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Indigo Textbook Questions and Answers

Understanding the text

Question 1.
Why do you think Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life?
आपके अनुसार गाँधीजी चम्पारण प्रकरण को अपने जीवन का बदलाव बिन्दु क्यों मानते थे ?
Answer:
The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhi’s life because his method consisting of disobedience and acceptance of punishment came out successful. The whole nation came to know that they could oppose the British.

The peasants became aware of their strength and they came to know that if they were united, they could make the British landlords work on their own terms. This episode emerged as the first ray of hope for the Indians. Now the Britishers were no longer invincible for them and the peasants were no longer utterly fear-stricken poor fellows.

चम्पारण प्रकरण गाँधीजी के जीवन का बदलाव बिन्दु था क्योंकि अवज्ञा और दण्ड स्वीकार करने का उनका तरीका सफल साबित हुआ । पूरा देश जान गया कि वे अंग्रेजों का विरोध कर सकते थे । किसानों को अपनी शक्ति का अहसास हो गया और वे यह जान गये कि यदि वे संगठित रहेंगे तो वे अंग्रेज जमीदारों से अपनी शर्तों पर काम करवा सकते थे । यह प्रकरण भारतीयों के लिए आशा की पहली किरण की तरह निकलकर आया। अब उनके लिए अंग्रेज अजेय नहीं रह गये थे और किसान सिर्फ भयग्रस्त बेचारे नहीं थे ।

Question 2.
How was Gandhi able to influence lawyers ? Give instances.
गाँधीजी वकीलों को प्रभावित करने में किस तरह सफल हुए ? उदाहरण दीजिए ।
Answer:
Muzzafarpur lawyers told Gandhi about their cases and the amount of their fee. Gandhi rebuked the lawyers for collecting that much of fee from the poor peasants. Gandhi said that law courts were useless if the peasants were so crushed and fear stricken.

Again when Gandhi was going to be tried in the court at Motihari, he asked the lawyers what they would do if he was sent to prison. One of the lawyers said that they would go home if he was sent to prison. When the lawyers noticed that despite being a stranger Gandhi was ready to go to jail for the peasants, they felt ashamed. They promised to follow him. That is how Gandhi was able to influence the lawyers.

मुज्जफरपुर के वकीलों ने गाँधीजी को अपने केसों के बारे में तथा फीस की राशि के बारे में बताया। गाँधीजी ने इतनी ज्यादा फीस वसूलने पर वकीलों को फटकारा। गाँधीजी ने कहा कि यदि किसान इतने दबे हुए और भयभीत हैं तो अदालतें बेकार हैं । पुनः जब गाँधीजी की मोतिहारी की अदालत में सुनवाई की जानी थी तो गाँधीजी ने वकीलों से पूछा कि यदि उन्हें (गाँधीजी को) जेल भेज दिया गया तो वे क्या करेंगे।

एक वकील ने कहा कि यदि उन्हें जेल भेजा जायेगा तो वे घर चले जायेंगे । जब वकीलों ने देखा कि एक अजनबी होते हुए भी वे किसानों कि लिए जेल जाने को तैयार थे, तो उन्होंने शर्म महसूस की । उन्होंने उनका अनुसरण करने का वादा किया । इस तरह गाँधीजी ने वकीलों पर अपना प्रभाव डाला

Question 3.
What was the attitude of the average Indian in smaller localities towards advocates of ‘home-rule’ ?
छोटी जगहों पर रहने वाले औसत भारतीय का ‘स्वराज’ के पक्षधरों के प्रति क्या दृष्टिकोण था?
Answer:
The average Indians in smaller localities were utterly unorganised and helpless. So they were scared of the British. They did not entertain advocates of home rule at their houses. They did not have courage to show sympathy towards them.

छोटे स्थानों के औसत भारतीय एकदम असंगठित तथा असहाय थे। अतः वे अंग्रेजों से डरते थे। वे अपने घरों पर स्वराज्य के समर्थकों का आतिथ्य सत्कार नहीं करते थे । उनमें उनके प्रति सहानुभूति दिखाने का साहस नहीं था ।

Question 4.
How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement ?
हमें कैसे पता चलता है कि साधारण लोगों ने भी स्वतन्त्रता आन्दोलन में योगदान किया था ?
Answer:
The freedom movement was for the ordinary people. No leader could do anything for ordinary people without their involvement. So the contribution of ordinary people could never be ruled out in this case also. Gandhi wanted the ordinary people to be courageous and fearless.

The people showed their courage by following Gandhi. When the peasants of Motihari knew that Gandhi was in trouble, they gathered around the court where Gandhi was summoned. Even the British authorities could not control them. This shows that without the participation of the common men, the freedom movement could not have become successful.

स्वतन्त्रता आन्दोलन सामान्य जन के लिए ही था । लोगों की भागीदारी के बिना कोई नेता उनके लिए कुछ नहीं कर सकता था । अतः इस मामले में भी जन भागीदारी को नकारा नहीं जा सकता था । गाँधीजी चाहते थे कि आमजन साहसी व निर्भीक बने । लोगों ने गाँधी का अनुगमन कर अपने साहस का परिचय दिया ।

अगर किसान संगठित न होते तो गाँधीजी उनके लिए कुछ भी नहीं कर पाते । जब मोतीहारी के किसानों को पता चला कि गाँधीजी परेशानी में हैं तो वे लोग न्यायालय के चारों ओर जमा हो गये जहाँ गाँधीजी को बुलाया गया था । ब्रिटिश अधिकारी भी उन्हें नियन्त्रित न कर सके । इससे पता लगता है कि आमजन की सहभागिता के बिना, स्वतन्त्रता आन्दोलन सफल नहीं हो सकता था ।

Think as you read (Page 47)

  1. Strike out what is not true in the following :

(निम्नलिखित में जो सही नहीं हो उसे काटो

Question 1.
a. Rajkumar Shukla was
(i) a sharecropper
(ii) a politician
(iii) delegate
(iv) a landlord
Answer:
(ii) a politician

b.Rajkumar Shukla was :
(i) poor
(ii) physically strong
(iii) illiterate
Answer:
(ii) physically strong

Question 2.
Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being resolute ?
राजकुमार शुक्ला को दृढ़-निश्चयी क्यों बताया गया है ?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla wanted Gandhiji to visit Champaran. Gandhiji was not in a position to visit Champaran immediately. Rajkumar accompanied Gandhiji wherever he went. At last Gandhiji went with him. That is why he is described as being resolute.

राजकुमार शुक्ला चाहते थे गाँधीजी चम्पारण की यात्रा करें । गाँधीजी ऐसी स्थिति में नहीं थे कि तुरन्त चम्पारण की यात्रा कर सकें । राजकुमार, जहाँ भी गाँधीजी गये, उनके साथ गये थे । अन्तत: गाँधीजी ने एक तिथि तय की । राजकुमार शुक्ला ने उनसे अपनी बात मनवा ली । यही कारण है कि उनको दृढ़-निश्चयी बताया गया है ।

Question 3.
Why do you think the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant?
आपके विचार से नौकरों ने गाँधीजी को एक अन्य किसान क्यों समझा ?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a peasant. He would visit Rajendra Prasad regarding peasants’ problems. Gandhiji accompanied Rajkumar Shukla. So the servants thought that he (Gandhiji) was also a peasant.

राजकुमार शुक्ला एक किसान थे । किसानों की समस्याओं को लेकर वह राजेन्द्र प्रसाद के यहाँ जाया करते थे । गाँधीजी राजकुमार शुक्ला के साथ गये थे । इसलिए नौकरों ने सोचा कि वह भी एक किसान थे।

Think as you read (Page 49)

Question 1.
List the places that Gandhi visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran.
शुक्ला से पहली मुलाकात और चम्पारण पहुँचने के बीच गाँधीजी ने जिन स्थानों की यात्रा की उनकी सूची बनाओ।
Answer:
Gandhiji visited Cawnpore, his ashram near Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna and Muzzafarpur between his first meeting with Rajkumar Shukla at Lucknow and his arrival at Champaran.

गाँधीजी ने शुक्ला से लखनऊ में पहली मुलाकात और चम्पारण पहुँचने के बीचं कानपुर, अहमदाबाद के पास वाले अपने आश्रम, कलकत्ता, पटना तथा मुजफ्फरपुर की यात्रा की ।

Question 2.
What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo ?
किसान अंग्रेज जागीरदारों को किराये के रूप में क्या देते थे ? अब इसकी जगह अंग्रेज क्या चाहते थे और क्यों ? संश्लेषित indigo का प्राकृतिक indigo की कीमत पर क्या प्रभाव पड़ता ?
Answer:
The peasants had to grow indigo on the 15% area of their land. They paid their whole indigo harvest to the British landlords as rent. The British wanted compensation to free them from their commitment. The prices of natural indigo would go down with the advent of synthetic indigo.

किसान अपनी जमीन के 15 प्रतिशत भाग पर नील उगाने के लिए मजबूर थे । वे किराये के रूप में अंग्रेज जागीरदारों को पूरा नील देते थे । अंग्रेज उन्हें उनके समझौते से मुक्त करने के बदले क्षतिपूर्ति चाहते थे । संश्लेषित नील के आ जाने पर प्राकृतिक नील की कीमत घट जाती ।

Think as you read (Page 51)

The events in this part of the text illustrate Gandhi’s method of working. Can you identify some instances of this method and link them to his ideas of Satyagraha and non-violence ?
पाठ के इस अंश की घटनाओं में गाँधीजी की कार्यशैली के उदाहरण हैं । क्या आप इस कार्यशैली के उदाहरण पहचान सकते हो तथा उन्हें उनके सत्याग्रह तथा अहिंसा के विचार से जोड़ सकते हो ?
Answer:
Gandhiji arrived in Champaran and visited the concerned parties. He was asked to leave the place but he didn’t. Accompanied by several lawyers, he went to Motihari. A peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhiji decided to go and see. He was served a notice to leave Champaran immediately. He wrote on the receipt that he would disobey the order.

