Direct and Indirect Speech
( प्रत्यक्ष एवं अप्रत्यक्ष कथन)

यदि हम किसी की कही हुई बात को, ज्यों का त्यों कह दें, या लिख दें तो इसे हम Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहते हैं। इसमें हम बोलने वाले के मूल शब्दों को *” में लिखते हैं। ऐसा हमें लिखित (writing) में तो कर सकते हैं लेकिन बोलने में आमतौर से Indirect Speech का ही प्रयोग करते हैं। Indirect Speech में हम बोलने वाले के शब्दों को, ज्यों का त्यों न कहकर अपने शब्दों में ही कहते हैं और “” का प्रयोग भी नहीं करते। जैसे

Direct : I said to Mr. Joshi, “You are a great leader.”
Indirect : I told Mr. Joshi that he was a great leader.

साधारणतया Direct Narration से Indirect Narration में बदलते समय निम्न परिवर्तन होते हैं

  1. Reported Speech के बाहर वाला say to, says to, said to या will say to बदलकर tell, tells, told या will tell हो जाता है। यह ध्यान रहे कि say, says इत्यादि के बाद to नहीं हो तो इन्हें बदलते नहीं।
  2. वाक्य के दोनों भागों को अलग करने वाले Comma (,) व Inverted Comma (“”) हट जाते हैं और इनकी जगह that लग जाता है।
  3. वाक्य के अंदर आए हुए Pronouns को वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार बदलते हैं।

Example

  • Reported Speech में First Person के Pronoun को Reporting Verb के Subject के Person के अनुसार बदला जाता है। जैसे
    1. Direct : I said, “I am speaking the truth.”
    Indirect : I said that I was speaking the truth.
    2. Direct : I said to you, “I have always helped you.”
    Indirect : I told you that I had always helped you
  • Reported Speech में Second Person के Pronoun को Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार बदला जाता है। जैसे
    1. Direct : He said to me, “you like Hindi.”
    Indirect: He told me that I liked Hindi.
    2. Direct : Rajat said to him “you are a good friend.”
    Indirect : Rajat told him that he was a good friend.
  • Reported Speech में Third Persons के Pronouns को नहीं बदला जाता है अर्थात् Third Person के Pronouns में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है। जैसे
    1. Direct : She said to me, “she reads in a boarding school.”
    Indirect : She told me that she read in a boarding school.
    2. Direct : the teacher said to me, “she is playing in the park.”
    Indirect: the teacher told me that she was playing in the park.

नियम (1) Direct Narration से Indirect Narration में बदलते समय, यदि Reported Speech के बाहर वाले वाक्य में Verb Present Tense या Futures Tense में हो तो Reported Speech के अन्दर वाले Verb का Tense नहीं बदलते।

  1. Direct : Philips is saying to his mother, “Father came here on Saturday.”
    Indirect: Philips is telling his mother that father came here on Saturday.
  2. Direct : Mr. Gay says to me “I am working hard for the examination.”
    Indirect : Mr. Gay tells me that he is working hard for the examinations.
  3. Direct : Mary says to Charles, “I can dance with you.”
    Indirect: Mary tells Charles that she can dance with him.
  4. Direct : William says to Temple, “I was going to school.”
    Indirect: William tells Temple that he was going to school.
  5. Direct : Milton says, “David and Mary are walking.”
    Indirect : Milton says that David and Mary are walking.
  6. Direct : Andrew will say, “Marvel went to Chennai.”
    Indirect: Andrew will say that Marvel went to Chennai.
  7. Direct : Margaret will say, “Sarita stole my ear-rings.”
    Indirect : Margaret will say that Sarita stole her ear rings.
  8. Direct : Mr. Wolf has just said to me, “I am very thirsty.”
    Indirect : Mr. Wolf has just told me that he is very thirsty.
  9. Direct : Bharat says to Sunita, “I don not read the Gita daily.”
    Indirect : Bharat tells Sunita that he does not read the Gita daily.

नियम (2) यदि Reported Speech के बाहर वाले वाक्य में Past Tense हो और Reported Speech at अंदरवाले वाक्य में Present Tense या Future Tense हो तो Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reported speech के अन्दर वाला Verb, Past Tense में बदल जाएगा और नजदीकी बताने वाले शब्द दूरी बताने वाले शब्दों में बदल जाएँगे।

  1. Direct : The boy said, “The girl has stopped weeping.”
    Indirect: The boy said that the girl had stopped weeping.
  2. Direct : Girls said, “Maha Laxmi is playing carrom.”
    Indirect : Girls said that Maha Laxmi was playing carrom.
  3. Direct : The English teacher said to students, “I shall teach you Prepositions tomorrow also.”
    Indirect: The English teacher told students that he would teach them Prepositions the next day also.
  4. Direct : Raghav said to his mother, “I want a beautiful wife.”
    Indirect: Raghav told his mother that he wanted a beautiful wife.
  5. Direct : Anita said to Alka, “I can dance with her.”
    Indirect: Anita told Alka that she could dance with her.
  6. Direct : Lord Shiva said to Parvati, “I have been dancing since Sunday.”
    Indirect: Lord Shiva told Parvati that he had been dancing since Sunday.
  7. Direct : Pinky said to Anshu King, “I am ready to play with you.”
    Indirect: Pinky told Anshu King that she was ready to play with him.
  8. Direct : Jacob said to Yakub, “I have reached Moscow.”
    Indirect : Jacob told Yakub that he had reached Moscow.
  9. Direct : The Police Inspector said to the pick-pocket, “I shall punish you now and here.”
    Indirect: The Police Inspector told the pick-pocket that he would punish him then and there.
  10. Direct: The monitor said to boys, Today is Thursday, yesterday was Wednesday and tomorrow will be Friday.”
    Indirect: The monitor told boys that day was Thursday, the previous day had been Wednesday and the next day would be Friday.

