Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Unseen Passages for Comprehension Discursive

Discursive Passages – इस प्रकार के Passages तर्कपूर्ण (Argumentative), आश्वस्त करने वाले (Persuasive) तथा (Interpretative) व्याख्यात्मक होते हैं।

Unseen Passages for Practice

Passage 1.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
We often come across situations and incidents, which appear quite contradictory to the known laws of Nature, creating doubts about the impartiality of divine justice. For instance, an honest, duty-conscious, morally elevated person is often seen caught in adversities in one form or the other or is suddenly struck with a great misfortune in life as though he/she were being punished by God for a great sin.

On the other hand, we find persons engaged in the worst types of corrupt practices living in peace and prosperity. An idler wins a jackpot or inherits a fortune from unexpected quarters, whereas a hard working intelligent person is found suffering endlessly for want of basic necessities. One person achieves great success with little effort, whereas another does not succeed in spite of his best efforts. Such phenomena are popularly ascribed to the role of fate.

Unprecedented natural calamities like famine, epidemics, tornadoes and floods, damage by lightning and earthquakes and untimely death are also commonly attributed to the will of God and called predestined. Such unexpected happenings as financial loss, accidents, sudden mental/ physical disability and physical separation from a dear one are also attributed to fate.
Such unexpected adversities are rare, but they do occur in life.

At times, they leave such deep imprints on the psyche, that it is not possible to ignore them. Those who are not familiar with the mysteries of divine justice become very much perplexed by such experiences and form prejudiced opinions, which, in some form or the other, hinder their mental and spiritual progress. Many become resentful towards God, blame and abuse Him for favouritism and injustice: A few even become atheists, considering the futility of worshipping God who does not respond to prayer in distress, despite’ their prolonged adherence to religiosity.

Then there is a class of devotees who serve the saints and worship deities in expectation of some material gains. However, if they are visited with some failure, unfavourable circumstances, or mishap coincidentally, their adoration changes to contempt of disbelief.

There are quite a few believers in this world who correlate people, places and things with good and bad luck. Such superstitions have caused extreme miseries to innocent persons. The root cause for such irrational behaviour is the belief that whatever comes to pass is predestined by God and the beings created by him have absolutely no role in shaping their own destiny.
Quite a few persons in this world forsake their responsibility in the mistaken belief that the gain and loss being predestined, there is no necessity of personal effort.

(Difficult words: impartiality = भेदभाव का अभाव। elevated = उच्च, बुलंद। adversities = विपदाएँ। fortune = धन-सम्पत्ति। phenomena = घटनाएँ। ascribe = मढ़ना। unprecedented = अभूतपूर्व। famine = अकाल। epidemics = महामारियाँ। tornadoes = बवंडर, तूफान। untimely = असामयिक। attributed = आरोपित किया। will = इच्छा। predestined = पूर्वनिर्धारित। imprint = छाप छोड़ना। psyche = मानस। perplexed = हक्का-बक्का। prejudiced = पूर्वाग्रहित। hinder = अड़चन डालना। resentful = नाराज। atheists = नास्तिक। superstitions= अंधविश्वासों।)

Question 1.
What is a mistaken belief?
Answer:
That gain and loss being predestined, there is no necessity of personal effort, is a mistaken belief.

Question 2.
When do we doubt about the impartiality of divine justice?
Answer:
We doubt about the impartiality of divine justice when we come across a situation and incidents which appear quite contradictory to the known laws of nature.

Question 3.
Give an example of phenomena ascribed to the role of fate.
Answer:
Winning a jackpot by an idler is an example of phenomena ascribed to the role of fate.

Question 4.
How is an intelligent person sometimes seen living?
Answer:
An intelligent person is sometimes seen suffering endlessly for want of basic necessities.

Question 5.
Name a few natural calamities?
Answer:
Famine, epidemics, tornadoes, floods, lightning and earthquakes are a few natural calamities.

Question 6.
In which category is financial loss put?
Answer:
Financial loss is put in the category of fate.

Find out words from the passage which mean:

Question 7.
To say something was written by or belonged to somebody.
Answer:
Ascribe

Question 8.
To make it more difficult for somebody to do.
Answer:
Hinder

Question 9.
Confused.
Answer:
Perplexed

Passage 2.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Every moment of life is precious. Time is the essence of life. It is the wealth given to us by Nature. Every day all of us get 24 hours; nothing less, nothing more. Now, it is up to us how we use it. People who know how to make the best use of every moment easily open the doors of success in their lives and those who misuse time get failures one after the other. There is a saying that, “Spent time and spent words cannot come back.” Everybody is tied by the limits of time; even God respects the boundaries of time.

Work wins appreciation only when it gets completed in a requisite time frame. Beyond the time allotted, work loses all its utility however good may have been its quality. Just as the falling of rains after the crops have dried up have no use; likewise, when the time is past the deadline, the work loses its importance and value.

When iron is hot it can be cast into whichever shape we want. Once it gets cold nothing can be made out of it, however, much we may beat the same. In the same way, a person who has learnt to wisely use his time and has understood how to cast himself according to the need of the time has actually learnt the true mantra of life.

Shakespeare wrote in one of his plays, “I wasted time, and now doth time waste me.” It is true that a person who wastes even a little bit of time loses wonderful opportunities that he could have otherwise availed of by utilizing that time. All the great leaders have one thing in common.

They wisely utilize every moment of their time. When other people are busy wasting time in laziness, great men are busy in making plans for the future. There is no person in history who wasted his time and still managed to achieve greatness.
Therefore, there is a great need to manage time wisely. “Careful Time Management” refers to the careful planning of time and sincere execution of this plan.

This is the only mantra to attain success in any endeavour. A simple change in outlook and some modification in one’s daily routine can result in a big jump forward towards greater achievements.

(Difficult words: precious = कीमती। essence = सार। appreciation = प्रशंसा। requisite = अपेक्षित। beyond = से परे। utility = उपयोगिता। crop = फसल। likewise = इसी तरह से। deadline = अंतिम तिथि। doth= करता है। sincere = गंभीर। execution = सम्पादन। endeavour = प्रयास। outlook = दृष्टिकोण। modification = सुधार।)

Question 1.
What is the essence of life?
Answer:
Time is the essence of life.

Question 2.
What kind of work loses its utility?
Answer:
The work which is completed beyond the time allotted loses its utility.

Question 3.
What is needed for careful time management?
Answer:
Careful planning of time and sincere execution of this plan is needed for careful time management.

Question 4.
What kind of people opens the doors of success of their life?
Answer:
The people who know how to make the best use of every moment open the doors of success.

Question 5.
When does the work lose its importance and value?
Answer:
When time passes the deadline, the work loses its importance and value.