As a result, he was asked to appear in the court the next day. He went to appear in the court but a great crowd of his supporters also gathered there.

Gandhiji helped the authorities in maintaining law and order. Gandhiji asked them to punish him as he had disobeyed Government order and told the authorities that he had done so for a greater cause. These are the instances that show that he had great faith in Satyagraha and non-violence.

गाँधीजी चम्पारण पहुँचे और सम्बन्धित पक्षों से मिले । उन्हें उस स्थान को छोड़ने के लिए कहा गया परन्तु उन्होंने स्थान नहीं छोड़ा । कई वकीलों के साथ वह मोतिहारी गए । पास के एक गाँव में एक किसान के साथ दुर्व्यवहार किया गया था । गाँधीजी ने जाकर देखने का निश्चय किया । उन्हें तुरन्त चम्पारण छोड़ने का एक नोटिस मिला ।

उन्होंने रसीद पर लिखा कि वे आदेश का उल्लंघन करेंगे । इसके परिणामस्वरूप उन्हें अगले दिन न्यायालय में उपस्थित होने को कहा गया । वह न्यायालय में उपस्थित होने गये लेकिन वहाँ उनके समर्थकों की भारी भीड़ जमा हो गई । गाँधीजी ने कानून और व्यवस्था बनाये रखने में प्रशासन की मदद की ।

चूँकि गाँधीजी ने आज्ञा का उल्लंघन किया था अतः उन्होंने अंग्रेजों से उन्हें दण्ड देने के लिए कहा और उनसे कहा कि उन्होंने ऐसा किसी महानतर कार्य के लिए किया है । ये ऐसे उदाहरण हैं जो दर्शाते हैं कि उनका सत्याग्रह और अहिंसा में बहुत विश्वास था ।

Think as you read (Page 53)

Question 1.
Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers ?
किसानों को 25 प्रतिशत धन-वापसी के समझौते से गाँधीजी क्यों सहमत हो गये ?
Answer:
The British landlords agreed to make 25 percent refund to the peasants. Gandhi agreed to the settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers because for him the amount of money was not as important as the token victory of the peasants.

अंग्रेज जमींदारों ने किसानों को 25 प्रतिशत पैसा वापस करने की सहमति जताई । गाँधीजी किसानों को 25 प्रतिशत धन-वापसी के समझौते के लिए सहमत हो गये क्योंकि उनके लिए धन की मात्रा इतनी महत्त्वपूर्ण नहीं थी जितनी की किसानों की प्रतीकात्मक विजय थी।

Question 2.
How did the episode change the plight of the peasants ?
इस घटना में किसानों की दुर्दशा को कैसे बदल दिया ?
Or
What change did the Champaran episode bring about in lives of peasants ?
चम्पारण की घटना ने किसानों के जीवन की दशा किस प्रकार बदल दी ?
Or
How did Gandhiji help the poor in Champaran to achieve freedom from fear?
डर से मुक्ति पाने के लिए गाँधीजी ने चम्पारन में गरीबों की किस प्रकार सहायता की?
Answer:
The peasants in Champaran were sharecroppers. The British landlords had an agreement with them. The peasants were to grow indigo on 3/20 or 15 percent of their land. They were forced to give their whole indigo crop as rent to the British landlords.

With the advent of synthetic indigo, the British landlords asked for compensation from the peasants to free them from the agreement. Gandhiji led them in their struggle to get their right and succeeded too. After the episode of 25 percent refund of money, the farmers came to know that they had rights and their defenders too. They also learned to behave courageously. The British landlords were so much demoralised that they abandoned their estate which was given to the peasants and indigo sharecropping disappeared.

चम्पारण के किसान बंटाईदार थे । अंग्रेज जमीदारों ने उनके साथ एक समझौता कर रखा था । किसानों को अपनी 3/20 या 15 प्रतिशत जमीन पर नील उगानी थी । उन्हें अपनी परी नील की फसल किराये के रूप में अंग्रेज जागीरदारों को देने के लिए मजबूर किया जाता था ।

कृत्रिम नील के आने के साथ ही अंग्रेज जागीरदारों ने किसानों को समझौते से मुक्त करने के लिए क्षतिपूर्ति माँगी । गाँधीजी ने उनके अधिकारों को पाने के संघर्ष में उनका नेतृत्व किया और सफल भी हुए । 25 प्रतिशत धन वापसी के समझौते के बाद, किसान जान गये कि उनके पास अधिकार हैं तथा उनके रक्षक भी हैं ।

उन्होंने साहसपूर्वक व्यवहार करना भी सीख लिया । अंग्रेज जागीरदार इतने हतोत्साहित हो गये कि उन्होंने जमीनें छोड़ दीं जिन्हें किसानों को दे दिया गया और नील की बँटाईदारी समाप्त हो गई ।

Talking about the text

Discuss the following

Answer the following questions in about 20-25 words :

Question 1.
“Freedom from fear is more important than legal justice for the poor.” Do you think that the poor of India are free from fear after independence ?
“गरीबों के लिए भय से मुक्ति ज्यादा महत्त्वपूर्ण है, बजाय कानूनी न्याय के।” क्या आपको लगता है कि स्वतन्त्रता के बाद भारत के गरीब भय से मुक्त हैं ?
Answer:
Freedom from fear is the real freedom. Legal justice is to safeguard freedom. Legal justice is, in fact, a means to an end. An end is always more important than the means. Fear is serfdom. The poor of India are not fully free from fear even after independence.

Although, freedom ensures fearlessness yet what to say of the poor, even the rich are not fearless in India. The fear of district is all around there. Even the corrupt are not free from fear. The poor always live in the fear of being threatened, being insulted or losing their means of living. We pray to God Almighty for getting us all rid of this ubiquitous fear.

भय से स्वतन्त्र होना ही वास्तविक स्वतन्त्रता है । कानूनी न्याय स्वतन्त्रता का रक्षक है । कानूनी न्याय, वास्तव में उद्देश्य प्राप्ति का साधन है । उद्देश्य हमेशा साधन से ज्यादा महत्त्वपूर्ण होता है । भय ही दासता है । स्वतन्त्रता के पश्चात् भी भारत के गरीब पूरी तरह भय से मुक्त नहीं हैं ।

यद्यपि स्वतन्त्रता, निडरता की गारंटी है लेकिन फिर भी भारत में गरीबों का तो कहना ही क्या, धनवान व्यक्ति भी निडर नहीं हैं अविश्वास का डर सर्वत्र व्याप्त है । भ्रष्ट लोग भी भय से मुक्त नहीं हैं । गरीब लोग सदा धमकाये जाने, अपमानित किये जाने और जीविका खोने के भय में रहते हैं । हम सर्वशक्तिमान भगवान से इस सर्वत्र व्यापक भय से मुक्ति प्रदान करने की प्रार्थना करते हैं

Question 2.
The qualities of a good leader.
अच्छे नेता के गुण ।
Answer:
The qualities of a good leader are as follows :
(1) Determined – A good leader should be determined. He should follow what he has once decided. He should not change his views and be true to his word.
(2) Fearless – He should be fearless. If he is fearful, he cannot meet any of the high authorities to protest anything going wrong in the society.
(3) True and Honest – If a man is true and honest, he will be respected everywhere. People will follow him.
(4) Hard-Worker – By his hard work, he can impress everybody and thus become a good leader.
(5) Devoid of Selfishness – A good leader is always devoid of selfishness and greed. The welfare of society is his prime aim. People respect and follow him.

अच्छे नेता के गुण निम्न हैं:
(1) दृढ़ निश्चयी – अच्छे नेता को दृढ़ निश्चयी होना चाहिए । जो कुछ उसने एक बार निर्णय कर लिया उसका उसे पालन करना चाहिए । उसे अपने विचार नहीं बदलने चाहिए और अपनी बात का पक्का होना चाहिए।
(2) निडर – उसे निडर होना चाहिए । यदि वह डरपोक है तो समाज में ‘गलत हो रही बातों के लिए वह उच्च अधिकारियों से उनका विरोध करने के लिए नहीं कह सकता है ।
(3) सच्चा और ईमानदार – अगर आदमी सच्चा और ईमानदार है तो उसका हर जगह सम्मान होगा । लोग उसका अनुगमन करेंगे ।
(4) कठोर परिश्रमी – अपने कठोर परिश्रम से वह सभी को प्रभावित कर सकता है और इस प्रकार एक अच्छा नेता बन सकता है।
(5) स्वार्थपरता से दूर – एक अच्छा नेता हमेशा ही स्वार्थपरता एवं लालच से दूर भागता है । समाज की भलाई उसका मुख्य उद्देश्य होता है । लोग उसका सम्मान और अनुगमन करते हैं ।

Working with words

Question 1.
List the words used in the text that are related to legal procedures. For example : deposition.
पाठ में आये ऐसे शब्दों की सूची बनाइये जो कानूनी प्रक्रियाओं से सम्बन्धित हैं । उदाहरण के लिए : deposition.
Answer:
List of the words used in the text that are related to legal procedures is as follows :
पाठ में आये कानूनी प्रक्रियाओं से सम्बन्धित शब्दों की सूची इस प्रकार है :
summon, notice, investigation, record, trial, pleading, guilty, penalty, sentence, bail, judgement, evidence, prosetutor, magistrate, appeal, statement, lawyer, commission, law-breaker, rights, protest etc.