Change in words expressing nearness, time, table auxiliaries, etc.
RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Direct and Indirect Speech 1
RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Direct and Indirect Speech 2

नियम (3) यदि Reported Speech के बाहर वाले वाक्य में Past Tense हो और अंदरवाले वाक्य में Past Tense हो तो अन्दर वाला वाक्य में भी Past Tense हो तो अन्दर वाला वाक्य में Tense निम्न प्रकार बदलता है।

  1. Past Indefinite Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदलते हैं अर्थात् Verb की II form को had + Verb की III form में बदलते हैं।
  2. Past Continuous Tense as Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदलते हैं अर्थात् was/were + Verb + -ing को had been + Verb + -ing में बदलते हैं।
  3. यदि Reported Speech के अंदर Past Perfect Tense या Past Perfect Continuous Tense हो तो इसको बदलते नहीं अर्थात् Reported Speech के अंदर had या had been हो तो इसमें कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता

Note

  • यदि Reported Speech में कोई पुरानी ऐतिहासिक घटना हो तो इसका Tense नहीं बदलता।
    Direct: Our Class Teacher said. “India became free in 1947.”
    Indirect: Our class Teacher said that India became free in 1947.
  • Reported Speech में Verb का Tense नहीं बदलता यदि वह उन दो बातों को बताए जो एक ही समय में हुए हों।

Example

  1. Direct : Harish said, “I ran away as soon as I saw the bear.”
    Indirect : Harish said that he ran away as soon as he saw the bear.
  2. Direct : Bhanwar said, Sita was playing chess while Radhey was playing on the tabla.
    Indirect : Bhanwar said that Sita was playing chess while Radhey was playing on the tabla
  3. Direct: Rakesh said, “I reached the school in the morning.”
    Indirect: Rakesh said that he had reached the school in the morning.
  4. Direct : Baby Rani said to me, “I did not dance yesterday.”
    Indirect : Baby Rani told me that she had danced the previous day.
  5. Direct : Yupi said, “I was dancing in the open ground.”
    Indirect: Yupi said that she had been dancing in the open ground.
  6. Direct : Jim Corbett said to the tiger, “I did not see you in the jungle.”
    Indirect : Jim Corbett told the tiger that he had not seen it in the jungle.
  7. Direct : Ali said, “Akbar had been trying to qualify R.T.S since 2008.”
    Indirect : Ali said that Akbar had been trying to qualify R.T.S since 2008.
  8. Direct : Parul said, “All were laughing then.”
    Indirect: Parul said that all had been laughing then.
  9. Direct : The language teacher said to him, “I taught you a poem long ago.”
    Indirect: The language teacher told him that he had taught him a poem before long.
  10. Direct : I said to the servant, “I had reached there before noon.”
    Indirect: I told the servant that I had reached there before noon.

नियम (4) यदि Reported Speech के अंदरवाले वाक्य में आदतन सत्य (habitual fact) या अटल सत्य (universal truth) हो तो इसका Tense कभी नहीं बदलता चाहे Reported speech के बाहर कोई भी Tense हो।

  1. Direct: The scholar said to us, “The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.”
    Indirect : The scholar told us that the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
  2. Direct : Mother said, One and one make eleven.
    Indirect: Mother said that one and one make eleven.
  3. Direct : Shakuntala said to her mother, “The Pole Star always rises in the North.”
    Indirect : Shakuntala told her mother that the Pole Star always rise in the North.
  4. Direct : The Geography teacher said to us, “The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.’
    Indirect: The Geography teacher told us that the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
  5. Direct : The merchant said his wife, “Honesty is the best policy.”
    Indirect: The merchant told his wife that honesty is the best policy.
  6. Direct : Father said to us, “Truth is evergreen.”
    Indirect : Father told us that truth is evergreen.
  7. Direct : The saint said to us, “Man is mortal and is born to die.”
    Indirect: The saint told us man is mortal and is born to die.

Change of Tenses

RBSE Class 10 English Grammar Direct and Indirect Speech 1

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. Rakesh says to me, “You are a very good man.”
  2. Sita told Radha. “I shall be reading a book.”
  3. Hari is saying to me, “I shall use your motor-cycle as my scooter is not in working order.”
  4. The teacher said to students, “Columbus discovered America.”
  5. The doctor said to the patient, “You have suffered a lot.”
  6. I say to Rajeev, “I have borrowed some money from you for 3 months.”
  7. Tara said to Balram, “The Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.”
  8. The lecturer said to girls, “I am leaving Jaipur for ever.”
  9. Grand-father said, “I have lost my eye-sight.”
  10. The judge said, “The lawyer did not come to the High Court yesterday.”
  11. The old man said to the policeman, “I saw the thief running away.”
  12. Shanti said to Sunita, “I don’t eat fruits daily.”
  13. Rohit said, “My wife comes from a small village.”
  14. Om Prakash said, “I am unwell today.”
  15. Uncle said, “My son always behaves like a foolish fellow.”