Question 6.
Who has learnt the true mantra of life?
Answer:
A person who has learnt to use wisely his time and has understood how to cast himself according to the need of the time has learnt the true mantra of life.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
Limitations
Answer:
Boundaries

Question 8.
Required
Answer:
Requisite

Question 9.
Get
Answer:
Attain

Passage 3. (Persuasive)
Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
There are no rules to tell us how we ought to behave or ought not to behave in all matters. But in some matters, there are rules that all have to obey. Take, for example, the rules of the road. The purpose of these rules is to make the road safe for everybody. The roads in our cities and towns are getting more and more busy with traffic these days.
All kinds of vehicles, (some slow, some fast), fill the roads during the greater part of the day. If people disobey traffic rules, accidents will happen sooner or later. There are rules for pedestrians as well as for vehicles, and every user of the road ought to know the rules.

Here is an important rule for pedestrians. They ought to keep to the footpath and leave the middle of the road for vehicles. Where there is no footpath, pedestrians must keep close to the edge of the road. If they do not obey this rule, they will cause danger to themselves as well as to others.

A driver may turn his vehicle suddenly to avoid a pedestrian and, in doing so, may knock down someone else. He may even lose control of his vehicle and drive over the footpath and knock down several people. All vehicles should keep to the left and leave the right half of the road free for those coming from the opposite direction. This is the traffic rule in all parts of India. In some countries in the west, however, vehicles have to keep to the right and not to the left.

It does not matter whether it is right or left but, everyone should obey the rule. Cyclists should always keep to the edge of the road and not get in the way of other vehicles or pedestrians. We often see two or more cyclists riding together side by side right in the middle of the road. Traffic rules do not allow this. Where the road is busy, this will interfere with the flow of traffic and cause accidents.

The rule about overtaking is an equally important rule. One vehicle should overtake another vehicle only on the right, because otherwise, it may get in the way of the vehicle which is trying to keep to the left. There are rules about right of way where roads cross each other. There is usually a roundabout at these places. The vehicle coming from the right has right of way over the one coming from the left.

If every driver follows this rule, traffic at roundabouts will flow quite smoothly and accidents can be avoided. Drivers of vehicles should never fail to give the right signals because otherwise there is great danger of accidents happening. There are signals for turning right or left, for slowing down and for stopping, and for letting another vehicle overtake yours.

Cyclists are often careless about giving signals, thinking that these are important only for motorists. But all road users, cyclists as well as motorists, ought to have the right signals so that others on the road may be warned. Pedestrians too should have a knowledge of these signals so that they may be able to tell which way the vehicles on the road are going to pass. Above all, everyone using the public road ought to obey the policeman on traffic duty. This is the most important rule of all.

(Difficult words: pedestrians = पैदल चलने वाले। ledge = किनारा। roundabouts = गोल चक्कर जहाँ से सड़के अलग – अलग दिशाओं को जाती हैं। interfere = व्यवधान डालाना।)

Question 1.
Which rules have should we obey?
Answer:
We have to obey the rules of the road.

Question 2.
What is the traffic rule for vehicles in India?
Answer:
In India, all vehicles should keep to the left and leave the right half of the road free for those coming from the opposite direction.

Question 3.
Where should a cyclist ride on the road?
Answer:
A cyclist should ride on the left edge of the road.

Question 4.
What will happen if the drivers of vehicles do not give proper signals?
Answer:
If the drivers of vehicles do not give proper signals, there is great danger of accidents happening.

Question 5.
What is the purpose of traffic rules?
Answer:
The purpose of the traffic rules is to make the road safe for everybody.

Question 6.
What is the traffic rule for pedestrians?
Answer:
Pedestrians ought to keep to the footpath or close to the edge of the road.

Choose from the passage the words that mean…..

Question 7.
A person walking in the street
Answer:
Pedestrian

Question 8.
Strike
Answer:
Knock Down

Question 9.
An unpleasant event that happens unexpectedly and causes death or injury.
Answer:
Accident

Passage 4.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Marriage is an important institution in human society. In the remote past of human history, the man was living and behaving like an animal. Then he was hardly ever aware of his relationship to his parents, brothers and sisters. In the biological kingdom, this primitive man was ever subordinate in status to the animals, Neither did he have the strength of an elephant nor the sharp teeth and claws of the carnivore.

He did not even have the hard protective hide of the rhinoceros and could not protect himself by any other extraordinary physical capability. Nevertheless, he did possess the unique human instinct of cooperation and organization, with the help of which, he could dominate over the animals besides protecting and proliferating his own species. But in spite of this natural trait, in the absence of permanent arrangements for housing, food and clothes, the primitive man was living in small groups, in large caves and on trees.

Since in those days the institution of the family had not come into existence, the relation between man and woman was different from what it is today, in modern times. There is little doubt that tradition of marriage has made a significant contribution in organization and development of human society and with the help of this institution man has been able to make significant achievements by joining much larger families and thereby enlarging fields of activities.

Giving due importance to this human necessity, the Indian philosophers declared the ceremony of marriage as a great religious rite, decreeing that the bond between husband and wife be considered ever-lasting, pious in all activities of life. The couple were to participate with absolute cooperation so that their resultant contribution became many times that even their combined individual input.

This institution of the family further enlarged to constitute ethnic groups, which later became the foundation stones for the various nations of the world. The tradition of marriage was adopted by people all over the world with ceremonial modifications according to local requirements and local atmosphere of the region.

Nevertheless, the basic framework of the process continued to be the same in that the suitability of the would-be husband for the maiden was first ascertained by the father of the girl and on his approval, the couple was declared as man and wife after participating in some religious ceremony. While handing over the responsibilities for looking after the bride (Kanya Dan), the groom was also gifted with articles of domestic requirements like eatables, clothes and kitchenware.

Nowhere in the scriptures, there is a reference to the so-called tradition of pre-fixing a dowry prior to matrimony, entertaining a large number of guests from the groom’s party or celebrating the event with pompous dance, music and feasts for days.

(Difficult words: institution = चिरकाल से चली आ रही सामाजिक प्रथा। primitive = प्राचीन। subordinate = कम महत्व का होना। carnivore = माँस भक्षी। hide = खाल। extraordinary = असाधारण। dominate = अन्य की अपेक्षा अधिक सशक्त होना। unique = अद्भुत। instinct = जन्मजात प्रवृत्ति। trait = व्यक्तित्व की विशेषता। proliferating = संख्या की दृष्टि से वृद्धि होना। existence = अस्तित्व। pious = पवित्र। absolute = पूर्ण। scripture = धर्मग्रंथ। pompous = शानदार। feast = दावते। ethnic = सजातीय।)

Question 1.
How did humans live in the remote past?
Answer:
Humans lived like animals in the remote past.

Question 2.
What contributed to the developing of human society?
Answer:
Marriage contributed to developing of human society.

Question 3.
What is not mentioned in the scriptures?
Answer:
The so-called tradition of pre-fixing a dowry prior to matrimony, entertaining a large number of guests from the groom’s party or celebrating the event with pompous dance, music and feasts for days is not mentioned in the scriptures.

Question 4.
Where did the primitive man live?
Answer:
The primitive man lived in large caves and on trees.

Question 5.
How could man dominate over animals?
Answer:
The man could dominate over animals because he possessed the unique human instinct of co-operation and organization.