Question 2.
List other words that you know that fall into this category.
अपने ज्ञान के अनुसार इस श्रेणी में आने वाले अन्य शब्दों की सूची बनाइये ।
Answer:
List of some other words that fall into this category is –
इस श्रेणी में आने वाले कुछ अन्य शब्दों की सूची है – disregard, appeal, procedure, crime, justice, over-ruled, witness, accused, judge, hearing, behind bars, court warrant etc.

Thinking about Language

Question 1.
Notice the sentences in the text which are in ‘direct speech’. Why does the author use quotations in his narration ?
पाठ में उन वाक्यों को देखो जो ‘direct speech’ में हैं । लेखक अपने वर्णन में उद्धरणों का प्रयोग क्यों करता है ?
Answer:
There are many sentences in the text which are in direct speech. They give effectiveness to the statement of the speaker.

पाठ में बहुत से वाक्य हैं जो कि ‘direct speech’ में हैं । वे वक्ता के कथन को प्रभावशाली बना देते हैं ।

Question 2.
Notice the use or non-use of comma in the following sentences —
निम्न वाक्यों में अल्प विराम (,) का प्रयोग होने या न होने पर ध्यान दीजिये
(a) When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, he told me what happened in Champaran.
(b) He had not proceeded far when the police superintendent’s messenger overtook him.
(c) When the court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgement for several days.
Answer:
Comma is a mark of punctuation. It is used to have a slight pause. In sentences (a) and (c) commas are used to show slight pause and intervals between two actions In sentence (b), there is no use of comma. No need of any slight pause in the sentence.

अल्प विराम एक विराम चिह्न है । इसका प्रयोग थोड़ा सा रुकने के लिए किया जाता है । वाक्य (a) तथा (c) में अल्पविराम थोड़ा रुकावट तथा दो कार्यों के बीच अंतराल दिखाने के लिए किया गया है । वाक्य (b) में अल्प विराम का प्रयोग नहीं किया गया है । वाक्य में थोड़ा रुकने की कोई आवश्यकता नहीं है।

Things to do

  1. Choose an issue that has provoked a controversy like the Bhopal Gas Tragedy or the Narmada Dam Project in which the lives of the poor have been affected.
    भोपाल गैस त्रासदी या नर्मदा बाँध परियोजना जैसे किसी विवादग्रस्त मामले को चुनें जिसमें गरीब प्रभावित हुए हों ।
  2. Find out the facts of the case.
    मामले के तथ्यों का पता लगाओ ।
  3. Present your arguments.
    अपने तर्क दीजिए ।
  4. Suggest a possible settlement.
    सम्भावित समझौता सुझाएँ ।
    Answer:
    Acquisition of land by the Uttar Pradesh Government is a burning issue. The land acquired from the farmers has been sold to the builders. The Supreme Court of India has maintained that the disputed land be returned to the farmers.

It held that the emergency clause which the Government used to acquire land is not applicable here. The builders involved have invested hugely. Half erected buildings are standing in the fields. Various roads have been built. The land is perhaps no more cultivable.

In such a state of affairs, the farmers, builders and the government should try to find out such a solution that should be acceptable to all parties concerned. More money to the farmers might be one of the solutions.

उत्तर प्रदेश सरकार द्वारा भूमि अधिग्रहण एक ज्वलन्त विषय है । किसानों से अधिग्रहीत भूमि बिल्डर्स को बेच दी गई है। भारत के सर्वोच्च न्यायालय ने भूमि को किसानों का वापिस देने का आदेश किया । न्यायालय ने माना कि जिस नियम के अनुसार सरकार ने भूमि अधिग्रहीत की है वह यहाँ लागू नहीं होता है ।

सम्बन्धित बिल्डर्स ने भारी पैसा लगा दिया है । खेतों में अधबने भवन खड़े हैं । अनेक सड़कें बनाई जा चुकी हैं । शायद जमीन अब कृषि योग्य नहीं रही है । ऐसी स्थिति में, किसानों, बिल्डरों और सरकार को कोई ऐसा रास्ता निकालना चाहिए जो सभी सम्बन्धित पक्षों को स्वीकार्य हो । एक समाधान किसानों को अधिक पैसा देना हो सकता है।

RBSE Class 12 English Indigo Important Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions

Answer the following questions in about 20-25 words :

Question 1.
Which incident made Gandhi decide to urge the departure of the British ?
किस घटना से गाँधीजी ने अंग्रेजों पर भारत छोड़ने का दबाब बनाने का निश्चय कर लिया?
Answer:
The peasants at Champaran were being tortured by the British. This injustice touched Gandhi and he decided to urge the departure of the British.

चम्पारण के किसानों को अंग्रेज उत्पीड़ित कर रहे थे। इस अन्याय ने गाँधीजी को प्रभावित किया और उन्होने अंग्रेजों पर भारत छोड़ने का दबाब बनाने का निश्चय कर लिया ।

Question 2.
Who came to see Gandhi? How did he look ?
गाँधीजी से मिलने कौन आया ? वह कैसा दिखता था?
Answer:
A peasant, Rajkumar Shukla from Champaran came to see Gandhi. He looked like any other peasant in India, poor and emaciated.

चम्पारण का एक किसान, राजकुमार शुक्ला गाँधीजी से मिलने आया । वह भारत के किसी भी अन्य किसान की भाँति गरीब व दुबला-पतला दिख रहा था ।

Question 3.
Who was Rajkumar Shukla ? Why did he request Gandhiji to go to Champaran ?
राजकुमार शुक्ला कौन था ? उसने गाँधीजी से चम्पारण जाने की प्रार्थना क्यों की ?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was an illiterate poor farmer. He requested Gandhi to help the indigo sharecroppers of his area.
राजकुमार शुक्ला एक अनपढ़ गरीब किसान था । वह गाँधीजी से अपने क्षेत्र के नील की खेती करने वाले बँटाईदार किसानों की सहायता करने की प्रार्थना करने आया था

Question 4.
What did Rajkumar Shukla want ?
राजकुमार शुक्ला क्या चाहता था ?
Or
What request did Rajkumar Shukla make to Gandhi ?
राजकुमार शुक्ला ने गाँधीजी से क्या आग्रह किया ?
Answer:
Rajkumr Shukla told Gandhi about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar. He wanted Gandhi to come to Champaran and help the peasants of Champaran.

राजकुमार शुक्ला ने गाँधीजी को बिहार में जमींदारी-प्रथा के अन्याय के विषय में बताया । वह चाहता था कि गाँधीजी चम्पारण आयें और वहाँ के किसानों की सहायता करें।

Question 5.
How was Gandhiji received at the house of Rajendra Prasad ?
राजेन्द्र प्रसाद के घर में गाँधीजी का स्वागत किस प्रकार से किया गया ?
Or
Why was Gandhiji not allowed to draw water from the well at Rajendra Prasad’s house in Patna ?
पटना में राजेन्द्र प्रसाद के घर पर गाँधीजी को कुँए से पानी खींचने की अनुमति क्यों नहीं दी गयी?
Answer:
Thinking him to be an untouchable, Gandhiji was not allowed to draw water from the well at Rajendra Prasad’s house at Patna lest some drops from his bucket pollute the entire source.

पटना में राजेन्द्र प्रसाद के घर पर गाँधीजी को अछूत समझते हुए कुँए से पानी खींचने की अनुमति नहीं दी गई- कहीं ऐसा न हो कि उनकी बाल्टी से कुछ बूंदें सारे पानी को प्रदूषित कर दें ।

Question 6.
“It was an extraordinary thing in those days.” What was an extraordinary thing in those days, according to Gandhiji ?
“उन दिनों यह एक असाधारण चीज़ थी ।” गाँधीजी के अनुसार उन दिनों असाधारण चीज़ क्या थी ?
Answer:
In those pre-independence days, it was very difficult for a government official to give shelter to the leaders who were fighting for freedom.

स्वतन्त्रता पूर्व के दिनों में किसी सरकारी अफसर को उन नेताओं, जो स्वतन्त्रता की लड़ाई लड़ रहे थे, को शरण देना बहुत कठिन कार्य था ।

Question 7.
Why did Gandhi decide to go to Muzzafarpur ?
गाँधीजी ने मुजफ्फरपुर जाने का निश्चय क्यों किया ?
Answer:
Gandhi decided to go first to Muzzafarpur to obtain more complete information about the plight of the Champaran peasants.

चम्पारण के किसानों की दयनीय दशा के बारे में और अधिक पूर्ण जानकारी लेने के लिए गाँधीजी ने पहले मुजफ्फरपुर जाने का निश्चय किया ।

Question 8.
How was Gandhi welcomed at the Muzzafarpur railway station ?
मुज़फ्फरपुर रेलवे स्टेशन पर गाँधी जी का कैसा स्वागत हुआ ?
Answer:
When Gandhi’s train arrived, Professor J. B. Kriplani of the Arts College of Muzzafarpur was waiting at the station with a large body of students.

जब गाँधीजी की ट्रेन पहुँची, कला महाविद्यालय मुजफ्फरपुर के प्रोफेसर जे. बी. कृपलानी बहुत सारे छात्रों के साथ उनकी प्रतीक्षा कर रहे थे

Question 9.
What happened when Gandhi reached Muzzafarpur ?
गाँधीजी के मुजफ्फरपुर पहुँचने पर क्या हुआ ?
Answer:
As news of Gandhi’s arrival and of the nature of his mission spread, sharecroppers from Champran began arriving on foot and by conveyance to see him.