Answer.

  1. Rakesh tells me that I am a very good man
  2. Sita told Radha that she would be reading a book.
  3. Hari is telling me that he will use my motor-cycle as his scooter is not in working order.
  4. The teacher told students that Columbus discovered America.
  5. The doctor told the patient that he had suffered a lot.
  6. I tell Rajesh that I have borrowed some money from him for 3 months.
  7. Tara told Balram that the Sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
  8. The lecturer told girls that he was leaving Jaipur for ever.
  9. Grand-father said that he had lost his eye-sight.
  10. The judge said the lower had not come to the High Court the previous day.
  11. The old man told the policeman that he had seen the thief running away.
  12. Shanti told Sunita that she didn’t eat fruits daily.
  13. Rohit said that his wife came from a small village.
  14. Om Prakash said that he was unwell that day.
  15. Uncle said that his son always behaved like a foolish fellow.

Question 2.
Change the following sentence into Indirect Speech:

  1. Mohit said, “They were all careless.”
  2. I said to my father, “I went to see your doctor.”
  3. He will say to me, “I like to play games in the evening.”
  4. The old lady says, “It is going to rain very soon.”
  5. He said to me, “I have purchased many new books.”
  6. Radha says to Vallabh, “I shall go to circus tonight.”
  7. Salma said, “My friend is very tall and fat.”
  8. Man Singh said to me, “I had been playing chess.”
  9. Anshu said to Manshu, “I cannot trust you now.”
  10. The guest said to the host, “You have given me a hearty feast.”
  11. The M.L.A. said, “I am going to complain to the Minister tomorrow.”
  12. Mother said to father, “Someone is knocking at the door.”
  13. Anshu said to Good Luck, “I do not even remember her address.”
  14. The servant said to the master, “I have brought things from the market.”
  15. My wife said, “I have polished your shoes.”

Answer.

  1. Mohit said that they all had been careless.
  2. I told my father that I had gone to see his doctor.
  3. He will tell me that he likes to play games in the evening.
  4. The old lady says that it is going to rain very soon.
  5. He told me that he had purchased many new books.
  6. Radha tells Vallabh that she will go to circus tonight.
  7. Salma said that her friend was very tall and fat.
  8. Man Singh told me that he had been playing chess since morning.
  9. Anshu told Manshu that she could not trust her then.
  10. The guest told the host that he had given him a hearty feast.
  11. The M.L.A. said that he was going to complain to the Minister the next day.
  12. Mother told father that someone was knocking at the door.
  13. Anshu told Good Luck that she did not even remember her address.
  14. The servant told/informed the master that he had brought things from the market.
  15. My wife said that she had polished my shoes.

Interrogative Sentences

प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य (Interrogative Sentences) को Direct Narration से Indirect Narration में बदलने पर निम्न परिवर्तन होते हैं।

  1. Reported Speech at alt arst said do asked, say I ask site will say will ask at In
  2. ask या asked के बाद to कभी नहीं आता।
  3. वाक्य के दोनों भागों को अलग करने वाले comma (,) व Inverted comma (” “) हट जाते हैं और
    उनके स्थान पर :
    (a) जिस प्रशनों का उत्तर yes या no में आता है,उनमें वाक्य के दोनों भागों को जोड़ने के लिए if का प्रयोग करते हैं।
    (b) जिन प्रश्नों का उत्तर Yes या No में नहीं आता, उनमें वाक्य के दोनों भागों को जोड़ने के लिए कुछ नहीं लगाते।
  4. Indirect Narration में बदलने के बाद प्रश्न,प्रश्न नहीं रहता ।उसका राब्द -क्रम (word-order) बदल कर वह साधारण वाक्य (Assertive Sentence) बन जाता है अर्थात् सहायक क्रिया (Helping Verb) का जो टुकड़ा Direct Narration में Subject के पहले रखा हुआ था, Indirect Narration में Subject के बाद रख दिया जाता है।
  5. सहायक क्रिया (Helping Verb) जैसे do, does या did जिनका प्रयोग Direct Narration में प्रश्न बनाने के लिए किया गया है और जिनका, वाक्य की हिंदी करने पर कोई अर्थ नहीं होता, हट जाते हैं।
  6. प्रश्न-चिन्ह (?) हट जाता है और इसके स्थान पर Full Stop (.) लग जाता है।
  7. Inverted Comma के अंदर आए हुए Pronouns उसी प्रकार बदलते हैं जैसे वे साधारण वाक्य में बदलते | हैं। इसके लिए हम वाक्य की हिंदी करके समझ ले तो अधिक अच्छा रहे।
  8. Inverted Comma (“ ”) के अंदर आए हुए Verbs का Tense उसी प्रकार बदलते हैं, जैसे साधारण वाक्य में बदलते हैं।

Examples:

  1. Direct: The teacher said to John, “Are you preparing for some competitive examination?”
    Indirect: The teacher asked John if he was preparing for some competitive examination.
  2. Direct : Alexander said to me, “Will you lend me your pen and pencil?”
    Indirect : Alexander asked me if I would lend him my pen and pencil.
  3. Direct : Jacob said to John, “Is Sophia going to Ireland?”
    Indirect : Jacob asked John if Sophia was going to Ireland.
  4. Direct : I said to aunt, “Where are you coming from?”.
    Indirect: I asked aunt where she was coming from.
  5. Direct : Devi said to Singh, “What is your name and where are you going?”
    Indirect : Devi asked Singh what his name was and where he was going.
  6. Direct : The Home Minister said to the I.G.P, “Where is Saniya my daughter?”
    Indirect: The Home Minister asked the I.G.P where his daughter Saniya was.

