Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 English Description of Arguments for or Against a Topic

D. DESCRIPTION OF ARGUMENTS FOR OR AGAINST A TOPIC

किसी विषय के पक्ष या विपक्ष के तर्को के वर्णन में आपसे किसी विषय के पक्ष में या विपक्ष में अपना विचार प्रस्तुत करने के लिए कहा जा सकता है। बहस का विषय किसी भी प्रकार का हो सकता है यथा समसामयिक घटनाक्रम, राष्ट्रीय महत्व का विषय, समाज से संबंधित विषय इत्यादि।
यदि किसी विषय के पक्ष में (arguments for a topic) अपने विचार रखते हैं तो उसकी अच्छाई, उसके लाभ, वह क्यों प्रचलित है, उसे आगे भी क्यों चलते रहना चाहिये इत्यादि पर प्रकाश डाला जाता है।
इसके विपरीत यदि हम दिये गये विषय के विपक्ष (arguments against a topic) में बोलते हैं तो उसकी हानियाँ, उसको जारी नहीं रखने के कारण, उसकी बुराईयाँ इत्यादि पर प्रकाश डाला जाना चाहिये तथा सभी संभव तथ्य, प्रमाण, आँकड़े, आदि भी देने चाहिए।
आपके अध्ययन के लिए हम यहाँ कुछ विषयों पर पक्ष तथा विपक्ष में विचार (arguments for or against a topic) प्रस्तुत कर रहे हैं। आपसे परीक्षा में किसी भी विषय पर अपना पक्ष या विपक्ष प्रस्तुत करने के लिए प्रश्न पूछा जा सकता है।

Arguments (for/against) 50 शब्दों में ही लिखा होना चाहिए।

Examples of Arguments for/against

Example 1.
Are We Happier than Our Forefathers?
For:
As we see life today, no doubt we are happier than our forefathers. Modern facilities such as electricity, mobile phones, automobiles, computers, etc. have made our life very convenient. One can say that we are enjoying today all the facilities that were once thought to be of the godly domain.

Against:
The perception that we are happier than our forefathers is true only on the surface. The fact is that our forefathers lived a heavenly life in the abode of nature. But in today’s world, we are compelled to inhale polluted air, drink polluted water and consume adulterated food.

क्या हम अपने पूर्वजों से अधिक प्रसन्न हैं?
पक्ष:
जैसा कि हम आज के जीवन को देखते हैं, नि:सन्देह हम अपने पूर्वजों से अधिक प्रसन्न हैं। बिजली, मोबाइल फोन, वाहन, कम्प्यूटर जैसी आधुनिक वस्तुओं ने हमारे जीवन को अत्यधिक सुविधाजनक बना दिया है। कोई भी कह सकता है कि आज हम उन सभी सुविधाओं का आनन्द उठा रहे हैं जो कभी देवताओं के अधिकार क्षेत्र में समझी जाती थीं।

विपक्ष:
यह अवधारणा कि हम अपने पूर्वजों से अधिक प्रसन्न हैं, मात्र सतही तौर पर सत्य है। वास्तविकता यह है कि हमारे पूर्वज प्रकृति की शरण में एक बहुत ही आनंदप्रद जीवन जीते थे। लेकिन आज के संसार में, हम दूषित वायु में साँस लेने को, दूषित जल पीने को और मिलावटी भोजन खाने को बाध्य हैं।

Example 2.
English Education: A Boon or a Bane for Our Children
For:
English being an international language stands unparallelled in its importance. We all want to be well versed in it as it can open the world of success to us. Being able to speak and write good English is considered to be a symbol of high status. Higher education is possible only through English.

Against:
I’m quite unable to understand why all this brouhaha over English? Can’t we instil good values in our children through our own ancient languages such as Sanskrit or Hindi? I think no other language can be the medium of good education than our mother tongue. English education, therefore, is just complementary and not necessary.