गाँधीजी के पहुँचने और उनके उद्देश्य की प्रकृति का समाचार जैसे ही फैला, चम्पारण के बँटाईदार पैदल और वाहनों से अपने नेता को देखने उमड़ पड़े

Question 10.
Why did Gandhiji chide the lawyers who called on him to brief him about the poor share croppers?
गाँधीजी ने उन वकीलों को क्यों लताड़ा जो उनको गरीब बँटाईदारों के विषय में अवगत कराने आये थे ?
Or
Why did Gandhiji scold the lawyers ?
गाँधीजी ने वकीलों को क्यों लताड़ा?
Answer:
Muzzafarpur lawyers who frequently represented peasant groups in court came to meet Gandhiji. He chided them for charging big fee from the poor sharecroppers.

मुजफ्फरपुर के वकील जो किसानों के समूहों का न्यायालय में प्रतिनिधित्व करते थे गाँधीजी से मिलने आए । गाँधीजी ने उन्हें गरीब किसानों से बड़ी फीस लेने के लिये लताड़ा

Question 11.
What was the condition of the arable land of Champaran when Gandhiji visited there?
जब गाँधीजी चम्पारण आए, वहाँ की कृषियोग्य भूमि की क्या स्थिति थी ?
Answer:
Most of the arable land in the Champaran district was divided into large estates. Britishers were the owners and Indian peasants worked in those estates.

चम्पारण जिले की ज्यादातर कृषि योग्य भूमि बड़ी-बड़ी जागीरों में बँटी थी । इन जागीरों के मालिक अंग्रेज थे और भारतीय किसान काम करते थे।

Question 12.
What conclusion did Gandhi present before the Muzzafarpur lawyers ?
गाँधीजी ने मुजफ्फरपुर के वकीलों के सामने क्या निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत किया ?
Answer:
Gandhi said to them that he had come to the conclusion that they should stop going to law courts. Taking such cases to the court did little good. Where the peasants were so crushed, the real relief for them was to be free from fear.

गाँधीजी ने उन लोगों से कहा-मैं इस निष्कर्ष पर पहुँचा हूँ कि हमें न्यायालयों में जाना बन्द कर देना चाहिए। ऐसे मामलों को न्यायालय में ले जाने से कुछ भला होने वाला नहीं है। जहाँ किसान इतने दबे कुचले हैं, उनके वास्तविक राहत भय से मुक्त होने में है ।

Question 13.
What was the ancient arrangement between the peasants and landlords at Champaran ?
चम्पारण में किसानों व जमींदारों के बीच बहुत पुराना क्या समझौता था ?
Answer:
Most of the arable land there was divided into large estates owned by Britishers and worked by Indian tenants. The landlords compelled them to plant indigo on the 15% of their land and surrender the entire harvest.

वहाँ की ज्यादातर कृषि योग्य भूमि बड़ी-बड़ी जागीरों में बँटी थी जिसके मालिक अंग्रेज थे और जिस पर भारतीय काश्तकार काम करते थे । वे काश्तकारों को उनकी जमीन की 15% भूमि पर नील बोने और उसकी पूरी फसल को उन्हें देने के लिए मजबूर करते थे ।

Question 14.
Why did the poor peasants of Champaran want their money back ?
चम्पारण के गरीब किसान अपना पैसा वापिस क्यों चाहते थे ?
Answer:
The British landlords had taken compensation from the poor peasants to free them from the agreement. Now they wanted their money back.

अंग्रेज जमींदार किसानों को समझौते से मुक्त करने के लिए क्षतिपूर्ति ले चुके थे । इस पर, उन्होनें (किसानों ने) अपना पैसा वापिस लेना चाहा ।

Question 15.
What did Gandhiji do after knowing the miserable condition of the farmers at Champaran?
चम्पारण के किसानों की खराब स्थिति का पता लगने के बाद गाँधीजी ने क्या किया ?
Answer:
First, Gandhiji visited the secretary of the British landlords’ association. Then he called on the British official commissioner of the Tirhut division. He then went to Motihari and continued his investigation.

पहले गाँधीजी ब्रिटिश लैण्डलॉर्ड एसोसिएशन के सेक्रेटरी के पास गये । तब वे तिरहुत डिवीजन के ब्रिटिश कमिश्नर के पास गये । तब वे मोतिहारी गये और वहाँ अपनी जांच जारी रखी।

Question 16.
How did Gandhiji start his work at Motihari?
मोतिहारी में गाँधीजी ने अपना कार्य किस प्रकार शुरू किया ?
Answer:
Accompanied with several lawyers, Gandhi reached Motihari. He went to a house, and using it as headquarters, continued his investigation.

रेलवे स्टेशन पर भारी संख्या में लोगों ने गाँधी का स्वागत किया । वह एक घर में गये और उसे मुख्यालय बनाकर अपनी जाँच-पड़ताल जारी रखी ।

Question 17.
How did British landlords compel poor peasants ?
अंग्रेज जमींदार गरीब किसानों को किस प्रकार मजबूर करते थे ?
Answer:
British landlords compelled poor peasants to plant 15 percent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent.

अंग्रेज जमींदार गरीब किसानों को उनकी पूरी जमीन के 15 प्रतिशत भाग पर नील की खेती करने और नील की पूरी फ़सल को भाड़े के रूप में देने को मजबूर करते थे।

Question 18.
How did Gandhiji impress the lawyers of Bihar during his visit to Champaran ?
गाँधीजी ने अपनी चम्पारण. यात्रा के दौरान बिहार के वकीलों को किस प्रकार प्रभावित किया?
Answer:
Gandhiji chided the lawyers of Bihar for charging big fee from the poor peasants. He told them that it was futile to take their cases to the law courts.

गाँधीजी ने गरीब किसानों से अधिक फीस वसूलने पर बिहार के वकीलों को बुरा-भला कहा । उन्होंने वकीलों से कहा कि किसानों के मसलों को न्यायालय में ले जाना बेकार है ।

Question 19.
Give an example of Gandhi’s civil disobedience.
गाँधीजी की सविनय अवज्ञा का एक उदाहरण दीजिए ।
Answer:
At Motihari, Gandhi was served an official notice to quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi disobeyed the order:

मोतिहारी में गाँधीजी को तुरन्त चम्पारण छोड़ने का एक आधिकारिक नोटिस मिला ।। उन्होंने उस आदेश की अवज्ञा की ।

Question 20.
What happened when Gandhi did not comply with the official notice ?
जब गाँधीजी ने अधिकारिक नोटिस का सम्मान नहीं किया तो क्या हुआ ?
Answer:
For this, Gandhi received summons to appear in the court the next day. Gandhi telegraphed Rajendra Prasad.He also wired a full report to the Viceroy.

इसके लिए, गाँधी को अगले दिन न्यायालय में उपस्थित होने का आदेश दे दिया गया । गाँधी जी ने राजेन्द्र प्रसाद को टेलिग्राम भेजा । उन्होंने वायसराय को भी एक पूरी रिपोर्ट तार कर दी ।।

Question 21.
Describe the incident that was the beginning of the peasants’ liberation from fear of the British?
उस घटना का वर्णन कीजिए जो अंग्रेजों के भय से किसानों की मुक्ति की शुरुआत थी ?
Answer:
The spontaneous demonstration of peasants in thousands around the courthouse in Motihari was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British.

मोतीहारी के न्यायालय के चारों ओर हजारों की संख्या में किसानों का सहज प्रदर्शन अंग्रेजों के भय से उनकी मुक्ति की शुरुआत थी ।

Question 22.
Why was the government baffled when Gandhiji presented himself in the court ?
जब गाँधीजी न्यायालय में पेश हुए तो सरकार पूरी तरह से क्यों घबरा गयी ?
Answer:
When Gandhiji presented himself in the court, the government was baffled because thousands of people gathered round the court in support of Gandhiji.

जब गाँधीजी ने न्यायालय में स्वयं को पेश किया तो सरकार (ब्रिटिश) पूरी तरह घबरा गयी क्योंकि गाँधीजी के समर्थन में हजारों की संख्या में लोग न्यायालय के चारों ओर एकत्रित हो गये ।

Question 23.
How did Gandhi show respect to law ?
गाँधीजी ने कानून के प्रति सम्मान किस प्रकार दिखाया?
Answer:
When a crowd of peasants demonstrated in Gandhi’s favour, he helped the officials regulate the crowd and proved to them that their might could be challenged by IndiAnswer:

जब गाँधीजी के समर्थन में किसानों की भीड़ ने प्रदर्शन किया तो गाधीजी ने भीड़ को संयमित करने में अधिकारियों की सहायता की और यह सिद्ध कर दिया कि भारतीय अंग्रेजों की शक्ति को चुनौती देने में समर्थ थे

Question 24.
‘It would be a shameful desertion’. What would be a shameful desertion according to the lesson ‘Indigo’ ?
‘यह एक शर्मनाक पलायन होगा ।’ ‘Indigo’ पाठ के अनुसार कौन-सी बात शर्मनाक होगी?
Answer:
When the lawyers realised that despite being a stranger, Gandhiji was ready to go to prison for the peasants, they felt that their giving up the fight would be a shameful desertion.

जब वकीलों ने यह महसूस किया कि बाहरी व्यक्ति होने के बावजूद भी गाँधीजी गरीब किसानों के लिए जेल जाने को तैयार थे, तो उन्होंने यह महसूस किया कि यदि वे इस लड़ाई को त्यागेंगे तो यह शर्मनाक होगा ।

Question 25.
How did the civil disbsodience come out triumphant ?
सविनय अवज्ञा की किस प्रकार जीत हुई ?
Answer:
The baffled Lieutenant Governor of the province ordered the case against Gandhi to be dropped. Hence, civil disobedience had triumphed.

