Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Unseen Passages Note-Making

Unseen Passages Note-Making

(i) Note-making:
Note-making अध्ययन की एक उपयोगी व महत्त्वपूर्ण कला है। कभी-कभी हमारी अध्ययन सामग्री काफी विस्तृत होती है जिस कारण उसे याद रख पाना काफी मुश्किल या कठिन कार्य होता है। अतः passage में से मुख्य बातों को नोट करना काफी महत्त्वपूर्ण होता है। इन मुख्य बातों या main points को उप-भागों (Sub-sections) और फिर उप-उप-भागों (sub-sub-sections) में विभाजित करके लिखा जाता है। जहाँ तक सम्भव हो वहाँ शब्दों को संक्षिप्त रूप (abbreviated form) में प्रस्तुत करना काफी उपयोगी होता है।

अच्छे notes बनाने हेतु कुछ उपयोगी बातें:
1. Notes संक्षिप्त रूप में लिखने चाहिए।
मुख्य बातों (main points) को रेखांकित करना चाहिए।
Notes को ‘Note-form’ में ही लिखना चाहिये।
Note,form के अन्तर्गत सम्पूर्ण वाक्य न लिखकर सिर्फ Phrases में ही मुख्य बातों को लिखा जाता है।

2. (i) अध्ययन सामग्री (Information) को तार्किक ढंग से विभाजित व उप-विभाजित करना चाहिए।
(ii) विभाजन हेतु सामान्यत: निम्न प्रकार की तीन मुख्य विभाजन विधियों का उपयोग किया जाता है:
Main section (मुख्य भाग): 1, 2, 3, आदि या I, II, III.
Sub-section (उपभाग): (i), (ii), (iii) आदि
Sub-sub-Section (उप-उप-भाग): (a), (b), (c) आदि

3. विभाजने की अन्य सुविधाजनक विधि है-दशमलव विधि (decimal system):
Main section (मुख्य भाग): 1, 2, 3, आदि
Sub-section (उप-भाग):1.1, 1.2, 1.3 आदि
Sub-sub-section (उप-उप-भाग): 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.2.1, 1.2.2 आदि।

4. शब्दों के संक्षिप्त रूप व चिह्नों का स्वतन्त्र उपयोग करना चाहिए।

5. Articles, Prepositions और Conjunctions आदि का प्रयोग कम-से-कम अथवा नहीं करना चाहिए।

6. Notes इस प्रकार लिखे जाने चाहिए कि उन्हें दोबारा पढ़ने पर उनका अर्थ स्पष्ट हो सके।
Symbols used in note-making of unseen passages
< = less than (छोटा)
> = greater than (बड़ा)
= = is equal to (बराबर)
∴ = therefore, so (इसलिए)
∵ = for, since, because (चूँकि)
cc = copy
& = and (तथा)
+ = addition (योग)
– = substraction (घटाना)
÷ = division (भाग)
× = multiplication (गुणा)
/ = slash (विकल्प-सूचक)
. = point (बिंदु)
आदि-आदि प्रतीक (symbols) साधारणतया प्रयोग में लाए जा सकते हैं।

(ii) Summary or Abstraction:
सारांश या सार का अर्थ है दिये गये passage को जितना सम्भव हो सके कम-से-कम शब्दों में पुनः प्रस्तुत करना। सारांश में सभी मुख्य बातों का समावेश होना चाहिये जिससे कि पढ़ने वाला व्यक्ति उस passage को पूर्ण रूप से समझ सके। सारांश लिखने हेतु मुख्य बातें:

  • सम्पूर्ण Passage (अपठित गद्यांश) को ठीक ढंग से पढ़ें तथा. मुख्य विचारों को रेखांकित करें।
  •  हर एक Paragraph का Main sentence ढूँढे।
  •  सभी महत्त्वपूर्ण सूचनाओं की संक्षिप्त टिप्पणियाँ (short notes) बनाएँ।
  •  सारांश अपने स्वयं के शब्दों में लिखें।
  • सारांश को indirect form में लिखना चाहिये।
  • सारांश सामान्यत: मूल passage का लगभग एक-तिहाई (1/3) होना चाहिये।
  • Complex, compound तथा अन्य प्रकार के कठिन वाक्यों को सरल वाक्यों में परिवर्तित करें।
  • One word substitution का प्रयोग भी किया जा सकता है।