Question 6.
What is Kanya Dan?
Answer:
Handing over the responsibilities of looking after the bride is called Kanya Dan.

Choose from the passage the words that mean:

Question 7.
Complete
Answer:
Absolute

Question 8.
The animal that eats meat.
Answer:
Carnivore

Question 9.
A large cavity in the side of a cliff.
Answer:
Cave

Passage 5.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Today’s woman is a highly self-directed person, alive to the sense of her dignity and the importance of her functions in the private domestic domain and the public domain of the world of work. Women are rational in approach, careful in handling situations and want to do things as best as possible.

The Fourth World Conference of Women held in Beijing in September 1995 had emphasised that no enduring solution of society’s most threatening social, economic and political problems could be found without the participation and empowerment of women. The 1995 World Summit for Social Development had also emphasised the pivotal role of women in eradicating poverty and mending the social fabric.

The Constitution of India has conferred on women equal rights and opportunities – political social, educational and of employment – with men. Because of oppressive traditions, superstitions, exploitation and corruption, a majority of women are not allowed to enjoy the rights and opportunities, bestowed on them.

One of the major reasons for this state of affairs is the lack of literacy and awareness among women. Education is the main instrument through which we can narrow down the prevailing inequality and accelerate the process of economic and political change in the status of women. The role of women in a society is very important. Women’s education is the key to a better life in the future. A recent World Bank study says that educating girls is not a charity, it is good economics and if developing nations are to eradicate poverty, they must educate the girls.

The report says that the economic and social returns on investment in the education of the girls considerably affect the human development index of the nation. Society would progress only if the status of women is respected and the presence of an educated woman in the family would ensure the education of the family itself. Education and empowerment of women are closely related.

Women’s education has not received due care and attention from the planners and policymakers. The National Commission for Women has rightly pointed out that even after so many years of independence, women continue to be treated as the single largest group of backward citizens of India.

The role of women in overall development has not been fully understood nor has it been given its full weight in the struggle to eliminate poverty, hunger, injustice and inequality at the national level. Even when we are living in the 21st century, our society still discriminates against women in matters of their rights and privileges and prevents them from participating in the process of national and societal progress.

Various committees and commissions have been constituted before and after the independence to evaluate the progress in women’s education and to suggest ways and means to enhance the status of women.

(Difficult words: dignity = गरिमा। domain = (ज्ञान या कार्य का) क्षेत्र। rational = विवेकशील। emphasise = किसी बात पर जोर देना। endure = चुपचाप पीड़ा सहना। empowerment = अधिकृतीकरण। pivotal = मूलभूत। social fabric = सामाजिक ढाँचा। oppressive = दमनकारी। superstition = अँधविश्वास। exploitation = शोषण। corruption = भ्रष्टाचार। bestow = कुछ प्रदान करना। prevail = प्रचलन में होना। charity = सहायतार्थ संस्था। investment = निवेश। threshold = किसी घटना के घटित होने का आरम्भ बिंदु। discriminate = (किसी के प्रति) भेद भाव करना। enhance = किसी वस्तु के बेहतर दिखने के लिए साधार लाना। eradicate = उन्मूलन करना।)

Question 1.
Mention some of the qualities of a modern woman.
Answer:
There are two main qualities of a modern woman –
(a) She is alive to the sense of her dignity and the importance of her functions.
(b) She is rational in approach and careful in handling situations.

Question 2.
Who has conferred equal rights and opportunities for women?
Answer:
The Constitution of India has conferred on women equal rights and opportunities.

Question 3.
Where and when was the Fourth World Conference of Women held?
Answer:
It was held in Beijing in the month of September 1995.

Question 4.
Which is the main instrument through which we can narrow down the prevailing inequality for women?
Answer:
Education is the main instrument through which we can narrow down the prevailing inequality for a woman.

Question 5.
Mention the recent World Bank study, according to the passage.
Answer:
A recent World Bank study says that educating girls is not a charity, it is good economics and if developing nations are to eradicate poverty, they must educate the girls.

Question 6.
Why have various committees and commissions been constituted before and after the independence?
Answer:
Various committees and commissions have been constituted before and after the independence to evaluate the progress in women’s education.

Choose from the passage the words that mean:

Question 7.
Allowing no freedom.
Answer:
Oppressive

Question 8.
Answer:
To make something go faster.
Accelerate

Question 9.
Bring to a complete end.
Answer:
Eradicate

Passage 6. (Argumentative)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Science not only provides knowledge about nature but also provides means for controlling nature. So besides general ideas, science also affects practical affairs and everyday life. Perhaps the most obvious example concerns transport. Up to the end of the eighteenth century, transport on land differed very little from what it had been in Roman times.

A Roman officer in second-century Britain could get from London to New York just about as quickly and comfortably as an eighteenth-century gentleman. Owing to the compass and to improved design of ships, sea transport had improved a little, but not much. Then came the invention of the steam-engine, and its improvement, which was dependent on the general scientific knowledge of the time.

Steamships, and railways with steam engines, completely changed the business of travel and of the transport of goods. The internal combustion engine, again based on the scientific study of heat and how it is generated by gas explosions, made possible first the motor-car and the diesel engine and then the aeroplane. Now people are talking of the possibility of flying at five hundred miles an hour or more by means of rocket propulsion in the thin higher layers of the atmosphere.
It is interesting to note down the highest speeds possible for land, sea and air travel every ten years from 1820 to the present day. Similarly with communications.

Not only did the steam engine, and then the aeroplane, speed up the sending of letters and newspapers, but the discoveries about electricity made possible first the telegraph, then the telephone, then wireless, and now television. As a result of science, the possibilities of tying the world together by the quick transmission of facts and ideas have completely changed in less than a century.

Or again, think of the lighting of houses and streets, candles-oil lamps – gas – arc-lights – electric filament lamps – now vapour discharge lighting. Or sanitation-all it means to have pure water in every house. Or the differences between a surgical operation before anaesthetics and aseptic method, and a surgical operation today.

Not only has science provided all kinds of new substances and machines and sources of power, but in doing so it has changed our everyday life. However, we should not imagine that the practical applications of science are always necessarily a benefit. We have already described how recklessly men are exploiting the resources of nature.

This waste would not be possible but for the applications of science. Our industrial civilization makes new demands for sources of power: mining responds with increased activity and new scientific methods for getting coal and oil more cheaply and more quickly.

Improved transport brings men more easily into the remote parts of the earth, and enables them to kill the wild creatures. The applied science which makes it possible for everyone to have their morning newspaper causes the reckless cutting down of forests to provide wood for making paper from.

(Difficult words: affairs = मामले। obvious = स्पष्ट। compass = कुतुबनुमा/परिधि/विस्तार। steam = भाप। internal = आन्तरिक। combustion = दहन। explosion = विस्फोट। propulsion = प्रणोदन (गति देने की शक्ति)। transmission = प्रेषण। vapour = वाष्प। anaesthetics = निश्चेतक। aseptic = पूतिहीन, कीटाणुहीन (धाव की सडन रोकने वाला।) recklessly = अन्धाधुंध।exploiting = उपयोग मे ला रहें।)

Question 1.
How are we exploiting the resources of nature?
Answer:
We are exploiting the resources of nature recklessly.