स्थिति से घबराकर उस राज्य के लेफ्टिनेन्ट जनरल ने गाँधी के खिलाफ केस समाप्त करने का आदेश दे दिया । अतः सविनय अवज्ञा की जीत हो गई थी।

Question 26.
What did Gandhiji and the lawyers of Bihar do to conduct a far flung inquiry into the grievances of the farmers ?
किसानों की शिकायतों की व्यापक जाँच करने के लिए गाँधीजी और बिहार के वकीलों ने क्या किया ?
Answer:
For this, Gandhiji and the lawyers of Bihar wrote down formal statements of about ten thousand peasants and made notes on other evidences. They collected evidence from the whole area.

इसके लिए, गाँधीजी और बिहार के वकीलों ने लगभग दस हजार किसानों के औपचारिक बयान लिखे और अन्य साक्ष्यों के आधार पर टिप्पणियाँ लिखीं । उन्होंने पूरे क्षेत्र से साक्ष्य एकत्र किए ।

Question 27.
How was the commission of inquiry appointed ? Whom did it consist of ?
पूछताछ हेतु आयोग किस प्रकार नियुक्त किया गया ? इसमें कौन-कौन से लोग थे ?
Answer:
The Lieutenant Governor appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo share croppers’ situation. The commission consisted of landlords, government officials, and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants.

लेफ्टिनेन्ट गर्वनर ने नील के बंटाईदारों की स्थिति का पता लगाने के लिए एक आधिकारिक आयोग नियुक्त कर दिया । इस आयोग में जमींदार, सरकारी अधिकारी, और किसानों के एकमात्र प्रतिनिधि के रूप में गाँधीजी थे ।

Question 28.
How did the big planters get ready to make refunds to the peasants ?
बड़े जमींदार किसानों को उनका पैसा वापस करने का क्यों तैयार हो गये ?
Answer:
The official inquiry assembled a crushing mountain of evidence against the big planters. When they saw this, they agreed to make refunds to the peasants.

अधिकारिक जाँच में बड़े जमींदारों के विरुद्ध साक्ष्यों का पहाड़ इकट्ठा हो गया । जब उन्होंने यह देखा तो वे किसानों का पैसा वापस करने को तैयार हो गये ।

Question 29.
How did Gandhi break the deadlock about the refund of money to the peasants ?
किसानों को उनका पैसा वापस किये जाने सम्बन्धी गतिरोध को गाँधी जी ने किस प्रकार समाप्त किया ?
Answer:
Thinking probably that Gandhi would not give way, the representative of the planters offered to refund to the extent of 25 percent. To his amazement, Gandhi took him at his word, and thus broke the deadlock.

शायद यह सोचकर कि गाँधीजी नहीं झुकेंगें, जमींदारों के प्रतिनिधि ने 25 प्रतिशत तक पैसा वापस करने का प्रस्ताव रखा । गाँधीजी ने उसे आश्चर्यचकित करते हुए उसकी बात पकड़ ली (मान ली) और इस प्रकार गतिरोध समाप्त कर दिया ।

Question 30.
Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory?
यद्यपि चम्पारण के बँटाईदारों को हर्जाने की राशि का मात्र एक चौथाई ही प्राप्त हुआ, फिर भी चम्पारण के संघर्ष को एक बड़ी सफलता व विजय किस प्रकार कहा जा सकता है?
Answer:
The Champaran struggle can be termed a huge success and victory in the sense that it had forced the landords to surrender not only some money, but also a part of their prestige.

चम्पारण के संघर्ष को एक बड़ी सफलता व विजय इस रूप में कहा जा सकता है कि इसने जमींदारों को न. केवल उनका कुछ धन, बल्कि उनकी प्रतिष्ठा का भी एक अंश त्यागने को बाध्य कर दिया।

Question 31.
How did the peasants learn courage ?
किसानों ने साहस किस प्रकार सीखा ?
Answer:
When the planters were forced to refund the peasants’ money, as well as surrender part of their prestige, the peasants saw that they too had rights.

They learned courage को किसानों का पैसा वापिस करना पड़ा और साथ ही उनकी शान भी कम हुई तो किसानों ने देखा कि उनके भी अधिकार हैं । उन्होंने साहस करना सीख लिया ।

Question 32.
How did events justify Gandhi’s position ?
घटनाओं ने गाँधीजी की स्थिति को किस प्रकार सही सिद्ध किया ?
Or
How did indigo sharecropping disppear ?
नील की बँटाई पर खेती किस प्रकार समाप्त हो गई ?
Answer:
The British planters abandoned their estates, which was reverted to the peasants. This justified Gandhi’s position, and indigo sharecropping disappeared.

अंग्रेज जागीरदारों ने अपनी जागीरें छोड़ दी जो किसानों को वापस मिल गईं । इस तरह की घटनाओं ने गाँधीजी की स्थिति को सही सिद्ध किया और नील की बँटाई पर खेती समाप्त हो गई ।

Question 33.
How do you know that Gandhi was a good administrator?
आपको कैसे पता चलता है कि गाँधीजी एक अच्छे प्रशासक थे ?
Answer:
During his long stay in Champaran, Gandhi kept a long distance watch on his ashram. He sent regular instructions by mail and asked for financial accounts.

चम्पारण में अपने लम्बे प्रवास के दौरान गाँधीजी दूर से ही अपने आश्रम पर नज़र रखते थे । वह नियमित रूप से डाक द्वारा निर्देश भेजते रहते थे और वित्तीय लेखा-जोखा मँगाते रहते थे ।

Question 34.
What type of politics did Gandhi follow ? गाँधी किस प्रकार की राजनीति करते थे ?
Answer:
Gandhi’s politics was intertwined with the practical, day-to-day problems of the people. He always tried to remove the distress of the common people.

गाँधीजी की राजनीति लोगों की व्यावहारिक, दिन-प्रतिदिन की समस्याओं से जुड़ी थी । वह हमेशा आम जन के दुखों को दूर करने का प्रयास करते थे ।

Question 35.
Why did Gandhiji oppose when his friend Andrews offered to stay in Champaran and help the peasants?
गाँधी जी ने अपने मित्र Andrews के चम्पारण में रहकर किसानों की सहायता करने के प्रस्ताव का विरोध क्यों किया?
Answer:
Gandhiji opposed this because using an Englishman as a prop in the fight against the English rule showed weakness. He believed that Indians had to rely on themselves to win their battle.

गाँधीजी ने इस बात का विरोध इसलिए किया क्योंकि अंग्रेजी शासन के विरुद्ध युद्ध में एक अंग्रेज को सहारे की भाँति प्रयोग करने से दुर्बलता प्रदर्शित होती। उनका मानना था कि अपना युद्ध जीतने के लिए भारतीयों को स्वयं पर निर्भर रहना होगा।

Question 36.
How long did Gandhiji stay in Champaran ? On whose request did he remain there ?
गाँधीजी चम्पारण में कितने समय रहे ? किसकी प्रार्थना पर वे वहाँ रहे ?
Answer:
Gandhiji visited Champaran on the request of Rajkumar Shukla. He stayed there for about a year.
गाँधीजी राजकुमार शुक्ला की प्रार्थना पर चम्पारण गये । वे वहाँ लंगभग एक वर्ष ठहरे ।

Long Answer Type Questions

Answer the following questions in about 80 words :

Question 1.
“The battle of Champaran is won,” Explain the statement.
“चम्पारण की लड़ाई जीत ली गई है,” इस कथन को स्पष्ट कीजिए ।
Or
Narrate the incident that is an example of Gandhi’s civil disobedience.
उस घटना का वर्णन कीजिए जो गाँधीजी की सविनय अवज्ञा का एक उदाहरण है ।
Answer:
In 1917, Gandhi visited Champaran to do something about the miserable condition of the farmers. He was served a notice to quit Champaran but Gandhiji disobeyed the order. He was summouned to the court the next day for disobeying the order of leaving Champaran.

On the next morning, thousands of peasants gathered to support Gandhiji. When Gandhiji saw that the public was ready to support him and to go to jail with him in the protest against the policy of the government, Gandhiji exclaimed, “The battle of Champaran is won.” It is an example of his civil disobedience.

सन् 1917 में गाँधी चम्पारण के किसानों की दयनीय दशा सुधारने हेतु चम्पारण गए । गाँधी को चम्पारण छोड़ने के अदालती आदेश की अवहेलना करने के कारण उन्हें अगले दिन न्यायालय में उपस्थित होने का कानूनी आदेश मिल गया। दूसरे दिन प्रात:काल गाँधीजी के समर्थन में हजारों किसान एकत्र हो गये ।

जब गाँधीजी ने देखा कि सारी जनता उनके साथ सरकारी नीति का विरोध करने और जेल जाने को तैयार है तब गाँधीजी ने घोषणा की कि “चम्पारण की लड़ाई जीत ली गई है ।” यह उनकी सविनय अवज्ञा का एक उदाहरण है।

Question 2.
What did Gandhi do about the cultural and social backwardness of the Champaran villages at that time?
उस समय चम्पारण के गाँवों में सांस्कृतिक और सामाजिक पिछड़ेपन को दूर करने के लिए गाँधीजी ने क्या किया?
Answer:
For this, Gandhi appealed to teachers. Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parekh with their wives volunteered for work. Several more came forward from all over the country to give their services. His son Devdas and the wife of Gandhiji, Kasturbai, also came there.

Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturbai taught the rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation. Gandhiji got a doctor to volunteer his services for six months. Gandhiji also noticed the filthy state of women’s clothes. He asked Kasturbai to talk to them about it.