अंग्रेजी शिक्षा: हमारे बच्चों के लिए वरदान या अभिशाप
पक्ष:
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय भाषा होने के कारण अंग्रेजी का महत्व अद्वितीय है। हम सभी अंग्रेजी में दक्ष होना चाहते हैं। क्योंकि यह हमारे लिए सफलता के द्वार खोल सकती है। अंग्रेजी बोलने व लिखने में समर्थ होना उच्च सामाजिक स्तर का प्रतीक समझा जाता है। उच्च शिक्षा अंग्रेजी माध्यम से ही सम्भव है।

विपक्ष:
मैं यह बिल्कुल नहीं समझ पाती हूँ / पाती हूँ कि अंग्रेजी को लेकर इतना बवाल क्यों है? क्या हम अपनी प्राचीन भाषाओं जैसे संस्कृत या हिन्दी के माध्यम से अपने बच्चों में अच्छे संस्कार नहीं डाल सकते हैं? मुझे लगता है कि हमारी मातृभाषा के अलावा कोई भी अन्य भाषा अच्छी शिक्षा का माध्यम नहीं हो सकती है। इसलिए अंग्रेजी शिक्षा पूरक मात्र है, आवश्यक नहीं।

Example 3.
Television (TV)
For:
Television has become a part and parcel of our life. We see a variety of programmes on it and enjoy our leisure. It gives us a lot of knowledge in various spheres such as culture, wildlife, current ongoings in the world. Programmes on different competitions have become a good stepping stone for so many talented persons.

Against:
More than the uses of television are its abuses. Children keep glued to the TV screen for long hours. This makes them physically inactive and sometimes obese too. TV also hampers their mental development. Violence and vulgarity shown on televison make them prone to an unhealthy way of thinking. That’s why it is called an idiot box.

टेलीविजन
पक्ष:
टेलीविजन हमारे जीवन का एक अभिन्न भाग बन गया है। हम इस पर बहुत-से कार्यक्रम देखते हैं और अपने फुर्सत के क्षणों का आनंद उठाते हैं। यह हमें संस्कृति, वन्य जीवन, विश्व में चल रही घटनाओं जैसे विविध क्षेत्रों में बहुत-सा ज्ञान प्रदान करता है। विविध प्रतियोगिताओं पर आधारित कार्यक्रम बहुत-से प्रतिभाशाली लोगों के लिए सफलता के सोपान बन गए हैं।

विपक्ष:
टेलीविजन के लाभों से कहीं बढ़कर इसके नुकसान हैं। बच्चे लम्बे समय तक टीवी स्क्रीन से चिपके रहते हैं। इससे वे शारीरिक रूप से निष्क्रिय व कभी-कभी आवश्यकता से अधिक मोटे भी हो जाते हैं। टीवी उनके मानसिक विकास को भी बाधित करता है। टेलीविजन पर दिखाई जाने वाली हिंसा के अश्लीलता उन्हें गलत तरीके से सोचने को प्रेरित कर सकती है। यही कारण है कि इसे बुद्ध बक्सा कहा जाता है।

Example 4.
Urban Life Versus Rural Life
For:
Urban life as we all feel seems heavenly. We have good modes of transport, big hospitals, good schools, high-class shopping malls and what not in cities. All amenities of life are readily available to us. Life in cities is full of entertainment.

Against:
The hustle and bustle of city life is its greatest drawback. The peace of mind, as well as a calm atmosphere of rural life, is lost here. Life in villages is so simple and sweet that it goes on spontaneously. Community life is so well knitted that people feel very close to one another.

शहरी जीवन बनाम ग्रामीण जीवन
पक्ष:
हम सभी को शहरी जीवन बहुत आनन्ददायक लगता है। शहरों में यातायात के अच्छे साधन, बड़े अस्पताल, अच्छे स्कूल, उच्च स्तर के शॉपिंग मॉल और क्या नहीं होता है। जीवन की सभी सुविधाएँ हमें सहज ही उपलब्ध हैं। शहरों में जीवन मनोरंजन से परिपूर्ण है।

विपक्ष:
शहरी जीवन की आपाधापी इसकी सबसे बड़ी कमी है। ग्रामीण जीवन में जो मन की शान्ति व शान्त वातावरण होता है, उसका शहरों में अभाव पाया जाता है। गाँवों में जीवन इतना सीधा सादा वे मधुर होता है कि वह सहज रूप से चलता रहता है। सामुदायिक जीवन का ताना-बाना इतने अच्छे तरीके से बुना होता है कि लोग आपस में अत्यधिक निकटता का अनुभव करते हैं।

Example 5.
Dowry: A Token of Love or a Curse
For:
Dowry, as we all know, means the gifts given to a girl by her parents at the time of her marriage. It includes the love of her parents as well as well wishers for her. These gifts help her start a new life in a new home. This makes her life easy.