Question 2.
How do we get paper?
Answer:
We get paper from wood.

Question 3.
What does science provide to us?
Answer:
Science provides us with both bits of knowledge about nature and means for controlling it.

Question 4.
What made a motor-car possible?
Answer:
Internal combustion engine made a motor-car possible.

Question 5.
What has changed our everyday life?
Answer:
Science has changed our everyday life.

Question 6.
What had improved sea transport a little?
Answer:
The compass and improved design of ships had improved sea transport a little.

Choose from the passage the words that mean…

Question 7.
Produces a change in somebody or something
Answer:
Affects.

Question 8.
Reformed or Modified.
Answer:
Improved.

Question 9.
Free from harmful bacteria.
Answer:
Aseptic.

Passage 7.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Shopping centres are good. They are a sign of dizzying economic growth, and a demonstration of how far Asians have come, in such a short time. Many of the older generations can remember a time when everyone lived in villages and there was no running water but today the multi-level, air-conditioned mall represents comfort, choice, luxury and better times.
But many Asian metropolises with growing middle classes now have such a great number of malls – all full with outlets of Marks & Spencer, Gap, Starbucks, Bulgari, Cartier, Mont Blanc – that they appear to have long crossed saturation point. Nowadays, it seems our default place for every activity in the mall – it’s where we shop, eat, watch movies, bowl, arrange to meet our friends, have a romantic date or just generally lying around.

Many young people shop for clothes at the mall so that they can look good when they meet their friends – at the mall.
My main argument with shopping centres is not that they are often massive concrete blocks that don’t take into account the architectural nuances or cultural backdrop of a city, or that they promote ultra-consumerism at a time when our planet can ill afford it.

My main protest with the excess of malls is that they don’t seem to make us happy. Oh, the large advertisements outside the stores could persuade us to think that if we only had this pair of jeans, or if we hung out at this café, then we could feel more fulfilled. But once we buy something, we only want to buy something more.

Shopping malls, even though they try to look as showy and as welcoming as possible, can be unkind places. The very concept of the mega-mall plays on human feelings of inadequacy and competitiveness. To make us buy, it must make us feel that we lack something, or that everyone else has something we do not yet own.

We must consume to surpass others or, at the very least, to keep up. We purchase to fit in. How can this constant undercurrent of competitiveness, of us always trying to be “cool,” bring us true joy? The saddest thing is that the modern mall, basically an American import, has made us put aside a whole array of beautiful, worthwhile – and yes, cheaper – activities, many of them inherent to our own cultures or region. We have no one to blame but ourselves.

Instead of shopping, we could be cooking, visiting a nearby waterfall, beach or temple, reading a novel, writing poetry, starting a blog, making music, taking a long walk, playing a game, learning a dance or – here’s a fundamental idea – visiting a friend.
Every time there’s a spare piece of land, all we can think of building on it is yet another mall.

This way, we show not only our affluent status but also demonstrate our poverty in terms of imagination, adventure and passion. Perhaps instead, we should be building libraries, or theatres, art galleries, museums, sports halls, public swimming pools, parks, animal sanctuaries – the list is endless.

(Difficult words: dizzying = demonstration = metropolises = महानगरों। luxury = विलासिता। massive = बड़े। protest = आपत्ति। surpass = अधिक हो जाना saturation = संतुष्टि। nuance = अतिसूक्ष्म अंतर। backdrop = पुष्ठभूमि। ultra-consumerism = अति – उपभोक्तावाद।)

Question 1.
Why do many people shop at malls?
Answer:
Many people shop in malls so that they can look good when they meet their friends there.

Question 2.
What do we think when there is a spare piece of land?
Answer:
When there is a spare piece of land we think of building another mall on it.

Question 3.
What should we be building instead of malls?
Answer:
Instead of malls, we should be building libraries, theatres, art galleries, museums, sports halls, etc.

Question 4.
What are the shopping centres a sign of?
Answer:
The shopping centres are a sign of dizzying economic growth and a demonstration of how far Asians have come, in such a short time.

Question 5.
What do malls represent?
Answer:
Malls represent comfort, choice, luxury and better times.

Question 6.
What do we do at malls?
Answer:
At malls we shop, eat, watch movies, bowl, arrange to meet our friends, have a romantic date or just generally lying around.

Choose from the passage the words that mean:

Question 7.
A sign that something is happening.
Answer:
Manifestation

Question 8.
To make somebody do something by giving them the proper reason for it.
Answer:
Persuade

Question 9.
To oppose
Answer:
Protest

Passage 8.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Make in India campaign was launched in New Delhi by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 25th of September in 2014. It is an initiative to make a call to the top business investors all across the world (national or international) to invest in India. It is a big opportunity to all the investors to set up their business (manufacturing, textiles, automobiles, production, retail, chemicals, IT, ports, pharmaceuticals, hospitality, tourism, wellness, railways, leather, etc.) in any field in the country.

This attractive plant has very attractive proposals for foreign companies to set up manufacturing powerhouses in India. Make in India campaign launched by the Indian government focuses on building the effective physical infrastructure as well as improving the market of digital network in the country to make it a global hub for business (ranging from satellites to submarines, cars to software, pharmaceuticals to ports, paper to power, etc).

The symbol (derived from national emblem of India) of this initiative is a giant lion having many wheels (indicates peaceful progress and way to a vibrant future). A giant walking lion with many wheels indicates courage, strength, tenacity and wisdom. The page of Make in India on Facebook has crossed more than 120K likes and its Twitter followers are more than 13K within few months of the launching date.

This national program is designed to transform the country into a global business hub as it contains attractive proposals for top local and foreign companies. This campaign focuses on creating a number of valuable and honoured jobs as well as skill enhancement in almost 25 sectors for improving the status of youths of the country.

The sectors involved are automobiles, chemicals, IT & BPM, aviation, pharmaceuticals, construction, electrical machinery, food processing, defense manufacturing, space, textiles, garments, ports, leather, media and entertainment, wellness, mining, tourism and hospitality, railways, automobile components, renewable energy, mining, biotechnology, roads and highways, electronics systems and thermal power.

The successful implementation of this plan will help in the creation of 100 smart cities project and affordable housing in India. The main objective is to ensure solid growth and valuable employment creation in the country with the help of top investors. It will benefit both parties, the investors and our country.

The government of India has created a dedicated help team and an online portal (makeinindia.com) for the easy and effective communication of investors. A dedicated cell is committed to answering all the queries from business entities anytime.