इसके लिए सर्वप्रथम गाँधी ने अध्यापकों से अपील की । महादेव देसाई, नरहरि पारेख और उनकी पत्नियों ने इस काम के लिए स्वयं को पेश किया । देशभर से और भी कई लोग अपनी सेवाएं देने के लिए आगे आए। उनका पुत्र देवदास और गाँधीजी की पत्नी कस्तूरबाई भी वहाँ आ गईं । छ: गाँवों में प्राइमरी स्कूल खोले गए।

कस्तूरबाई वैयक्तिक स्वच्छता और सामुदायिक स्वच्छता के नियम सिखाती थीं । गाँधीजी को छ: माह तक स्वेच्छा से अथवा नि:शुल्क सेवा करने के लिए एक डॉक्टर मिल गया । गाँधीजी ने महिलाओं के कपड़ों की गन्दी हालत की तरफ भी विशेष ध्यान दिया । उन्होंने कस्तूरबाई से उनसे इस विषय में बात करने को कहा ।

Question 3.
What was the beginning of the peasants’ liberation from fear of the British ? Write your answer with reference to the farmers of Champaran.
ब्रिटिश लोगों के डर से किसानों की मुक्ति की शुरुआत क्या थी ? चम्पारण के किसानों के सन्दर्भ में अपना उत्तर दीजिए।
Or
Why is Champaran episode considered to be the beginning of the Indian struggle for independence ?
चम्पारन की घटना भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संघर्ष की शुरुआत क्यों समझी जाती है?
Answer:
When a report came to Gandhiji that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village, he started out to see him. But the police stopped him and served him a notice to leave Champaran immediately. He decided not to obey the British. Then he was summoned to the court. Hearing this, peasants came to Motihari in large number to support their champion.

Now Gandhiji declared that gathering in thousands around the court house was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British. Thus, Champaran episode was considered to be the beginning of the Indian struggle for independence.

जब गाँधीजी के पास एक सूचना आई कि वहाँ निकट के एक गाँव में एक किसान के साथ दुर्व्यवहार किया गया है, तब वे उसे देखने निकल पड़े। लेकिन पुलिस ने उन्हें रोक दिया और उन्हें शीघ्र चम्पारण छोड़ने का नोटिस दे दिया । उन्होंने अंग्रेजों की आज्ञा न मानने का निश्चय कर लिया ।

तब उन्हें न्यायालय बुलाया गया।’ यह सुनकर, किसान अपने हिमायती के समर्थन में बहुत बड़ी संख्या में मोतिहारी आये। अब गाँधीजी ने घोषणा की कि न्यायालय के इर्द-गिर्द हजारों की संख्या में उनका प्रदर्शन अंग्रेजों के भय से उनकी मुक्ति की शुरुआत थी । इस प्रकार चम्पारन की घटना भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संघर्ष की शुरुआत समझी जाती है।

Question 4.
What was the contribution of the ordinary people to the freedom movement ?
[Note — इस प्रश्न के उत्तर के लिए Understanding the text के प्रश्न नं. 4 का उत्तर देखिये ।]

Question 5.
What problems did the sharecroppers of Champaran face ? How did Gandhiji help them overcome the problems ?
[Note – इस प्रश्न के उत्तर के लिए Understanding the text के प्रश्न नं. 1 का उत्तर देखिये ।]

Question 6.
Why was the official inquiry commission appointed ? What did the findings of the commission reveal ? What was its impact on British planters ?
सरकारी जाँच आयोग की नियुक्ति क्यों की गयी थी ? आयोग की जाँच से क्या उजागर हुआ ? इसका अंग्रेज जमींदारों पर क्या प्रभाव पड़ा ?
Answer:
Gandhiji compelled the British authorities to take note of the poor peasants’ plight. The Lieutenant Governor appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo sharecroppers’ situation. The findings of the commission revealed the plight of the peasants of Champaran.

Seeing this, the British planters agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants. They agreed to pay 25% of the money which they had illegally and deceitfully extorted from the sharecroppers.

गाँधीजी ने अंग्रेजों को मजबूर कर दिया कि वे गरीब किसानों की परेशानी पर ध्यान दें । लेफ्टिनेंट कमिश्नर ने नील के बँटाईदारों की स्थिति की जाँच के लिए एक सरकारी आयोग नियुक्त किया । इस सरकारी जाँच ने बड़े जमींदारों के विरुद्ध बहुत से साक्ष्य एकत्र किये । आयोग की जाँच ने स्पष्ट किया कि चम्पारण के किसान दयनीय दशा में थे । . यह देखकर अंग्रेज जमींदार सैद्धान्तिक रूप में किसानों को पैसा लौटाने के लिए सहमत हो गये । वे बँटाईदारों से गैरकानूनी रूप से और धोखे से ऐंठे गये पैसे का 25% लौटाने को सहमत हो गए ।

Question 7.
The lesson ‘Indigo’ brings out several qualities of Gandhiji’s character. Write your answer.
‘Indigo’ पाठ गाँधीजी के चरित्र की अनेक विशेषताओं को उजागर करता है । अपना उत्तर लिखिए ।
Answer:
Gandhiji was a very simple man. He was available even to an illiterate peasant like Rajkumar – Shukla. He did everything systematically. He did not at once plunge into fight. Instead he first understood the problem and worked out a plan and acted accordingly.

The impetus behind all his actions was the plight of the poor and the downtrodden. And as for his courage, it was par excellence. He was also a good administrator. During his long stay at Champaran, he kept a long distance watch at his ashram through mail.

गाँधीजी बहुत ही सरल व्यक्ति थे । वे राजकुमार शुक्ला जैसे अनपढ़ किसान के लिए भी सुलभ थे । वे प्रत्येक कार्य को व्यवस्थित तरीके से करते थे । वे तुरन्त ही लड़ाई में नहीं कूदते थे । बजाय इसके वह पहले समस्या को समझते थे, एक योजना बनाते थे और तदनुरूप कार्य करते थे ।

उनके हर कार्य के पीछे की शक्ति दलित और गरीब की परेशानी होती थी । और जहाँ तक उनकी बहादुरी का सवाल है, यह उच्चकोटि का था । वह एक अच्छे प्रशासक भी थे । चम्पारण में अपने लम्बे प्रवास के दौरान वे दूर से ही डाक द्वारा अपने आश्रम पर नज़र रखते थे ।

Question 8.
Describe the difficulties faced by Gandhiji at Champaran.
चम्पारण में गाँधीजी ने जिन कठिनाइयों का सामना किया, उनका वर्णन कीजिए ।
Answer:
Gandhiji went to Champaran at the request of a peasant, Rajkumar Shukla. The peasants there were suffering from the injustice of the landlord system. In order to get the facts, he visited the secretary of the British landlords’ association.

The secretary gave him no information. Then he met the British official commissioner of that division. He proceeded to buly him and advised him to go away from there. Gandhi received summons to appear in court the next day for disobeying the court order of leaving Champaran.

गाँधीजी एक किसान राजकुमार शुक्ला के आग्रह पर चम्पारण गये । वहाँ के किसान जमींदारी व्यवस्था के अन्याय से पीड़ित थे । तथ्यों का पता लगाने के लिए गाँधीजी ब्रिटिश जमींदार संघ के सचिव से मिलने गये । सचिव ने उन्हें कोई सूचना नहीं दी। फिर वह उस डिवीजन के अंग्रेज आधिकारिक कमिश्नर से मिले। वह उन्हें धमकाने लगा और उन्हें वहाँ से चले जाने की सलाह दी । गाँधी को चम्पारण छोड़ने के अदालती आदेश की अवहेलना करने पर न्यायालय, में उपस्थित होने का आदेश दिया गया ।

Question 9.
How did Gandhiji help the peasants in Champaran ?
गाँधीजी ने चम्पारण में किसानों की सहायता किस प्रकार की ?
Answer:
The peasants in Champaran were being exploited by the British landlords. Gandhiji stood up as their leader. With his bold efforts and through civil disobedience, he got the poor peasants in Champaran win their battle against injustice and exploitation.

Gandhiji worked for their cultural and social upliftment also. He opened primary schools in six villages. His wife Kasturba taught the villagers rules on personal cleanliness as well as community sanitation. Thus Gandhiji helped the peasants in Champaran people politically as well as socially.

चम्पारण में अंग्रेज जमींदार किसानों का शोषण कर रहे थे । गाँधीजी उनके नेता के रूप में खड़े हुए । अपने बहादुरीपूर्ण प्रयासों और सविनय अवज्ञा के माध्यम से उन्होंने चम्पारण के गरीब किसानों को अन्याय व शोषण के विरुद्ध उनके युद्ध में विजय दिलाई । गाँधीजी ने उनके सांस्कृतिक व सामाजिक उद्धार के लिए भी कार्य किया। उन्होंने छः गाँवों में प्राथमिक विद्यालय खोले । उनकी पत्नी कस्तूरबा ने ग्रामीणों को व्यक्तिगत व सामुदायिक स्वच्छता के नियम सिखाए । इस प्रकार गाँधीजी ने चम्पारण के किसानों की राजनीतिक और सामाजिक दोनों प्रकार से सहायता की ।

Seen comprehension passages

Read the following passages and answer the questions given below:

Passage 1.

When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, in central India, he said, “I will tell you how it happened that I decided to urge the departure of the British. It was in 1917.” He had gone to the December 1916 annual convention of the Indian National Congress party in Lucknow. There were 2,301 delegates and many visitors.

During the proceedings, Gandhi recounted, “a peasant came up to me looking like any other peasant in India, poor and emaciated, and said, ‘I am Rajkumar Shukla. I am from Champaran, and I want you to come to my district!” Gandhi had never heard of the place. It was in the foothills of the towering Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal.

Under an ancient arrangement, the Champaran peasants were sharecroppers. Rajkumar Shukla was one of them. He was illiterate but resolute. He had come to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar, and somebody had probably said, “Speak to Gandhi.”