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. My friend said to me, “How old are you?”
  2. The visitor asked Samuel, “How many girls are there in your class?”
  3. Father said to me, “What is your problem?”
  4. The teacher asked the boy, “Is this a scorpion or a spider?”
  5. The tourist asked the guide, “Which is the way to the Hawa Mahal?”
  6. I said to the patient, “Why do you worry?”
  7. The villager said to the new-comer, “What are you looking at?”
  8. The robber said to the patient, “Are you not afraid of death?”
  9. The nurse said to the patient, “Are you feeling like shivering?”
  10. I asked Hari Ram, “Do you know Nal and Neel?”
  11. The Maths teacher will ask, “Do you know Simplification?”
  12. Mallory asked Mary, “When will you exchange your old car?”
  13. Uncle asked me, Are you going to Amritsar next month?
  14. Rahim said to Jamil, “Why did you give my books to the book-binder?”

Answer.

  1. My friend asked me how old I was.
  2. The visitor asked Samuel how many girls there were in his class.
  3. Father asked me what my problem was.
  4. The teacher asked the boy if that was a scorpion or a spider.
  5. The tourist asked the guide which the way to the Hawa Mahal was.
  6. I asked the patient why did he worry.
  7. The villager asked the new-comer what he was looking at.
  8. The robber asked me if I was not afraid of death.
  9. The nurse asked the patient if he was feeling like shivering.
  10. I asked Hari Ram if he knew Nal and Neel.
  11. The Maths teacher will ask if I know Simplification.
  12. Mallory asked Mary when she would exchange her old car.
  13. Uncle asked me if I was going to Amritsar, the coming month.
  14. Rahim asked Jamil why he had given his books to the book-binder.

Question 2.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. They asked me, “Do you know the Sharmas?”
  2. I said to them, “Have you taken supper?”
  3. Surya said to him, “Do you know where the cycle-wala is?”
  4. Dara Said to the merchant, “Where did you purchase them from?”
  5. Nalini said to me, “Why are you going to Nagpur at this time?”
  6. Hari asked the stranger, “Where do you belong to?”
  7. Rahman asked Rahim, “Are you preparing for some U.P.S.C. Exam?”
  8. David said to Jonathan, “Am I not your devoted friend?”
  9. The Police Inspector asked me, “Where are you going at this time?”
  10. The maid-servant said to me, “Will you take coffee?”
  11. Mother said to her son, “Did you earn name and fame when you were abroad?”
  12. Father asked mother, “How do you do?”
  13. Hari asked his friend, “What are you doing these days?”
  14. Miss Rose said to the cobbler, “Will you mend my chappals?”

Answer.

  1. They asked me if I knew the Sharmas.
  2. I asked them if they had taken supper.
  3. Surya asked him if he knew where the cycle-wala was.
  4. Dara asked the merchant where he had purchased them from.
  5. Nalini asked me why I was going to Nagpur at that time.
  6. Hari asked the stranger where he belonged to.
  7. Rahman asked Rahim if he was preparing for some U.P.S.C. exam.
  8. David asked Jonathan if he was not his devoted friend.
  9. The Police Inspector asked me where I was going at that time.
  10. The maid-servant asked me if I would take coffee.
  11. Mother asked her son if he had earned name and fame when he had been abroad.
  12. Father asked mother how she was.
  13. Hari asked his friend what he was doing those days.
  14. Miss Rose asked the cobbler if he would mend her shoes.

Imperative Sentences

Imperative Sentences को Direct से Indirect में बदलते समय परिवर्तन निम्न प्रकार होते हैं।

  • Inverted Comma (” “) के बाहर वाला said या said to Inverted comma (” “) के अंदर के वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार बदलता है।
    (a) यदि अंदर के वाक्य में विनम्रता हो तो Inverted Comma (“”) के बाहर asked या requested लगाते है।
    (b) यदि Reported Speech की आज्ञा में कठोरता हो तो said या said to की बजाय ordered या Commanded लगाते हैं।
    (c) यदि Reported Speech के अंदर के वाक्य में प्रार्थना हो तो said या said to की बजाय requested लगाते हैं।
    (d) यदि Reported Speech के अंदर के वाक्य में सलाह या इच्छा हो तो said या said to की बजाय advised या wished लगाते हैं।
    (e) यदि Reported Speech के अंदर मना किया गया हो तो said या said to की बजाय forbade लगाते हैं।
  • Reported Verb व Reported Speech को अलग -अलग करने वाले Comma (,) व Inverted comma (” “) हट जाते हैं।
  • Reported Speech के अंदर वाले Verb के पहले to लगा कर रखते हैं।
  • Reported Speech के अंदर not या never हो तो इसे Infinitive से पहले रखते हैं।
  • यदि Reported Speech के अंदर Let आए तो बाहर वाला said-proposed, ordered या wished में बदल जाता है।
  • Comma और Inverted Comma को हटाकर Let के स्थान पर that लग जाता है और अंदर की क्रिया के पहले should रख देते हैं।