(iii) Abbreviations and Symbols:
Abbreviations should be so selected or used as not to create confusion. They should be easily understood.
Abbreviations को निम्नलिखित तरीके से लिख सकते हैं –
(i) Using only capital letters (केवल अंग्रेजी के बड़े अक्षरों का प्रयोग करके) जैसे –

  • PIN = Postal Index Number
  • IAF = Indian Air Force
  • NDA = National Defence Academy
  • CDS = Combined Defence Services
  • VRS = Voluntary Retirement Scheme

(ii) शब्द के प्रारम्भिक व अंतिम अक्षरों को लेकर भी Abbreviations बनाए जा सकते हैं। जैसे –

  • retd = retired
  • ft = feet or foot
  • govt = Government

(iii) कुछ प्रारम्भिक अक्षरों को लेकर भी Abbreviations बनाए जा सकते हैं। जैसे –

  • hon. = honourable
  • kg. = kilogram

Unseen Passage for Practice

Question 1.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Despite all the research every one of us catches a cold and most of us catch it frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practises transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such fatal diseases as Typhus and the Plague. But the problem of the common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it.

It is known that a cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has as yet been isolated. There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes.

Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist’s laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected.

The fact that we can catch a cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually, a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still, we do not gain immunity from colds. Why? It may possibly be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the bloodstream where anti-bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protection from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet.

(Word Notes: ailment = बीमारी। ridiculous = हास्यास्पद। transplant = प्रत्यारोपण। rid = पीछा छुड़ाना। infection = संक्रमण। lining = अस्तर। passage = रास्ता। isolated = पृथक किये गये। cultivated = पैदा किया। tissue culture = उत्तक संवर्धन। bits = टुकड़े। victim = शिकार । immunity = प्रतिरक्षा। anti-bodies = प्रति – जैविक।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using heading and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Status of various ailments
1.1. Common cold – no cure to control
1.2. Cure available
1.2.1. Typhus
1.2.2 Plague

2. Reasons for no control
2.1. Viral infection – affects the lining
2.2. Caused by the family of viruses – Rhinoviruses
2.3. For certain colds – no viruses have yet been isolated

3. Viruses – a problem in identifying
3.1. Smaller than bacteria – can’t be seen by ordinary microscope
3.2. Can’t be cultivated in laboratory 3.3. Grows only in living cells of
3.3.1. Animals
3.3.2. Plants

4. Tissue culture – a recent step further
4.1. Bits of animal tissue is made to go on living
4.2. They multiply independently off from the body
4.3. Led to the discovery of a large number of viruses
4.4 Previously unknown and unsuspected

5. No immunity from the common cold
5.1. Viruses causing cold attacks
5.1.1. Surface
5.1.2. Not bloodstream
5.2. Cannot be opposed by antibodies
5.3 Immunity from one virus does not guarantee protection from others
5.4 We have to suffer the cold for some more time

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
It is ridiculous that we have the cure of fatal diseases like typhus and plague but medical science doesn’t have the cure for the common cold that is so prevalent and it seems that we are likely to suffer it for some time more. The reason is that it is caused by the family of viruses known as rhinoviruses. They are confusing, very small and cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. The development of the technique of tissue culture has discovered a number of viruses. But catching a cold once doesn’t create immunity because they attack surface not the bloodstream.
Title – Common Cold – Uncommon Problem

Question 2.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Fasting is said to bring a host of benefits, provided it’s done under medical supervision. Doctors explain how to go about it. Food is to the body what fuel is to a motor vehicle. It provides energy, helps repair and rejuvenation and confers many other benefits. A lot of research has been done and is being done on fasting. When one fasts, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed.

While fasting, the natural process of toxin execution continues, while the influx of new toxins is reduced. The energy usually used for digestion is redirected to immune function and cell growth. Fasting helps you heal with greater speed, cleanses your liver, kidneys and colon, purifies your blood, helps you lose excess weight and water, flushes out toxins, clears the eyes and tongue and cleanses the breath.

Another research says fasting, even occasionally, helps in detoxification. Through fasting, we restrict digestive activity and so energy is utilised to cleanse different systems. Fasting improves metabolism, sharpens the senses, calms the mind, helps lose weight, improves general immunity, improves concentration and mental clarity. Fasting, if understood and done under supervision, has tremendous benefits and impacts one at various planes; mental, emotional, physical and spiritual. Specifically, it serves as an aid to effective detoxification, helps in repair and rejuvenation, offers rest to the gastrointestinal system and promotes mobilisation of excess fat.