Against:
Dowry given by one’s own wish may be good but the form it has taken today is really disgusting. Brides are tortured and sometimes even killed for want of more and more dowry. The greed of in-laws destroys the life of a girl. Keeping this in view, dowry system should be totally abolished.

दहेजः प्रेम का प्रतीक या अभिशाप
पक्ष:
जैसा कि हम सभी जानते हैं- दहेज का अभिप्राय है विवाह के समय माता-पिता द्वारा एक लड़की को दिये जाने वाले उपहार। इनमें उसके माता-पिता व शुभचिन्तकों का उसके प्रति प्रेम झलकता है। वे उपहार उसे एक नये घर में एक नया जीवने आरम्भ करने में सहायता करते हैं । इससे उसका जीवन सरल हो जाता है।

विपक्ष:
स्वेच्छा से दिया गया दहेज अच्छा हो सकता है लेकिन आज उसने जो रूप ले लिया है, वह घृणास्पद है। अधिक से अधिक दहेज की चाह में विवाहिताओं को प्रताड़ित किया जाता है और कभी-कभी तो मार भी डाला जाता है। ससुराल पक्ष लालच में एक लड़की का जीवन बर्बाद कर देता है। इन सब बातों को ध्यान में रखते हुए, दहेज प्रथा को पूर्णतः समाप्त कर दिया जाना चाहिए।

Example 6.
Media
For:
Media in the modern world has become so active that the drop of a needle in one corner of the world echoes in the universe. Now sitting in our homes, we can know.what is going on in the whole world. Thus, media has made us well informed and in turn, better educated.

Against:
Like all other things, media too has its own drawbacks. Sometimes, media-persons break news that should otherwise have remained secret. Privacy is gone from people’s life because of the intrusion of media. Mediapersons often give air to rumours that sometimes cause chaos among people.

संप्रेषण माध्यम ( मीडिया)
पक्ष:
आज के संसार में संप्रेषण माध्यम (मीडिया) इतना सक्रिय हो गया है कि संसार के एक कोने में सुई गिरने की गूंज पूरे ब्रह्माण्ड में सुनाई देती है। अपने घरों में बैठे हुए हम अब जान सकते हैं कि विश्व में क्या चल रहा है। इस प्रकार मीडिया से हमें काफी सूचनाएँ प्राप्त होती हैं और पहले की अपेक्षा हम अधिक सुशिक्षित हुए हैं।

विपक्ष:
अन्य सभी चीजों की भाँति, मीडिया की भी अपनी कमियाँ हैं। कभी-कभी मीडिया के लोग ऐसे भी समाचार प्रसारित कर देते हैं जिन्हें रहस्यमय रहना चाहिए था। मीडिया के दखल के कारण लोगों के जीवन से निजता समाप्त हो गई है। मीडिया के लोग प्रायः अफवाहों को हवा देते हैं जिससे कभी-कभी लोगों में घोर अव्यवस्था फैल जाती है।

Example 7.
Commercialisation of Education
For:
World class education is possible today in our own country. High-class educational institutions are run by businessmen. These institutions have good infrastructure and highly educated faculties that are the basis of a good education. By spending a little, we can get an education for which we otherwise have to go to foreign countries.

Against:
Commercialisation of education has brought deterioration to our education system. Education today has become the domain of the rich. High class institutions charge so much for education that many a talented but poor child has to remain without education. Earning more and more is the main motive of these traders of education.