Examples:

  1. Direct : The teacher said to students, “Take permission from me if you want to go home.”
    Indirect: The teacher asked students to take permission from him if they wanted to go home.
  2. Direct : Father said to his daughter, “Get up early in the morning.”
    Indirect: Father advised his daughter to get up early in the morning.
  3. Direct : The beggar said to the judge, “Please pardon me.”
    Indirect: The beggar begged/requested the judge to pardon him.
  4. Direct : The monitor said to students, “Stand up.”
    Indirect: The monitor ordered students to stand up.
  5. Direct : The guest said to the servant, “Bring me a mug of coffee.”
    Indirect: The guest ordered the servant to bring him a mug of coffee.
  6. Direct : The Captain said to the soldiers, “Stand at-ease.”
    Indirect: The Captain commanded the soldiers to stand at-ease.
  7. Direct : The Class Teacher said to Ibrahim, “Get out of the class.”
    Indirect: The Class Teacher ordered Ibrahim to get out of the class.

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. The doctor said to me, “Be careful about your health.”
  2. Father said to his sons, “Never tease animals in the zoo.”
  3. The Lieutenant said to the soldiers, “Attack the enemy.”
  4. The teacher said to us, “Do your home-work attentively.”
  5. The judge said to the jailer, “Set the prisoner free.”
  6. The Emperor said to the Empress, “Leave me alone.”
  7. The Headmistress said to the peon, “Clean and arrange my office.”
  8. The P.T.I. said to students, “Stand up on your benches.”
  9. The master said to his servant, “Fetch my clothes from the tailor.”
  10. The doctor said to the patient, “Take medicines regularly.”
  11. The traffic policeman said to Ramesh yesterday, “Show me your driving-license.”
  12. The King said to his guard, “Be careful while I am asleep.”
  13. Uncle said to aunt, “Go to the physician and bring medicines for me.”
  14. My little sister said, “let us go to market.”
  15. The old drunkard said, “Let me have some vodka.”

Answer.

  1. The doctor advised me to be careful about my health.
  2. Father advised his sons never to tease animals in the zoo.
  3. The Lieutenant ordered (commanded) the soldiers to attack the enemy.
  4. The teacher advised us to do our home-work attentively.
  5. The Judge ordered the jailer to set the prisoner free.
  6. The Emperor asked the Empress to leave him alone.
  7. The headmistress ordered the peon to clean and arrange his office.
  8. The P.T.I. ordered the students to stand up on their benches.
  9. The master ordered his servant to fetch his clothes from the tailor.
  10. The doctor advised the patient to take medicines regularly.
  11. The traffic policeman told Ramesh the previous day to show him his driving-license.
  12. The King ordered his guard to be careful while he was asleep.
  13. Uncle asked aunt to go to the physician and bring medicines for him.
  14. My little sister proposed that they should go to market.
  15. The old drunkard wished that he should have some vodka.

Exclamatory and Optative Sentences

Exclamatory Sentences में आशचर्य , हर्ष , शोक आदि पाए जाते हैं और उनमें Note of Exclamation (!) का प्रयोग किया जाता है। Optative Sentences में इच्छा, आशीर्वाद या शुभ कामना पाई जाती हैं।
उपर्युक्त प्रकार के वाकयों को Direct Narration से Indirect Narration में बदलने पर निम्न परिवर्तन होते हैं।

  • Inverted Comma (” “) के बाहर वाले वाक्य में जो said या said to इत्यादि आते हैं, वे Inverted Comma (” “) के अंदर के वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार-
    (a) Exclamatory Sentences में exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with sorrow, exclaimed with surprise या exclaimed with disgust में बदल जाते हैं।
    (b) Optative Sentences में bade, prayed या wished में बदल जाते हैं।
  • वाक्य के दोनों भागों को अलग करने वाले Comma (,) व Inverted comma (” “) हट जाते है और अधिकतर that लग जाता हैं।
  • How या What से शुरू होने वाले वाक्यों में Very का प्रयोग होता है।
  • अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्य की तरह ही होते हैं।

Examples:

  1. Direct : The baby said, “Hurrah! Mother has come.”
    Indirect: The baby exclaimed with joy and said that mother had come.
  2. Direct : The old woman said, Alas! ‘I am undone.’
    Indirect: The old woman exclaimed with sorrow and said that she was undone.
  3. Direct : The janta said. “Long live Man Mohan Singh.”
    Indirect: The janta wished/prayed that Man Mohan Singh should live long.
  4. Direct : Our neighbour said. “Alas! My precious gold chain is missing.”
    Indirect : Our neighbour exclaimed with sorrow and said that his/her precious gold chain was missing.
  5. Direct: The football players said, “Hurrah! We have won”.
    Indirect: The football players exclaimed with joy and said that they had won.
  6. Direct : The demon said,. Alas! How foolish I have been.
    Indirect: The demon exclaimed with sorrow and said that he had been very foolish.
  7. Direct : Parul said, “What a magnificent building it is!”
    Indirect : Parul exclaimed with joy/wonder and said that it was a magnificent building