The crucial point to note is the difference between fasting and starvation. Research suggests there are major health benefits to calorie restriction. Among other things, it slows down the ageing process. According to the US National Academy of Sciences, other benefits include stress resistance, increased insulin sensitivity and increased lifespan. Glucose is the body’s primary fuel source and is essential for the brain’s functioning. When denied glucose for more than 4-8 hours, the body converts glycogen stored in the liver into a usable form of fuel and supplements it with small amounts of protein.

This will last for up to 12 hours before the body turns to glycogen stored in muscles. If glucose is still denied at this point, the body continues to use fat for as long as it is available. If the fast is not broken, starvation occurs, as the body begins to use protein for fuel. Death can occur if fasting is pursued to the point of complete starvation.

(Word Notes: fasting = उपवास। a host of = बहुत सारे। rejuvenation = पुर्नयौवन। confer = प्रदान करना। cleansed = साफ करना। excretion = मल त्याग। colon = बृहदंत्र। flushes out = बाहर बहा देता है। toxin = जीवविष (जहर)। occasionally = कभी कभार। detoxification = विषहरण। restrict = प्रतिबंधित करना। metabolism = उपापचये। immunity = प्रतिरक्षा। tremendous = बहुत अधिक। impact = प्रभाव। crucial = महत्त्वपूर्ण। starvation = भूखे मरना। pursued = जारी रखना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it by using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Importance of food to the body
1.1. Provides energy
1.2 Helps in
1.2.1. Repair
1.2.2. Rejuvenation
1.3. Confers many other benefits

2. Fasting benefit – under medical supervision – according to one research
2.1. Gives rest to digestive organs
2.2. Cleanses body mechanisms
2.3. Reduces influx of toxins
2.4. Redirects body energy to
2.4.1. Immune system
2.4.2. Cell growth
2.5. Helps heal with greater speed
2.6. Cleanses
2.6.1. Liver
2.6.2. Kidney
2.6.3. Colon
2.6.4. Breath
2.7. Purifies blood
2.8. Help lose extra weight
2.9. Clears
2.9.1.Eyes
2.9.2. Tongue
2.10. Offers rest to gastro-intestinal systems

3. Another research on the benefits of fasting
3.1. Helps in detoxification
3.2. Improves
3.2.1. Metabolism
3.2.2. General immunity
3.2.3. Concentration
3.2.4. Mental clarity
3.3. Sharpens senses
3.4. Calms mind

4. Difference between fasting and starvation
4.1. Slow down the ageing process
4.2. Glucose essential for the brain’s functioning
4.3. If denied for more than 4-8 hours, the body converts glycogen in the liver
4.4. After 12 hours glycogen stored in muscles is used
4.5. If further denied body fat is used
4.6. If fast not broken, the body uses protein for fuel
4.7. Complete starvation can cause death

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Fasting has various benefits if it is done under medical supervision. According to research, it. detoxifies the body, cleanses different systems, improves metabolism and general immunity and: provides benefits at the mental, emotional, physical and spiritual planes. It is wrong to mistake: fasting for starvation. If starvation continues, the body consumes glucose from the liver, muscles and the protein content of the body and ultimately death can occur.
Title – Fast – Don’t Starve

Question 3
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Research has shown that the human mind can process words at the rate of about 500 per minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate of about 150 words a minute. The difference between the two at 350 is quite large.So the speaker must make every effort to retain the attention of the audience and the listener should also be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication calls for good listening skills.

A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener. Listening starts with hearing but goes beyond. Hearing, in other words, is necessary but is not a sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. While listening, one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with the ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Listening is to be adept at the total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations.

Good communication is essentially an interactive process. It calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. It relates to skills that can be developed. A good listener knows the art of getting much more than what the speaker is trying to convey. He knows how to prompt, persuade, but not to cut off or interrupt what the other person has to say.

At times the speaker may or may not be coherent, articulate and well organised in his thoughts and expressions. He may have it in his mind and yet he may fail to marshal the right words while communicating his thought. Nevertheless, a good listener puts him at ease, helps him articulate and facilitates him to get across the message that he wants to convey.

For listening to be effective, it is also necessary that barriers to listening are removed. Such barriers can be both physical and psychological. Physical barriers generally relate to hindrances to proper hearing whereas psychological barriers are more fundamental and relate to the interpretation and evaluation of the speaker and the message.