(Difficult words: campaign = अभियान। launched = शुरू किया गया। initiative = पहल। attractive = आकर्षक। set up= स्थापित करना। hub = केन्द्र। submarines = पनडुब्बियाँ। port = बन्दरगाह। derived = लिया गया। emblem = प्रतीक। giant = विशाल। vibrant = उद्योगी, जोशपूर्ण। tenacity = दृढ़ता। aviation = उड्डयन। renewable = नवीनीकरण योग्य। implementation = क्रियान्विति। affordable = वहन करने योग्य। objective = उद्देश्य। ensure = पक्का करना। solid = ठोस। dedicated = समर्पित। cell = शाखा। committed = समर्पित। queries = पूछताछ। entities = कम्पनी।)

Question 1.
What is the symbol of Make in India campaign?
Answer:
A giant lion having many wheels is the symbol of Make in India campaign.

Question 2.
What does the symbol of Make in India indicate?
Answer:
The symbol of Make in India campaign indicates courage, strength, tenacity and wisdom.

Question 3.
What will the successful implementation of Make in India help to achieve?
Answer:
It will help in the creation of 100 smart cities and affordable housing in India.

Question 4.
Who and when was Make in India campaign launched?
Answer:
The Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Make in India campaign on 25th of September in 2014.

Question 5.
What is the main objective of Make in India campaign?
Answer:
The main objective of Make in India campaign is to ensure solid growth and valuable employment creation in the country with the help of top investors.

Question 6.
What has the Government of India created for the easy and effective communication of investors?
Answer:
The Government of India has created a dedicated help team and an online portal for the easy and effective communication of investors.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
Associated with heat.
Answer:
Thermal

Question 8.
Huge
Answer:
Giant

Question 9.
A centre of activity.
Answer:
Hub

Passage 9.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a Clean India drive and Mission launched as a national campaign by the Indian government in order to cover the 4041 statutory towns aiming maintained cleanliness of streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi has officially launched this mission on 2nd of October (the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi) in 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi (Bapu’s Samadhi).

While launching the event Prime Minister himself had cleaned the road. It is the biggest cleanliness drive ever in India when approximately 3 million government employees including students from schools and colleges took part in the cleanliness activities.

On the day of the launch of the event the PM himself nominated the names of nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas: Salman Khan, Anil Ambani, Kamal Haasan, Kapil Sharma, Priyanka Chopra, Baba Ramdeo, Sachin Tendulkar and Shashi Tharoor. Schools and colleges have participated in the event by organizing many cleanliness activities according to their own themes.

Students of India participated in this event. PM had also requested all those nine nominees to call another nine people separately to participate in this cleanliness drive as well as continue the chain of calling nine people by each and every participating member of the mission until the message reaches to the every Indian in every corner of the country to make it a national mission.

This mission aimed to join each and every Indian from all walks of life in the same way that a tree grows and spreads its branches. Swachh Bharat Mission aims to construct individual sanitary latrines for household purposes for the people living under the poverty line, convert dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines, provide facility of hand pumps, safe and secure bathing, set up sanitary marts, construct drains, dispose of solid and liquid wastes, enhance health and education awareness, provide household and environmental sanitation facilities and many more.

Earlier, many awareness programmes (such as Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, etc.) about the environmental sanitation and personal cleanliness were launched by the Indian government. However, these could not be so effective to make India a clean India. The main objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are removing the trend of open defecation, changing insanitary toilets into flush toilets, removal of manual scavenging, proper disposal of solid and liquid waste, bringing behavioural changes among people, enhancing awareness about sanitation, facilitating the participation of private sectors towards cleanliness facilities.

In order to continue and make this campaign successful, the Finance Ministry of India has started a programme named Swachh Bharat Cess. According to this, everyone has to pay 0.5% more service tax on all the services in India (50 paise per 100 rupees) which will go towards the funding of this cleanliness campaign.

(Difficult words: drive = अभियान। launched = शुरू किया गया। statutory = वैधानिक। anniversary = वर्षगाँठ। cremation = अंतिम संस्कार। approximately = लगभग। nominated = मनोनीत किया। participate = भाग लेना। walk = मार्ग। sanitary = स्वास्थ्यप्रद। secure = सुरक्षित। set up = स्थापित करना। disposal = निस्तारण। enhance = बढ़ाना। awareness = जागृति। objectives = उद्देश्य। trend = चलन। defecation = शौच। flush = बहा देना। scavenging = कूड़ा हटाना। participation= भाग लेना।)

Question 1.
What is the rate of Swachh Bharat Cess?
Answer:
The rate of Swachh Bharat Cess is 0.5%.

Question 2.
What is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?
Answer:
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a clean India drive.

Question 3.
Why has the PM himself nominated the names of nine people?
Answer:
The PM himself has nominated the names of nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas.

Question 4.
How many persons took part in the cleanliness drive?
Answer:
Approximately 3 million government employees including students from schools and colleges took part in the cleanliness drive.

Question 5.
What did the PM do when he launched the campaign?
Answer:
When the PM launched the campaign, he himself cleaned the road.

Question 6.
Where and when was the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched?
Answer:
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched by Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd October in 2014.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
Around
Answer:
Approximately

Question 8.
A Sudden Rapid Flow
Answer:
Flush

Question 9.
Useless
Answer:
Waste

Passage 10.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Digital India is a programme that has been launched by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. He has planned to use information technology, computers, telecommunication facilities, internet, network connectivity, digitalization techniques to modernize the services offered to citizens. Digital India also aims to provide internet connectivity to all citizens.
Digital India will provide digital vaults (safes) for people to store their certificates online. Each person will have one unique private key, that will allow people access to their own documents. Applications will be made and processed online, The possibility of fake certificates will reduce and authenticity would improve.

Digital training on these technologies will be provided for achieving literacy in citizens. Mobile phones will be used as a personal identity for various transactions. People in rural or urban areas will have access to all digital services and the Internet of things (IOT) on their mobiles or other gadgets.

Digital India will have more transparency in processes and governance. It will eliminate a lot of cheating. The documents will also remain safe. This program will increase employment related to these technologies. A lot of activities will become automated, with quality of service improvement. This program also will make Indians go to a higher level of literacy and technical skills.

This program is chaired and supervised by the minister for communications and information technology at the centre. Its aim is to provide Wifi services to 2.5 lakh schools, Broadband internet connectivity to 2.5 lakh villages, and universal mobile phone connectivity. Through this program by 2020 we want to achieve net zero imports, ie., exports will be equal to imports.
Then 400,00 public access points for the net will be provided and more than a crore persons are to be trained in internet technologies, telecom, information technologies.

There is to be a huge cloud of computers and servers to hold data related to the public. Broadband connectivity will be provided with a vast network of optical fibre cables. All government offices would have attendance recorded and maintained online, using Bio-metric identification. There is a lot of importance given to making of digital gadgets and smartphones within India.

Various technological giants in hardware and software in telecom and computers have agreed to step in and cooperate in making Digital India a grand success. These include the top Indian and multinational organizations. Digital India has 5 years of the expected completion period. It goes hand in hand with smart cities and various government services.

An internet website has been opened for this purpose. People can contribute, discuss over there to furnish their valuable suggestions and requirements so that the final shape of Digital India is the best.