Questions:

  1. Which event took place in December 1916?
  2. What was the name of the peasant and where did he come from?
  3. Where is Champaran located?
  4. What had the peasant come to complain about?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘leaving’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to “modern’.
    Answers:
  7. Annual convention of the Indian National Congress party in Lucknow took place in December 1916.
  8. The name of the peasant was Rajkumar Shukla and he came from Champaran.
  9. Champaran is located in the foothills of the Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal.
  10. The peasant had come to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar.
  11. departure.
  12. ancient.

Passage 2.

Gandhi told Shukla he had an appointment in Cawnpore and was also committed to go to other parts of India. Shukla accompanied him everywhere. Then Gandhi returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad. Shukla followed him to the ashram. For weeks he never left Gandhi’s side. “Fix a date,” he begged.

Impressed by the sharecropper’s tenacity and story Gandhi said, “I have to be in Calcutta on such-and-such a date. Come and meet me and take me from there.” Months passed. Shukla was sitting on his haunches at the appointed spot in Calcutta when Gandhi arrived; he waited till Gandhi was free. Then the two of them boarded a train for the city of Patna in Bihar.

Questions:

  1. What did Gandhi tell Shukla?
  2. Where did Gandhi return to?
  3. What was Gandhi impressed with?
  4. To which place did the two of them board a train?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means “pleaded’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to‘got off.
    Answers:
  7. Gandhi told Shukla that he had an appointment at Cawnpore and was also committed to go to other parts of India.
  8. Gandhi returned to his ashram near Ahmedabad.
  9. Gandhi was impressed by Shukla’s tenacity and story.
  10. Both of them boarded a train for the city of Patna in Bihar.
  11. begged.
  12. boarded.

Passage 3.

There Shukla led him to the house of a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad who later became President of the Congress party and of India. Rajendra Prasad was out of town, but the servants knew Shukla as a poor yeoman who pestered their master to help the indigo sharecroppers. So they let him stay on the grounds with his companion, Gandhi, whom they took to be another peasant. But Gandhi was not permitted to draw water from the well lest some drops from his bucket pollute the entire source; how did they know that hewas not an untouchable?

Gandhi decided to go first to Muzzafarpur, which was en route to Champaran, to obtain more complete information about conditions than Shukla was capable of imparting. He accordingly sent a telegram to Professor J.B. Kripalani, of the Arts College in Muzzafarpur, whom he had seen at Tagore’s Shantiniketan school.

Questions:

  1. Who was Rajendra Prasad?
  2. What did the servants know Shukla as?
  3. Why was Gandhi not permitted to draw water from the well?
  4. Where did Gandhi decide to go first?
  5. Find the word from the passage which is the synonym of ‘in Britain a farmer who : owned the land on which he worked’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is the antonym of ‘touchable’.
    Answers:
  7. Rajendra Prasad was a lawyer, who later became President of the Congress party and of India.
  8. The servants knew Shukla as a poor yeoman who pestered their master to help the indigo sharecroppers.
  9. Gandhi was not allowed to draw water from the well in suspicion of being an untouchable.
  10. Gandhi decided to go first to Muzzafarpur.
  11. yeoman.
  12. untouchable.

Passage 4.

Gandhi stayed there for two days in the home of Professor Malkani, a teacher in a government school. “It was an extraordinary thing in those days,” Gandhi commented, “for a government professor to harbour a man like me”. In smaller localities, the Indians were afraid to show sympathy for advocates of home-rule.

The news of Gandhi’s advent and of the nature of his mission spread quickly through Muzzafarpur and to Champaran. Sharecroppers from Champaran began arriving on foot and by conveyance to see their champion. Muzzafarpur lawyers called on Gandhi to brief him; they frequently represented peasant groups in court; they told him about their cases and reported the size of their fee.

Gandhi chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. He said, “I have come to the conclusion that we should stop going to law courts. Taking such cases to the courts does little good. Where the peasants are so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts are useless. The real relief for them is to be free from fear.”

Questions:

  1. Where did Gandhi stay for two days?
  2. According to Gandhi, what was ‘an extraordinary thing in those days?
  3. Who was the champion of sharecroppers from Muzzafarpur?
  4. Why did Gandhi chide the lawyers?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘arrival.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘bad’.
    Answers:
  7. Gandhi stayed for two days in the home of Professor Malkani, a teacher in a government school.
  8. According to Gandhi, it was an extraordinary thing in those days for a government professor to harbour a man like him.
  9. Gandhi was the champion of sharecroppers from Muzzafarpur.
  10. Gandhiji chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the poor peasants.
  11. advent.
  12. good.

Passage 5.

Most of the arable land in the Champaran district was divided into large estates owned by Englishmen’and worked by Indian tenants. The chief commercial crop was indigo. The landlords compelled all tenants to plant three twentieths or 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. This was done by long-term contract.

Presently, the landlords learned that Germany had developed synthetic indigo. They, thereupon, obtained agreements from the sharecroppers to pay them compensation for being released from the 15 percent arrangement. The sharecropping arrangement was irksome to the peasants, and many signed willingly. Those who resisted, engaged lawyers; the landlords hired thugs. Meanwhile, the information about synthetic indigo reached the illiterate peasants who had signed, and they wanted their money back.

Questions:

  1. How was most of the arable land in the Champaran district divided?
  2. What was the chief commercial crop?
  3. Which country had developed synthetic indigo?
  4. For whom did the sharecropping agreement prove to be irksome?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means “forced’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘literate’.
    Answers:
  7. Most of the arable land in Champaran was divided into large estates owned by Englishmen and worked by Indian tenants.
  8. Indigo was the chief commercial crop.
  9. Germany had developed synthetic indigo.
  10. The sharecropping agreement proved to be irksome for the peasants.
  11. compelled.
  12. illiterate.

Passage 6.

He began by trying to get the facts. First he visited the secretary of the British landlord’s association. The secretary told him that they could give no information to an outsider. Gandhi answered that he was no outsider. Next, Gandhi called on the British official commissioner of the Tirhut division in which the Champaran district lay.

“The commissioner,” Gandhi reports, “proceeded to bully me and advised me forthwith to leave Tirhut.” Gandhi did not leave. Instead he proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran. Several lawyers accompanied him. At the railway station, a vast multitude greeted Gandhi. He went to a house and, using it as headquarters, continued his investigations.

Questions:

  1. Whom did Gandhi visit first?
  2. Whom did Gandhi call next?
  3. What did the commissioner advise Gandhi?
  4. Where did Gandhi proceed to, instead of leaving?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means to give threat.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘small.
    Answers:
  7. First, Gandhi visited the secretary of the British landlord’s association.
  8. Next, he called on the British official commissioner of the Tirhut division in which the Champaran district lay.
  9. The commissioner advised Gandhi to leave Tirhut.
  10. Instead of leaving, Gandhi proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran.
  11. bully.
  12. vast.

Passage 7.

A report came in that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhi decided to go and see; the next morning he started out on the back of an elephant. He had not proceeded far when the police superintendent’s messenger overtook him and ordered him to return to town in his carriage. Gandhi complied.

The messenger drove Gandhi home where he served him with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice and wrote on it that he would disobey the order. In consequence, Gandhi received a summons to appear in court the next day.All night Gandhi remained awake. He telegraphed Rajendra Prasad to come from Bihar with influential friends. He sent instructions to the ashram. He wired a full report to the Viceroy.

Morning found the town of Motihari black with peasants. They did not know Gandhi’s record in South Africa. They had merely heard that a Mahatma who wanted to help them was in trouble with the authorities. Their spontaneous demonstration, in thousands, around the courthouse was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British.

Questions:

  1. What was the report?
  2. What did the messenger serve Gandhi with?
  3. What was Gandhi’s reaction to this?
  4. What was the beginning of the liberation of the peasants from fear of the British?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘obeyed.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to “lost’.
    Answers:
  7. A report came in that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village.
  8. The messenger served Gandhi with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately.
  9. In reaction, Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice and wrote on it that he would disobey the order.
  10. The spontaneous demonstration of the peasants in thousands around the courthouse was the beginning of their liberation from fear of the British.
  11. complied
  12. found.

Passage 8.

The government was baffled. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone the trial. Apparently, the authorities wished to consult their superiors. Gandhi protested against the delay. He read a statement pleading guilty. He was involved, he told the court, in a “conflict of duties” – on the one hand, not to set a bad example as a lawbreaker; on the other hand, to render the “humanitarian and national service” for which he had come.

He disregarded the order to leave, “not for want of respect for lawful authority, but in obedience to the higher law of our being, the voice of conscience”. He asked the penalty due. The magistrate announced that he would pronounce sentence after a two-hour recess and asked Gandhi to furnish bail for those 120 minutes. Gandhi refused. The judge released him without bail.

Questions:

  1. What did the prosecutor request the judge?
  2. Why did Gandhi protest?
  3. According to Gandhi, what was the conflict of duties’ in which he was involved?
  4. Why did Gandhi disregard the order to leave?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘opposed’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to consented to’.
    Answers:
  7. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone Gandhi’s trial.
  8. Gandhi protested against the delay.
  9. Gandhi was involved in a “conflict of duties”— on the one hand, not to set a bad example as a lawbreaker; on the other hand, to render the “humanitarian and national service” for which he had come.
  10. Gandhi disregarded the order to leave in obedience to the higher law of their being, the voice of conscience.
  11. protested.
  12. refused.

Passage 9.

Rajendra Prasad, Brij Kishor Babu, Maulana Mazharul Huq and several other prominent lawyers had arrived from Bihar. They conferred with Gandhi. What would they do if he was sentenced to prison, Gandhi asked. Why, the senior lawyer replied, they had come to advise and help him; if he went to jail there would be nobody to advise and they would go home. What about the injustice to the sharecroppers, Gandhi demanded.