शिक्षा का व्यवसायीकरण
पक्ष:
आज हमारे अपने देश में विश्व-स्तर की शिक्षा सम्भव है। व्यापारियों द्वारा उच्च स्तर के शिक्षण संस्थान चलाये जाते हैं। इन संस्थानों में अच्छा आधारभूत ढाँचा व उच्च शिक्षित शिक्षकगण होते हैं जो अच्छी शिक्षा का आधार हैं। थोड़ा सा खर्च करके हम ऐसी शिक्षा पा सकते हैं जिसके लिए हमें अन्य परिस्थितियों में विदेश जाना पड़ता।

विपक्ष:
शिक्षा के व्यवसायीकरण से हमारी शिक्षा-व्यवस्था में गिरावट आ गई है। आज शिक्षा अमीरों का अधिकार बन गई है। उच्च स्तर के शिक्षण संस्थान शिक्षा के लिए इतना अधिक पैसा वसूलते हैं कि बहुत से प्रतिभाशाली किन्तु निर्धन बच्चों को शिक्षा से वंचित रहना पड़ता है। शिक्षा के इन व्यवसायियों का मुख्य उद्देश्य अधिक से अधिक धन अर्जित करना ही है।

Example 8.
Hope alone sustains life
For:
Yes, I firmly believe that hope alone sustains life. We always depend on hope in the past present and future. Hope enlightens our life’s gloomy paths. Hope kills negativity and inside us. It’s hope alone that gives us the courage to live. Birds, animals, trees, and the entire nature depends on hope. Hope alone sustains life.

Against:
I don’t agree with this view that hope alone sustains life. Though hope is important to live it’s not hoped alone that sustains life. Just think, if our environment is not constructive, we can’t do anything constructive. So, not only hope but the other means as money, health and some other facilities are also important to sustain the life of everyone.

Example 9.
Man is the Centre of the Universe. Arguments in favour.
Answer:
Gifted with great intelligence and tact, man has brought all creation under his absolute control. However, it is now evident from what the world has come to, today, that wisdom and discretion should have been the rule for man to continue his dominance. After all, if a man has to continue God has made man in his own image and expects him to be responsible for his deeds.

Example 10.
Should animal/insect dissaction be banned in lab experiments at school/college’level? Arguments in favour of or against it.
Answer:
For:
Animal/insect dissections in lab experiments at school/college level should be banned. It should be banned because a large number of such animals/insects are needed for this purpose. It is a very cruel act against those animals/insects. In the name of dissections, a large number of animals/insects are killed every year. The killing of animals/ insects is very harmful to our ecological balance.

Against it:
It should not be banned because if it is banned, the experiments will not be conducted. If it is banned, the students will not be able to have practical knowledge. They will remain confined to the theoretical knowledge of related subjects. It will be very difficult to compromise for the students who want to go into the field of medical science. Practical knowledge will not be possible for them without experiments. To understand human and animal anatomy, these experiments are necessary.

Example 11.
Science is God
Against it:
Many sceptics and intellectuals, consider science to be God or all-powerful. Science is thought to accord mankind godly powers and absolute dominion over the earth and its creatures. However, no matter what comforts and conveniences science may have provided mankind, it can never be all powerful and omnipotent as God is. Science is merely an inquiry into nature-which God created. Science is a tool to discover God and not His equivalent.

Example 12.
Internet is a panacea
For:
Internet, despite its many shortcomings and undesirable effects on it users, has proved to be the greatest development of modern times. It has put the world on our fingertips, helping us in communicating, accessing study material and information about any topic whatsoever. It enables us to enjoy worldwide social networking. It provides solutions to our routine problems and facilitates routine activities. No doubt, it is a cure for all our problems.

Example 13.
Hard work pays in the long run
For:
Short cuts using the opportunity and unfair devices may bring us instant success and wealth, but this is very short-lived. The success achieved by constant toil and sincere efforts stays with us forever and gives us immense satisfaction. And since the essence of life is in its journey and not in its destination, hard work makes this journey worthwhile – bringing self-respect, dignity, appreciation and joy to the one who works diligently and honestly to achieve his goal.

Example 14.
Destiny favours the brave
For:
No man has found pearls while sitting on the beach. One has to dive deep into the sea for this. Those who dare to challenge and strike their own path in life, always succeed in realising their dreams. Bravery does, however, not imply foolhardiness. Bravery must be tempered with sound judgement, diligence, honesty and patience. A clear vision, rational actions and stead- fastness, when coupled with brave endeavour never fails to reward the true pilgrim in the sacred sojourn of life.