Exercise Solved

Question 1.
Change the following sentences into Indirect:

  1. The passenger said, “Oh! How long the train is.”
  2. Rustam said, “Alas! My son, Sohrab, is dead.”
  3. The little people said, “How huge Gulliver is!”
  4. Miranda said, Oh! How cruel my father is!
  5. Uncle said to Sonu, “May you pass with very good marks.”
  6. The small tree said, “Thank God! I am saved.”
  7. Princess Aurora said, “What an ungrateful creature it is!”
  8. Roopmati said, Good-bye, “my husband.”
  9. The maid-servant said, “Alas! I have lost my bag.”
  10. Father said to his daughter, “May you live long.
  11. People said, “Long live our President.”
  12. Longfellow said, “How tall I am.”
  13. The selfish man said, “What an ugly beggar he is!”
  14. The angel said, “How selfish these villagers are!”
  15. The scientist said, “Alas! We are undone!”

Answer.

  1. The passenger exclaimed with surprise and said that the train was very long.
  2. Rustam exclaimed with sorrow and said that his son Sohrab was dead.
  3. The little people exclaimed with wonder and said that Gulliver was very huge.
  4. Miranda exclaimed with sorrow and said that her father was very cruel.
  5. Uncle wished that Sonu might pass with very good marks.
  6. The small tree thanked God that it was saved.
  7. Princess Aurora exclaimed and said that it was a very ungrateful creature.
  8. Roopmati bade her husband good-bye.
  9. The maid-servant exclaimed with sorrow and said that she had lost her bag.
  10. Father wished that his daughter might live long.
  11. People wished their President long life.
  12. Long fellow wondered and said that he was very tall.
  13. The selfish man said that he was a very ugly beggar.
  14. The angel exclaimed with sorrow that those villagers were very selfish.
  15. The scientist exclaimed with sorrow and said that they were undone.

Question 2.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. Ravi said to Raju, “How much money did you earn yesterday?”
  2. Manoj said to Geeta, “Where are my children?”
  3. Ram said to Sita, “What are you looking for?”
  4. Mother said to me, “Can you solved all the sums?”
  5. Reeta said to Veena, “Where will Mohan go tomorrow?”
  6. He said to them, “Why did you laugh at me?”.
  7. The tourist said, “How beautiful this scenery is?”
  8. The teacher said, “Don’t fly kites for such a long time.”
  9. The guide said to visitors, “Don’t drive so fast.”
  10. Mohan said to Ram, “Please don’t tease me.”
  11. The teacher said to his students, “Can we make electricity?”
  12. I said to her, “Will Ashoka buy a motor-cycle next month?”
  13. Sheru said to the tailor, “Is my shirt ready?”.
  14. Ravi said to her, “Why should I buy a dictionary for you?”
  15. The policeman said to me, “What is your destination?”
  16. Sweta said to her uncle, “Will you buy me a doll?”
  17. Someone asked Priydarshini, “Why do you play with a foreign doll?”
  18. Neetu said to Richa, “Is your brother in the school now?”
  19. You said to Bharat, Do you live in Ayodhya?
  20. Pope said to Alexander, “Will you buy me a poster of Lord Krishna?”
  21. I said to Rama Kant, “Can you spare some money for me?”
  22. Mahesh said to Suresh, “When will you return my money?”
  23. I said to Shashtriji, “May you win the election.”
  24. Meeta said to her brother, “When will you reach Rangoon?”
  25. The officer said to the clerk, “Have you reach Rangoon?”
  26. The teacher said to the students, “Where did you go yesterday.”
  27. The teacher said to Rani, “Will you lend me your pen?”
  28. Mother wrote to father, “It may rain here tomorrow.”
  29. My neighbour said, “When do you go for a walk.”
  30. I said to my teacher, “Please give me a book of History.”
  31. I said to my younger sister, “On what day do you keep fast?”

Answer.

  1. Ravi asked Raju how much money he had earned the previous day.
  2. Manoj asked Geeta where his children were.
  3. Ram asked Sita what she was looking for.
  4. Mother asked me if I could solve all the sums.
  5. Reeta asked Veena where Mohan would go the next day.
  6. He asked them why they had laughed at him.
  7. The tourist exclaimed with joy and said that scenery was very beautiful.
  8. The teacher forbade (them) to fly kites for such a long time.
  9. The guide forbade the visitors to drive so fast.
  10. Mohan requested Ram not to tease him.
  11. The teacher asked his students if they could make electricity.
  12. I asked her if Ashoka would buy a motor-cycle the next month.
  13. Sheru asked the tailor if his shirt was ready.
  14. Ravi asked her why he should buy a dictionary for her.
  15. The policeman asked me what my destination was
  16. Sweta asked her uncle if he would buy her a doll.
  17. Someone asked Priyadarshini why she played with a foreign doll.
  18. Neetu asked Richa if her brother was in the school then.
  19. You asked Bharat if he lived in Ayodhya.
  20. Pope asked Alexander if he would buy him a poster of Lord Krishna.
  21. I asked Rama Kant if he could spare some money for me.
  22. Mahesh asked Suresh when he would return his money.
  23. I wished that Shashtriji might win the election.
  24. Meeta asked her brother when he would reach Rangoon.
  25. The officer asked the clerk if he had typed all the letters.
  26. The teacher asked the students where they had gone the previous day.
  27. The teacher asked Rani if she would lend him her pen.
  28. Mother wrote to father that it might rain there the next day.
  29. My neighbour asked when I went for a walk.
  30. I requested my teacher to give me a book of History.
  31. I asked my younger sister on what day she kept fast.

