father …………(who, which, whom) always supported me so that I …………. (must, shall, might) fulfil his dreams to become the best pilot.
Answer.
behind, in, who, must

Question 5.
Put the most suitable words in the spaces to complete the following sentences choosing from the brackets given against each space.
Mahatma Gandhi ……….. (who, which, whom) is called the father of the nation was born in Gujarat. He fought against the British ……….. (untill, from, in) we got freedom. If he had not fought, we …………. (will not, would not, should not) have got freedom. He was shot dead …………… (when, where, which) he was going to morning prayer.
Answer.
who, untill, would not, when

Question 6.
Put the most suitable words in the spaces to complete the following sentences choosing from the brackets given against each space.
The name ‘Eskimo’ comes ……… (of, from, at, on) the language of the Red Indians and means a person .. ………….. (which, who, whose, whom) eats raw meat. It is ………………… (a, an, the, any) appropriate name because …………… (they, you, we, he) mainly live on hunting and fishing.
Answer.
from, who, an, they

Question 7.
Put the most suitable words in the spaces to complete the following sentences choosing from the brackets given against each space.
Long, long ……….. (ago, before, some, last) there lived a merchant named, Antonio ………… (in, at, on, for) Venice. He had many trading ships …………. (which, who, when, that) were sent to distant countries for trade. …………. (He, She, You, We) was
very rich. His greatest friend was Bassanio, who loved a beautiful lady called Portia.
Answer.
ago, in, which, He

Exercise For Practice

Question 1.
Complete the dialogue by choosing the correct answers from the options given below:
Teacher : You were not in the class yesterday. Tell me the reason (a)………
Student : Madam, I went to the hospital with my grandmother.
Teacher : I want to know (b) …………… you or your grandmother.
Student : It was the grandmother. I had to go (c) ………

Question 2.
Complete the dialogue by choosing the correct answers from the options given below:
John : Your club is a reputed one. Please tell me (a) …
Ibrahim :I don’t remember (b) …………………… at that time.
John : Please ask your friends (c)……..
Ibrahim : O.K. I’ll try my level best to do so.