Example 15.
If you want peace, be prepared for war
Against it:
Ensuring peace by preparing for war is a misconception harboured by many strategic hinkers who mainpulate their country’s leaders to spend trillions in defence preparedness. Examples from North Korea and some middle-eastern countries have shown that even the strongest defence is not immune to aggression by ambitious and egotistical regimes. On the other hand, if all nations of the world do away with their defence forces, will not enduring peace result?

Example 16.
Your freedom ends where my nose begins
For:
The topic is a part of a quote from A.G. Gardiner’s essay. It sets the tone for human rights and civil liberty. The premise holds true for democracies round the world, where fundamental rights are assured to all citizens, but each such right is restricted to the point where its exercise by one person does not deprive another of the exercise of his/her similar right. It is by respecting one another’s individual rights and personal space, that an equitable and peaceful society can be created.

Example 17.
Money makes the mare go
Against it:
Money Makes the Mare Go Money is important in life, more so in present societies. It is a means of obtaining comfort, security and status. Nevertheless, money cannot be the ultimate objective of life. Money cannot buy you some of the best and most essential things in life. It cannot buy you respect, love or sympathy. Money cannot get you clean air, pure water or pleasant weather. Money cannot bring you contentment-on the contrary, rich people experience more discontentment than others.

Example 18.
Health is wealth
For:
Health is God’s most precious gift to us. Good health allows us to enjoy all other good things in life. A healthy man is a happy and productive man, who brings happiness to others. A person gifted with sound physical and mental health is valuable to society and country, as he can create wealth at will, be compassionate to others and serve his fellow men in a much better way. Wealth alone cannot produce a healthy individual, while good health, with its many benefits, enables a person to work tirelessly and more efficiently to create wealth and true happiness for himself and others.

Example 19.
Man proposes so shall you reap
Against it:
It is a fatalist thought that whatsoever efforts are made by man, it is God’s will that always prevails. God has given mankind enough intelligence to make his own decisions with his own free will. He expects the man to take full responsibility for his actions by the same logic. Personal failure cannot be blamed on God’s will. If a person plans well, makes discrete decisions and acts with all sincerity to achieve a goal, God will only be too happy to give him wisdom and moral strength in his endeavour.

Example 20.
As you sow, so shall you reap
For:
What a person gets, is the direct and inevitable result of his own actions. It is a natural law of ’cause and consequence’ that governs man’s fate in this physical world. One cannot expect beneficial results from malevolent acts– in the same way as one cannot get sweetened tea if the only salt is put into it. Good deeds, charitable deeds, compassionate deeds bring peace, respect and self-worth to the doer. Life gives you back what you give to it only in multiplied proportions.

Example 21.
Salute your duty and you need not salute anyone else
For:
Duty is one’s obligation towards his family, society and country. Every person is expected to perform his/her duty–whether at home or at the work place — with complete sincerity and dedication. Your elders and superiors are there to ensure that you do your duty as expected. If you are dutiful and diligent in your work, you need not make compromises and flatter your superiors–who value the performance of your duties much more than they value your subservience and salutes.

Example 22.
Old age is the best part of life
Against it:
Old Age is the Best Part of Life Old age has its advantages, where the person can finally lie back and ponder upon the deeper meaning of life, enjoy leisure time and bask in the love and care of his/her progeny. However, facilities of the body, ill-health, mental degeneration and a feeling of uselessness pester the elderly, who seems all but waiting for death. No literateur or poet has extolled the virtues of old age, while most of them have written nostalgically about the joy and freedom of their childhood.

Example 23.
Spare the rad, spoil the child
Against it:
This old adage has failed to stand up to the thoughtful scrutiny of modern pedagogues, academicians, parents and psychologists. Careful and loving guidance of children is more the norm today. Even schools have done away with corporal punishment to children – instead, other more sensitive corrective measures are sought to be implemented. Physical punishment meted out to young ones, impacts their delicate minds, and engenders rebellion.

Example 24.
Weigh before you speak
For:
It is said that words once uttered cannot be taken back. Thoughtful speech gets your message across without hurting others’ feelings and causing rancour. Silence is much better than impulsive speech and one could control anger, dissatisfaction or disagreement to a subtle and harmless level while remaining silent, before speaking. Experts suggest that you count to ten before speaking when angry. So, the next time you feel like speaking impulsively, wait; bring your emotions under control; think if what you are going to say will have the desired effect, and then utter the words.