Question 3.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. I said to the soldier, “Tell me what you will do with the gun.”
  2. Mother said to her sister, “We are giving a party tomorrow.”
  3. Your friend said to you, “How old are you?”
  4. Raju said to Ravi, “Is the C.M. in Jaipur today.”
  5. I said to the servant, “What is he saying?”
  6. I asked an unknown person, “What are you doing here?”
  7. The teacher asked the monitor, “Why did you go to the picture today.”
  8. I asked her, “Why do you sing till late at night?”
  9. Lata said to Malti, “How do you look so cheerful today?”
  10. Mira said to Krishna, “Why don’t you speak to me?”
  11. Satan said to Mira, “Do not tell a lie.”
  12. Sohan said to Mohan, “What will your mother do tomorrow?”
  13. Neeru said to Viru, “Will you lend me some money.”
  14. Johnson said to Howard, “I am going to New York next month.”
  15. I said to her, “Is your money safe in the bank?”
  16. The lion said to the tiger, “Why do you eat meat?”

Answer.

  1. I told / asked the soldier to tell me what he would do with the gun.
  2. Mother told/informed her sister that they were giving a party the next day.
  3. Your friend asked you how old you were.
  4. Raju asked Ravi if the C.M. was in Jaipur that day.
  5. I asked the servant what he was saying.
  6. I asked an unknown person what he was doing there.
  7. The teacher asked the monitor why he had gone to the picture that day.
  8. I asked her why she sang till late at night.
  9. Lata asked Malti how she looked so cheerful that day.
  10. Mira asked Krishna why he did not speak to her.
  11. Satan ordered Mira not to tell a lie.
  12. Sohan asked Mohan what his mother would do the next day.
  13. Neeru asked Viru if he would lend her some money.
  14. Johnson told Howard that he was going to New York next month.
  15. I asked her if her money was safe in the bank.
  16. The lion asked the tiger why it ate meat.

Question 4.
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech:

  1. My friend said to me, “I can see the lake from my window.”
  2. Bunyan said, “Can you read Latin, Harish?”
  3. The doctor said to me, “Can you take medicines regularly?”
  4. The visitor said to me, “How does a computer work.”
  5. The teacher said, “We have unity in diversity in India.”
  6. The physician said to him, “You may have to stay in hospital for one month.”
  7. Harry said to Potter, “Please lend me one thousand rupees for one year.”
  8. They said, “Are you going to see the exhibition?”
  9. Wife of the deceased person said, “Alas! I am undone.”
  10. They said, “We have won the debate competition.”
  11. They said, “We must be punctual to the minute.”
  12. Sita said, “ Shall I ever forget Lord Ram.”
  13. They said to their cook, “Prepare the breakfast early today.”
  14. They said to me, “Many happy returns of the day.”
  15. Mother said to her daughter, “You should not forget your jewellery.”
  16. Harish said, “You may take one million rupees from me.”
  17. I said to our neighbour, “Where did you go in the last vacation?”
  18. I said to him, “It is a little secret of mine.’
  19. They said to me, “The Earth moves round the Sun.”
  20. My brother said to me, “Where were you yesterday?”
  21. My servant said to me, “I have been waiting here for you for six hours.”
  22. Our Principal said to us, “English is a very useful language and is very easy to learn.”
  23. I said to him, “How long have you been studying French?”
  24. I said, “Long live our C.M.”

Answer.

  1. My friend told me that he could see the lake from his window.
  2. Bunyan asked Harish if he could read Latin.
  3. The doctor asked me if I could take medicines regularly.
  4. The visitor asked me how a computer worked.
  5. The teacher said that we had unity in diversity in India.
  6. The physician told him that he might have to stay in hospital for one month.
  7. Harry requested Potter to lend him one thousand rupees for one year.
  8. They asked if we were going to see the exhibition.
  9. Wife of the deceased person exclaimed with sorrow and said that she was undone.
  10. They said that they had won the debate competition.
  11. They said that they must be punctual to the minute.
  12. Sita wondered and asked if she would ever forget Lord Ram.
  13. They ordered their cook to prepare the breakfast early that day.
  14. They wished me many happy returns of the day.
  15. Mother told her daughter that she should not forget her jewellery.
  16. Harish said that he/I might take one million rupees from him.
  17. I asked our neighbour where he had gone in the last vacation.
  18. I told him that it was a little secret of mine.
  19. They told me that the Earth moves round the Sun.
  20. My brother asked me where I had been the previous day.
  21. My servant told me that he had been waiting there for me for six hours.
  22. Our Principal told us that English was a very useful language and was very easy to learn.
  23. I asked him how long he had been studying French.
  24. I wished that our C.M. might live long/I wished our C.M. long life.