(Difficult words: reduce = कम करना। access = पहुँच। gadgets = मशीन। transparency = पारदर्शिता। eliminated = समाप्त करना। chaired = अध्यक्षता करना। provide = उपलब्ध कराना। import = आयात। export = निर्यात। hand in hand = साथ – साथ। contribute = योगदान करना।)

Question 1.
How long will it take to complete Digital India?
Answer:
It will take five years to complete Digital India.

Question 2.
How will digitalization help government offices?
Answer:
Digitalization will help government offices in recording attendance and maintaining order, by using biometric identification.

Question 3.
By whom and when was digital India programme launched?
Answer:
Digital India programme was launched by the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi on July 1st, 2015.

Question 4.
Why was a Digital week celebrated?
Answer:
A Digital week was celebrated to finalize the requirements and features of Digital India.

Question 5.
How will be the data of the public held?
Answer:
The data of the public will be held by a huge cloud of computers and servers.

Question 6.
What will be used as a personal identity for various transactions?
Answer:
Mobile phones will be used as a personal identity.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
A device that is very useful for a particular job.
Answer:
Gadget

Question 8.
The ability to read and write.
Answer:
Literacy

Question 9.
Commodities bought from a foreign country.
Answer:
Import

Passage 11.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
You want to be healthy. You know you need to exercise more. But if you are not ready to grunt through an hour of kickboxing, don’t despair. There is a growing agreement among exercise. researchers that the intense physical activities offered by most health clubs are not the only or even the preferable-path to better health. Indeed, the best thing for most of us may be to just walk.

Yes, walk. At a reasonable vigorous clip (five to six kmph) for half an hour or so, maybe five or six times a week. You may not feel the benefits all at once, but the evidence suggests that over the long term, a regular walking routine can do a world of preventive good.

Walking, in fact, may be the perfect exercise. For starters, it’s one of the safest things you can do with your body. It’s much easier on the knees than running and doesn’t trigger untoward side effects. Dr (Miss) Johna Manson, chief of preventive medicine at a leading Harvard woman’s hospital says, “If everyone were to walk briskly 30 minutes a day, we could cut the incidence of many chronic diseases by 30 to 40 per cent.” She further says, “Regular physical activity is probably as close to a magic bullet as we will come in modern medicine.”

And for those of us who don’t have half-hour chunks of time, the news gets even better. Several recent studies suggest that walking briskly three or four times a day for 10 minutes at a time may provide many of the same benefits as walking continuously for 30 minutes.

Here’s how to make the most of your walking routine. First, get into gear. Walker’s shoes need to have enough room at the front for the feet to spread. Then, ease on down that road. Avoid muscle aches by starting slowly and incorporating gentle stretches into both your warm-up and cool down.

You must plot your course. Some people walk at a specific time each day. Others shoe horn walking into their routines by parking the car a few minutes from the store or taking the stairs instead of the lift. Record your efforts, including how long and how far you walked. Jotting down improvements keeps you motivated and challenges you to do better.
Since walking affects you in so many ways at once, it’s difficult to determine precisely why it’s good for you. But much of the evidence gathered so far is compelling.

Brisk walking is good for the heart – which makes a lot of sense. The heart is a muscle after all, and anything that makes the blood flow faster through a muscle helps keep it in shape. But regular walking also lowers blood pressure, which decreases the stress on the arteries. It can boost the amount of HDL cholesterol (the good one) in our blood. It even seems to make the blood less “sticky”, and therefore less likely to produce unwanted clots. This all adds up to as much as a 50 per cent reduction in the risk of suffering a heart attack.

Walking briskly for at least half an hour consumes a couple of hundred calories and boosts your metabolic rate for the rest of the day, giving you a better chance of winning the battle of the bulge. Walking is also a great way to lose body fat, even if you don’t lose any weight.

Walking not only strengthens the muscles but also builds up the bones. Millions of people suffer from osteoarthritis – the wear and tear kind of arthritis – of the knees. Walking reduces pain by strengthening the muscle around the joint.
Walking won’t cure everything that ails you, of course, and nothing happens overnight. “People who have never exercised regularly should not think that in a week they’ll solve their problems by walking,” says Dr J. David Curb, a professor of geriatric medicine.

(Difficult words: grunt = असंतोष का शब्द करना। despair = हताश होना। intense = प्रचण्ड। reasonable = उपयुक्त। vigorous = फुर्तीला। evidence = साक्ष्य। preventive = रोग निरोधक दवा। trigger = आरम्भ करना। untoward = प्रतिकूल। leading = अग्रणी। briskly = तेजी से। incidence = घटना। chronic = पुरानी, गहरी। chunk = बड़ी मात्रा। incorporating = सम्मिलित करते हुए। jotting down = लिखते हुए। motivated = प्रेरित किया। precisely = सटीक रूप से। evidence = साक्ष्य। so far = अभी तक। compelling= बाध्य करने वाले। arteries = धमनियाँ। boost = बढ़ा देना। clot = थक्का। reduction = कम करना। consume = उपभोग करना। metabolic = चयापचय। bulge = उभार। arthritis = जोड़ों की सूजन और दर्द। ails = बीमार करना। geriatric = वृद्धावस्था संबंधित।)

Question 1.
What advice is offered to be healthy?
Answer:
Walking is advised to be healthy.

Question 2.
What precautions must be taken in undertaking a walking routine?
Answer:
Walker’s shoes need to have enough room at the front for the feet to spread.

Question 3.
How is brisk walking useful for the heart?
Answer:
Brisk walking makes the muscles of heart strong and helps one to keep in shape.

Question 4.
What are the other spheres in which walking is useful?
Answer:
Walking lowers blood pressure which decreases the stress on the arteries.

Question 5.
What is a great way to lose body fat?
Answer:
Walking is a great way to lose body fat.

Question 6.
How is walking useful in osteoarthritis?
Answer:
Walking reduces pain by strengthening the muscle around the joints.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
A Substantial Amount.
Answer:
Chunk

Question 8.
Active.
Answer:
Vigorous

Question 9.
Increase.
Answer:
Boost

Passage 12.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Today there is a lot of talk about the environment. All nations are coming to an agreement to save planet earth. We pollute the earth, we pollute the water; we also pollute the subtle environment through our negative feelings and emotions. We have become a victim of our greed and needs. We are not in control of our mind. We hear a lot about other things in life but we spend very little time to hear about ourselves. How to handle our mind? How to be in the present moment? How to be happy and grateful? This we have not learnt. This is the most unfortunate thing. Then what is the solution?

This is where we are reminded of a very fundamental principle that governs our environment, our mind, our emotions and our life in general. Our body has the capacity to sustain much longer the vibration of bliss and peace than it does negative emotions because positivity is in the centre of our existence. As with the structure of the atom, protons and neutrons are in the centre of the atom and electrons constitute only the periphery; the same is with our lives; the centre core of our existence is bliss, positivity and joy but it is surrounded by a cloud of negative ions.

Through the help of the breath, we can easily get over our negative emotions in a short period of time. Through meditation and certain breathing techniques, we can clear this negative cloud. This life has so much to offer to you. You can see this once you take some time off, rejuvenating the soul. Your soul is hungry for a smile from you. If you could give this, you feel energised the whole year and nothing whatsoever can take the smile from you.