The lawyers withdrew to consult. Rajendra Prasad has recorded the upshot of their consultations – “They thought, amongst themselves, that Gandhi was totally a stranger, and yet he was prepared to go to prison for the sake of the peasants; if they, on the other hand, being not only residents of the adjoining districts but also those who claimed to have served these peasants, should go home, it would be shameful desertion.”

Questions:

  1. What are the names of the prominent lawyers in the above passage?
  2. Where did they belong to?
  3. What was Gandhi prepared to do?
  4. What did Gandhi ask the lawyers?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘discussed’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to “justice’.
    Answers:
  7. Rajendra Prasad, Brij Kishor Babu, Maulana Mazharul Huq are among the prominent lawyers.
  8. They belonged to Bihar.
  9. Gandhi was prepared to go to jail in support of peasants.
  10. Gandhi asked the lawyers what they would do if he was sent to jail.
  11. conferred.
  12. injustice.

Passage 10.

Several days later, Gandhi received a written communication from the magistrate informing him that the Lieutenant-Governor of the province had ordered the case to be dropped. Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first time in modern India. Gandhi and the lawyers now proceeded to conduct a far-flung inquiry into the grievances of the farmers. Depositions by about ten thousand peasants were written down, and notes made on other evidence. Documents were collected. The whole area throbbed with the activity of the investigators and the vehement protests of the landlords.

Questions:

  1. What were the contents of the written communication which Gandhi received from the magistrate?
  2. What had triumphed for the first time in modern India?
  3. What did Gandhi and the lawyers now proceed to?
  4. What was the entire area throbbed with?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means “violent.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to‘a few’.
    Answers:
  7. The written communication conveyed that the Lieutenant-Governor of the province had ordered the case to be dropped.
  8. Civil disobedience had triumphed for the first time in modern India.
  9. Gandhi and the lawyers now proceeded to conduct a far-flung inquiry into the grievances of the farmers.
  10. The entire area throbbed with the activity of the investigators and the vehement protests of the landlords.
  11. vehement.
  12. several.

Passage 11.

In June, Gandhi was summoned to Sir Edward Gait, the Lieutenant-Governor. Before he went he met leading associates and again laid detailed plans for civil disobedience if he should not return.
Gandhi had four protracted interviews with the LieutenantGovernor who, as a result, appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo sharecroppers’ situation. The commission consisted of landlords, government officials, and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants.

Gandhi remained in Champaran for an initial uninterrupted period of seven months and then again for several shorter visits. The visit, undertaken casually on the entreaty of an unlettered peasant in the expectation that it would last a few days, occupied almost a year of Gandhi’s life. The official inquiry assembled a crushing mountain of evidence against the big planters, and when they saw this they agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants. “But how much must we pay?” they asked Gandhi.

Questions:

  1. What was the name of the Lieutenant-Governor?
  2. What was the result of the four, interviews which Gandhi had with the Lieutenant?
  3. What did the commission consist of?
  4. When did the big planters agree to make refunds to the peasants?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘prolonged’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to‘interrupted’.
    Answers:
  7. The name of the Lieutenant-Governor was Sir Edward Gait.
  8. As a result of the four interviews, the LieutenantGovernor appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo sharecroppers’ situation.
  9. The commission consisted of landlords, government officials, and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants.
  10. The official inquiry assembled a crushing mountain of evidence against the big planters, and when they saw this they agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the peasants.
  11. protracted.
  12. uninterrupted.

Passage 12.

They thought he would demand repayment in full of the money which they had illegally and deceitfully extorted from the sharecroppers. He asked only 50 percent. “There he seemed adamant,” writes Reverend J. Z. Hodge, a British missionary in Champaran who observed the entire episode at close range.

“Thinking probably that he would not give way, the representative of the planters offered to refund to the extent of 25 percent, and to his amazement Mr. Gandhi took him at his word, thus breaking the deadlock.This settlement was adopted unanimously by the commission.

Gandhi explained that the amount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been obliged to surrender part of the money and, with it, part of their prestige. Therefore, as far as the peasants were concerned, the planters had behaved as lords above the law. Now the peasant saw that he had rights and defenders. He learned courage.

Questions:

  1. How much did Gandhi ask the landlords to refund?
  2. How much did the planters agree to refund?
  3. What was more important than the amount of refund?
  4. What had the peasant learnt now?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘stubborn’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘legally’.
    Answer:
  7. Gandhi asked the landlords to refund 50 percent of the amount.
  8. The planters agreed to refund 25 percent.
  9. The fact that the landlords had been obliged to surrender part of the money and, with it, part of their prestige was more important.
  10. The peasant had now learnt courage.
  11. adamant.
  12. illegally.

Passage 13.

Events justified Gandhi’s position. Within a few years the British planters abandoned their estates, which reverted to the peasants. Indigo sharecropping disappeared. Gandhi never contented himself with large political or economic solutions. He saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages and wanted to do something about it immediately.

He appealed for teachers. Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh, two young men who had just joined Gandhi as disciples, and their wives, volunteered for the work. Several more came from Bombay, Poona and other distant parts of the land. Devadas, Gandhi’s youngest son, arrived from the ashram and so did Mrs. Gandhi. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturbai taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation.

Questions:

  1. What happened within a few years?
  2. What did Gandhi see in the Champaran villages?
  3. Write the names of two young men who had joined Gandhi as disciples.
  4. What did Kasturba teach?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘returned’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘near’.
    Answers:
    Within a few years the British planters abandoned their estates, which reverted to the peasants.
  7. Indigo sharecropping disappeared.
  8. Gandhi saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages.
  9. Mahadev Desai and Narhan Parikh joined Gandhi as disciples.
  10. Kasturbai taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation.
  11. reverted.
  12. distant.

Passage 14.

Health conditions were miserable. Gandhi got a doctor to volunteer his services for six months. Three medicines were available — castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment. Anybody who showed a coated tongue was given a dose of castor oil; anybody with malaria fever received quinine plus castor oil; anybody with skin eruptions received ointment plus castor oil.

Gandhi noticed the filthy state of women’s clothes. He asked Kasturbai to talk to them about it. One woman took Kasturbai into her hut and said, “Look, there is no box or cupboard here for clothes. The sari I am wearing is the only one I have.”

Questions:

  1. For how much time did the doctor volunteer his services?
  2. Which were the three medicines that were available?
  3. What did Gandhi notice?
  4. What did the woman tell Kasturba?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘very unhappy’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to things that you cannot get easily’.
    Answer:
  7. The doctor volunteered his services for six months.
  8. Castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment were the three medicines that were available.
  9. Gandhi noticed the filthy state of women’s clothes.
  10. The woman told Kasturba that there was no box or cupboard for clothes in her hut and
    she had only one sari.
  11. miserable.
  12. available.

Passage 15.

The Champaran episode was a turning-point in Gandhi’s life. “What I did,” he explained, “was a very ordinary thing. I declared that the British could not order me about in my own country.” But Champaran did not begin as an act of defiance.

It grew out of an attempt to alleviate the distress of large numbers of poor peasants. This was the typical Gandhi pattern – his politics were intertwined with the practical, day-to-day problems of the millions. His was not a loyalty to abstractions; it was a loyalty to living, human beings. In everything Gandhi did, more over, he tried to mould a new free Indian who could stand on his own feet and thus make India free.

Questions:

  1. What was the turning point in Gandhi’s life?
  2. What did Gandhi declare?
  3. What was Gandhi’s politics intertwined with?
  4. What did Gandhi try in everything he did?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means disobedience’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘extra-ordinary’.
    Answers:
  7. The Chaparan episode was the turning point in Gandhi’s life.
  8. Gandhi declared that the British could not order him about in his own country.
  9. Gandhi’s politics was intertwined with the practical, day-to-day problems of the millions.
  10. In everything he did, Gandhi tried to mould a new free Indian who could stand on his
    own feet and thus make India free.
  11. defiance.
  12. ordinary.

Passage 16.

Early in the Champaran action, Charles Freer Andrews, the English pacifist who had become a devoted follower of the Mahatma, came to bid Gandhi farewell before going on a tour of duty to the Fiji Islands. Gandhi’s lawyer friends thought it would be a good idea for Andrews to stay in Champaran and help them. Andrews was willing if Gandhi agreed.

But Gandhi was vehemently opposed to it. He said, “You think that in this unequal fight it would be helpful if we have an Englishman on our side. This shows the weakness of your heart. The cause is just and you must rely upon yourselves to win the battle.

You should not seek a prop in Mr. Andrews because he happens to be an Englishman”.“He had read our minds correctly,” Rajendra Prasad comments, “and we had no reply… Gandhi in this way taught us a lesson in self-reliance”.Self-reliance, Indian independence and help to sharecroppers were all bound together.

Questions:

  1. Who had become a devoted follower of the Mahatma?
  2. What did Gandhi’s lawyer friends think to be a good idea?
  3. Why was Gandhi opposed to seek Andrew’s help?
  4. According to Rajendra Prasad, what had Gandhi taught them?
  5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘completely loyal to somebody’.
  6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘wrongly’.
    Answers :
  7. Charles Freer Andrews, the English pacifist, had become a devoted follower of the Mahatma.
  8. Gandhi’s lawyer friends thought it would be a good idea for Andrews to stay in Champaran and help them.
  9. Gandhi was opposed to seek Andrew’s help because this would show weakness of their heart to seek the support of an Englishman for a cause which was fair in itself.
  10. According to Rajendra Prasad, Gandhi had taught them a lesson in self-reliance.
  11. devoted.
  12. correctly.

Indigo Textbook Questions and Answers