Board Questions Solved

Question 1.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. The young seagull said, “I am too young to fly.”
    The young seagull said….
  2. Santosh said to me, “Will you bring me a gift?”
    Santosh asked me……
  3. The doctor said to the lady, “Take the medicines daily.”
    The doctor advised the lady…
  4. Vivek said to Ajay, “Where do you live?”
    Vivek asked Ajay………

Answer.

  1. The young seagull said that he was too young to fly.
  2. Santosh asked me if I would bring her/him a gift.
  3. The doctor advised the lady to take the medicines daily.
  4. Vivek asked Ajay where he lived.

Question 2.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. Gopal said to the bookseller, “Please provide me some new books.”
    Gopal requested the bookseller……
  2. The bookseller asked Gopal, “Which book do you want?”
    The bookseller asked Gopal…………
  3. Gopal said, “I want some English Grammar books.”
    Gopal said………..
  4. The bookseller said, “I have got a lot of new books.”
    The bookseller replied……

Answer.

  1. Gopal requested the bookseller to provide him some new books.
  2. The bookseller asked Gopal which book he wanted.
  3. Gopal said that he wanted some English Grammar books.
  4. The bookseller replied that he had got a lot of new books.

Question 3.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. Rita said to Amar, “Have you seen my diary?”
    Rita asked Amar…….
  2. Amar said, “Is it she one with a brown cover?”
    Amar asked her………
  3. Rita said to Amar, “Oh yes, brother!”
    Rita……..
  4. Amar said to Rita, “I saw it lying on the new shelf in our drawing room.”
    Amar told Rita that…….

Answer.

  1. Rita asked Amar if he had seen her diary.
  2. Amar asked her if that was the one with a brown cover.
  3. Rita asserted with surprise.
  4. Amar told Rita that he had seen that lying on the new shelf in their drawing room.

Question 4.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. Mother : Don’t go near the fire, children.
    Children: O.K. Mama, we won’t.
    The mother warned the children……
    The children replied in affirmation…….
  2. Ram : I plan to leave for USA next week.
    Raghav : Please bring a laptop for me.
    Ram said that…
    Raghav requested Ram…….

Answer.

  1. The mother warned the children not to go near the fire.
    Or
    The mother warned the children against going near the fire.
    The children replied in affirmation and said that they wouldn’t.
  2. Ram said that he planned to leave for USA the following week.
    Raghav requested Ram to bring a laptop for him.

Question 5.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. Radha : Where are you going?
    Rekha : I am going to buy some green vegetables.
    Radha asked Rekha……….
    Rekha replied that…..
  2. Teacher : Students don’t make a noise in the class.
    Students : Sir, shall we learn the spelling?
    Teacher forbade the students…..
    Students asked the teacher respectfully if….

Answer.

  1. Radha asked Rekha where she was going.
    Rekha replied that she was going to buy some vegetables.
  2. Teacher forbade the students to make a noise in the class.
    Students asked the teacher respectfully if they should learn the spelling.

Question 6.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech:

  1. Ramesh : Ravi, what are you doing these days?
    Ravi : Ramesh, I am working in a glass factory.
    Ramesh asked Ravi………
    Ravi replied…

Answer.

  1. Ramesh asked Ravi what he was doing those days.
    Ravi replied that he was working in a glass factory.

Question 7.
Read the following dialogue and then complete the report by transforming the sentences from direct to reported speech. Write your answer in your answersheet with correct number. Do not copy the whole dialogue and report.

Anjali : Aunty, I want to know something about computer.
Aunty : Do you know what a calculator is?
Anjali told her aunty that …………………(a)…………………. Her aunty asked her ……………… (b) ………………..

Answer.
Anjali told her aunty that she wanted to know something about computer. Aunty asked her if she knew what a calculator is.

Exercise For Practice

  1. I said to the manager of the inn, “We have already paid the bill.”
  2. Rakesh said, “What a lovely bunch of flowers.”
  3. Kanhaiya said, “I am going to see father tomorrow.”
  4. The H.M. said to teachers, “Don’t leave the school without my permission.”
  5. I said to him, “That is my lost dog and I shall prove it.”
  6. He said, “Never eat rotten fruits.”
  7. Ram said to his father, “I shall work hard and bring good name to you.”
  8. Our lecturer said to me, “Have you prepared well for your examination?”
  9. He will say to you, “It is better said than done.”
  10. Mother said to father, “Can you spare some time for me?”
  11. The old lady said to us, “Go away from her immediately.”
  12. We said to him, “Why are you wandering here at night?”
  13. Shalini asked me, “Why do you work so hard?”
  14. They said to us, “Get out of our sight.”
  15. He said to me, “Whose book did you borrow last night?”
  16. He said to his sister, “Don’t be lazy in future.”
  17. My friend said to me, “Pay more attention in future.”
  18. He said to me, “Will you take lunch with me today?”
  19. They said, “Ah! Our father has been snatched by cruel hate.”
  20. He said, “Where has the ghost disappeared?”
  21. The Bank Manager said to me, “Where did you get these counterfeit coins from?”
  22. “Don’t park your vehicle here”, said the Chowkidar.
  23. Rani will say, “Can you say how he did it?”
  24. My mother said to me, “Let the guests come in.”
  25. The orator said to us, “Will you lend me your ears?”
  26. I will say to him, “One and one make eleven.”