Everyone wants to be successful in life. But without knowing what is a success, you want to be successful. What is a sign of success? Just having a lot of money, is that success? Why do you think money means success? Because money gives you freedom so that you can do whatever you want. You may have a big bank balance, but, you have stomachaches, ulcers, you may have to go for bypass surgery; cant’ eat this, can’t do this, can’t do that.

We expend half our health to gain wealth and then spend half our wealth to gain back the lost health. Is this success? In fact, it is a very bad mathematics. Look at the those who claim to be successful – are they successful? No, they are miserable. Then, what is the sign of success? It is confidence, compassion, generosity and a smile that none can snatch away, being really happy and being able to be freer. These are the signs of a successful person.

Take some time off to look a little deeper into yourself and calm the mind down. Thus erasing all the impressions that we are carrying in our minds and experience the presence of the divine that is the very core of our existence.

(Difficult words: victims = भुग्त भोगी। subtle = सूक्ष्म। handle = निपटना। grateful = आभारी। fundamental = ‘मूलभूत। principle = सिद्धान्त। govern = नियंत्रण करना। sustain = सहन करना। vibration = कम्पन। bliss = आशीर्वाद। positivity = सकारात्मकता। existence = अस्तित्व। periphery = बाह्य क्षेत्र। core = केन्द्र। meditation = ध्यान। rejuvenating = और अधिक शक्तिशाली बनाना। soul = आत्मा। energised = उत्साहित करना। what s0 ever = जो कुछ भी। stomachaches = पेट दर्द। miserable = दयनीय। confidence = विश्वास। compassion = मेहरबानी। generosity = उदारता। erasing = मिटाते हुए। impression = छाप। divine = दैवीय।)

Question 1.
What is the most unfortunate thing?
Answer:
The most unfortunate thing is that we have not learnt how to handle our mind, to be in the present moment and to be happy and grateful.

Question 2.
How can we get rid of our negative emotions?
Answer:
Through meditation and certain breathing techniques, we can get rid of our negative emotions.

Question 3.
What is ‘Bad Mathematics’, according to the passage?
Answer:
Bad Mathematics is to spend half our health to gain wealth and spend half our wealth to gain back the lost health.

Question 4.
What are the main signs of a successful person?
Answer:
Confidence, compassion, generosity and a smile that none can snatch away, to be really happy and to be able to be more free are the signs of a successful person.

Question 5.
What is said about the environment?
Answer:
It is said about the environment that we pollute the earth, the water and also the subtle environment through our negative feelings and emotions.

Question 6.
How are we not in control of our mind?
Answer:
We are not in control of our mind, for we hear a lot about other things in life but we spend very little time to hear about ourselves.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
The outer area
Answer:
Periphery

Question 8.
Bear
Answer:
Sustain

Question 9.
Making more vital
Answer:
Rejuvenating

Passage 13.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Air pollution is an issue which concerns us all alike. One can willingly choose or reject a food, a drink or a life comfort, but unfortunately, there is little choice for the air we breathe. All, what is there in the air is inhaled by one and all living in those surroundings. Air pollutant is defined as a substance which is present in an amount exceeding the normal concentrations. It could either be gaseous or a particulate substance. The important and harmful polluting gases are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen.

The common particulate pollutants are the dust of various inorganic or organic origins. Although we often talk of the air pollution caused by industrial and vehicular exhausts, indoor pollution may prove to be as or a more important cause of health problems. Recognition of air pollution is relatively recent. It is not uncommon to experience a feeling of ‘suffocation’ in a closed environment.

It is often ascribed to the lack of oxygen. Fortunately, however, the composition of air is remarkably constant all over the world. There are about 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen in the air – the other gases forming a very small fraction. It is true that carbon dioxide exhaled out of lungs may accumulate in a closed and overcrowded place.

But such an increase is usually small and temporary unless the room is really air-tight. Exposure to poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide may occur in a closed room, heated by burning coal inside. This may also prove to be fatal. What is more common in a poorly ventilated home is a vague constellation of symptoms described as the sick – building syndrome. It is characterized by a general feeling of uneasiness, headache, dizziness and irritation of mucous membranes. It may also be accompanied by nausea, itching, aches, pains and depression.

Sick building syndrome is getting more common in big cities with small houses, which are generally overfurnished. Some of the important pollutants whose indoor concentrations exceed those of the outdoors include gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and organic substances like spores, formaldehyde, hydrocarbon aerosols and allergens.
The sources are attributed to a variety of construction materials, insulations, furnishings, adhesives, cosmetics, house dust, fungi and other indoor products.

Smoking of tobacco in the closed environment is an important source of indoor pollution. It may not be high quantitatively, but significantly hazardous for health. It is because of the fact that there are over 3000 chemical constituents in tobacco smoke, which have been identified. These are harmful to human health.

Obviously, the spectrum of pollution is very wide and our options are limited. Indoor pollution may be handled relatively easily by an individual. Moreover, good work must start from one’s own house.

(Difficult words: concern = चिंता का विषय है। willingly = स्वेच्छा से। inhale = स्वास लेना। surroundings = परिवेश। concentration = सघनता। substance = पदार्थ। particulate = कणीय। exhaust = खाली करना। recognition = पहचानना। relatively = अपेक्षाकृत। suffocation = घुटन। ascribed = उत्तरदायी ठहराना। constant = लगातार। fraction = भाग। accumulate = संचित होना। exposure = सम्पर्क में आना। fatal = घातक। ventilated = हवादार। constellation = नक्षत्र। syndrome = किसी रोग के विशिष्ट लक्षण। dizziness = चक्कर आना। irritation = जलन, दर्द। mucus membranes = श्लेस्मा झिल्ली। nausea = मिचली, उबकाई। itching = खुजली। sponges = बीजाणु। attributed = योगदान देना जिम्मेदार होना। hazardous = खतरनाक। constituent = घटक। obviously = स्पष्ट रूप से। spectrum = सम्पूर्ण श्रृंखला।)

Question 1.
What is a major source of indoor pollution?
Answer:
Smoking of tobacco is a major source of indoor pollution.

Question 2.
What is an issue of deep concern?
Answer:
Air pollution is an issue of deep concern.

Question 3.
What are the most harmful polluting gases?
Answer:
The most harmful polluting gases are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen.

Question 4.
What are the symptoms of sick building syndrome?
Answer:
The symptoms of sick building syndrome are a general feeling of malaise, headache, dizziness and irritation in mucous membranes.

Question 5.
What are the sources of indoor pollution?
Answer:
A variety of construction materials, insulators, furnishings, adhesives, cosmetics, dust, fungi and other indoor products are the sources of indoor pollution.

Question 6.
What is the composition of air?
Answer:
The composition of air is about 79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and a small fraction of other gases.

Find out a word from the passage which means the following:

Question 7.
Not clear
Answer:
Vague

Question 8.
Feeling of worry
Answer:
Concern

Question 9.
Lasting for a short time
Answer:
Temporary

Passage 14. (S. S. Exam 2013)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Every man that is born in this world has a desire to live well. Life has various aims for various people. To some, life is an empty dream without a motive. They eat and drink and continue to exist for the sake of living. They have no idea, no mission for which to struggle and fight. Their idea is to eat well, to make merry and enjoy the material things of life. Their activities aim at amassing wealth by hook or by crook and using that wealth for the sake of luxury and comfort and pleasures.

Life is, however, not so easy at present. Even to make money for the sake of comforts and luxuries you have to work hard and perform social duties before the society can allow one to earn a lot of money and amass wealth. Modern states work under certain principles of social behaviour and do not allow people to go about making money without caring to perform certain duties which are useful to society.

A businessman or an industrialist must pay his labourers well so that the labourer does his duty honestly and diligently and enable the entrepreneur to make profits from the goods produced. The only easy way of making money is cheating or stealing which have consequences of their own.

Law has prescribed imprisonment for the robbers, thieves and the cheats. Life is complicated in these times. It needs to be well planned if you want to achieve something worthwhile. Whether your mission or ideal is materialistic or spiritual you should have a clear plan. To make life worth living you must work hard towards the object of your mission. A life without mission is a life lost. A life without planning is a life wasted.

Discipline, mission and hard work are important virtues of a successful man. If you are a patriot and desire to be a politician to earn name and fame in the service of society, you must plan exactly what you want. If you want to serve the people and to represent their cause in elected assemblies, you must win over the support of the voters by giving them an honest account of services.

You must fight for their interest, show great achievements before you can enjoy the popularity of the masses. It is not simply a slogan mongering that matters in politics now – a – days. A successful public man has to be an able administrator who can resolve practical issues with the authorities and win practical benefits for the people.

(Difficult words: motive = प्रयोजन। amassing = बड़ी मात्रा में एकत्रित करना। diligent = परिश्रमी। hook or crook = किसी भी प्रकार से। entrepreneur = उद्यमी। consequence = परिणाम। complicated = जटिल। cause = निमित्त। worthwhile = संतोषजनक, उपयोगी। materialistic = भौतिकवादी। spiritual = आध्यात्मिक। prescribe = निर्धारित करना।)

Question 1.
What is the desire of every man in this world?
Answer:
Every man in this world desires to live well.

Question 2.
What is the ideal of the majority of people?
Answer:
It is to eat well, to make merry and enjoy the material things of life.

Question 3.
What is the easy way to earn money?
Answer:
The easy way to earn money is by theft, robbery and cheating.

Question 4.
What is needed to achieve something worthwhile?
Answer:
Good planning is required to achieve something worthwhile.

Question 5.
Write the important virtues of a successful man.
Answer:
Discipline, dedication and hard work are the virtues of a successful man.

Question 6.
How can a man reach up to assemblies?
Answer:
A man can reach up to assemblies by winning over the support of the voters.

Choose from the passage the words that mean:

Question 7.
Useful enough.
Answer:
Worthwhile

Question 8.
Purpose of doing something.
Answer:
Aim

Question 9.
Phrase expressing a political or advertising message.
Answer:
Slogan

Passage 15. (S. S. Exam 2015)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The end of sumptuary laws did not mean that everyone in European societies could now dress in the same way. The French Revolution had raised the question of equality and ended aristocratic privileges, as well as the laws that maintained those privileges. However, differences between social strata remained.

Clearly, the poor could not dress like rich, nor eat the same food. But laws no longer barred people’s right to dress in the way they wished. Differences in earning, rather than sumptuary laws, now defined what the rich and the poor could wear. And different classes developed their own culture of the dress. The notion of what was beautiful or ugly, proper or improper, decent or vulgar, differed.

Styles of clothing also emphasised differences between men and women. Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman was the one who could bear pain and suffering. While men were expected to be serious, strong, independent and aggressive, women were seen as frivolous, delicate, passive and docile.

Norms of clothing reflected these ideals. From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them within small moulds. When slightly older, girls had to wear a tight-fitting corset. Tightly laced, small-waisted women were admired as attractive, elegant and graceful. Clothing thus played a part in creating the image of frail, submissive Victorian women.

Many women believed in the ideals of womanhood. The ideals were in the air they breathed, the literature they read, the education they had received at school and at home. From childhood, they grew up to believe that having a small waist was a womanly duty. Suffering pain was essential for a woman. To be seen as attractive, to be womanly, they had to wear the corset. The torture and pain this inflicted on the body were to be accepted as normal.

But not everyone accepted these values. Over the nineteenth century, ideas changed. By the 1830s, women in England began agitating for democratic rights. As the suffrage movement developed, many began campaigning for dress reform.
Women’s magazines described how tight dresses and corsets caused deformities and illness among young girls. Such clothing restricted body growth and hampered blood circulation.

Muscles remained underdeveloped and the spines got bent. Doctors reported that many women were regularly complaining of acute weakness, felt languid, and fainted frequently. Corsets then became necessary to hold up the weakened spine.

(Difficult words: sumptuary = भव्य। aristocratic = कुलीन। privileges = विशेषाधिकार। strata = स्तर। barred = बंद किया। decent = भव्य। vulgar = भद्दा।emphasised = जोर दिया। defined = व्याख्या की। notion = विचार, धारणा। were groomed = चुना जाता था। docile = शांत। Submissive = नम्र। aggressive = आक्रामक। frivolous = मूर्ख। delicate = नाजुक। passive = निष्क्रिय। norms = मानक। laced up = फीतेदार। stays = visits, भ्रमण, वास-अवधि। restrict = पाबंदी लगाना। contain = सीमा के भीतर रखना। mould = साँचा। corset = चोली। elegant = आकर्षक। inflicted = जबरदस्ती लादा। suffrage = मताधिकार। began campaigning = आंदोलन में भाग लेने लगे। deformity = विरूपता। hamper = रोकना । felt languid = कमजोरी अनुभव की। agitating = आन्दोलन करने लगी।)

Question 1.
What was the main issue raised by the French Revolution?
Answer:
The French Revolution raised the main issue of equality.

Question 2.
How were the women groomed in Victorian England?
Answer:
They were groomed from childhood to be docile and dutiful, submissive and obedient.

Question 3.
What defined the apparel of the rich and the poor?
Answer:
Differences in earning defined the apparel of the rich and the poor.

Question 4.
Besides wearing, what else did the styles of clothing emphasize?
Answer:
Styles of clothing emphasised differences between men and women.

Question 5.
What qualities made one masculine?
Answer:
Qualities of being serious, strong, independent and aggressive made one masculine.

Question 6.
What qualities made one feminine?
Answer:
Qualities of being frivolous, delicate, passive and docile made one feminine.

Find out a word from the passage which means:

Question 7.
A person/animal that is quiet and easily controlled.
Answer:
Docile

Question 8.
A person/animal that has a quality of anger and determination.
Answer:
Aggressive

Question 9.
A special right or advantage.
Answer:
Privilege