(Word Notes: interpretation = व्याख्या। monologue = एकालाप। abundantly = पर्याप्त से अधिक मात्रा में। cultivated = विकसित किया जाना। prompt = प्रेरित करना। persuade = उकसाना। interrupt = व्यवधान डालना। coherent = सुसंगत। articulate = अभिव्यक्त करना। marshal = संवारना। convey = व्यक्त करना। hindrances = अड़चने। evaluation = मूल्यांकन।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using heading and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Research about listening and hearing
1.1. The human mind processes 500 words per minute
1.2. Speaker speaks 150 words per minute
1.3. The large difference – 350 words per minute

2. Essential to be a good speaker and listener
2.1. A speaker should be able to retain the attention of the audience
2.2. The listener should not let his mind wander
2.3. A good speaker must be a good listener also

3. Skills for listener
3.1. Starts with hearing – though not a sufficient condition
3.2. Hear with attention
3.2.1. be observant
3.2.2. Use ears, eyes and mind
3.2.3. Calls for participation and involvement
3.3. It is dialogue, not a monologue

4. Good listening – an art
4.1. Cultivated
4.2. Skill to be developed
4.3. A good listener knows
4.3.1. How to get much more than what the speaker wants to convey
4.3.2. be prompt
4.3.3. Persuade without interruption
4.4. A good listener helps the speaker
4.4.1. Puts him at ease
4.4.2. Helps him articulate
4.4.3. Facilitates him to get across the message he wants to convey

5. Barriers to listening – must be removed
5.1. Psychological
5.2. Physical

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
There is a vast difference between the words the human mind can speak and process. So the speaker must be able to retain the attention of the speaker and be a good listener. Listening depends on attention and concentration. To be observant and use ears, eyes and mind. Good listening needs participation and involvement. It involves dialogue more than a monologue. It is an art to be cultivated. A good listener should prompt and persuade instead of interrupting. He puts the speaker at ease, helps to articulate and get across the message he wants to deliver. Physical and psychological barriers need to be removed for effective listening.
Title – How to Develop the Art of Good Listening and Speaking.

Question 4.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. there was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast.

Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home – that was no problem.

After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to the amusement park or a museum,

I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces.

I tried to wear the right clothes and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognize and overcome our fears.

I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children help us to cope with our lives as adults.

(Word Notes: vividly = सुस्पष्ट रूप से। scared = भयभीत करना। beast = पशु। creak = चरचराहट। pound = तेजी से धड़कना। shy = शर्मिला। constantly = लगातार। evolving = उविकास। cope with = निभाना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. My childhood
1.1. Generally happy
1.2. Carefree times
1.3. Terrified of
1.3.1. Dark
1.3.2. Getting lost.
1.4. Fears caused very uncomfortable moments

2. My room at night – scared me
2.1. Things looked and sounded strange
2.2. Never total darkness
2.3. Street light or a passing car light made the shape of an unknown beast
2.4. Curtains moved without breeze
2.5. A tiny creak sounded louder
2.6. Darkness made me feel helpless

3. Another childhood fear
3.1. I would get lost especially on my way home from school
3.2. Terrified – would take a wrong school bus
3.3. To be sure I would
3.3.1. Scan bus for familiar faces
3.3.2. Make sure for the same driver
3.3.3. Ask others for the right bus
3.4. On hikes, walks or trips – would not let leaders out of my sight

4. Worst childhood fear
4.1. Not being liked or accepted by others for I was
4.1.1. Quiet shy
4.1.2. Worried about my looks – too fat or wore braces
4.2. Being popular very important for me

5. Process of evolving from childhood to adult
5.1. Recognize and overcome our fears
5.2. Learnt darkness does not take on its own life
5.3. People will like me if I am
5.3.1. Friendly
5.3.2. Sincere

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
My childhood was generally happy but full of fears of many kinds. I became scared in my familiar room at night in the dark. It made me feel helpless. I had also fear getting lost especially on my way from school to home. The worst fear was that I was not being liked or accepted by others. But in the process of evolving from a child to an adult, I was able to recognize and overcome my fears. I understood that the things that scared us in our childhood would enable us to cope with our lives as adults.
Title – My Childhood Fears

Question 5.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The outcasts were not allowed to mount the platform surrounding the well, because if they were ever to draw water from it, the Hindus of the three upper castes would consider the water polluted. Nor were they allowed access to the nearby brook as their use of it would contaminate the stream. They had no well of their own because it cost a lot of money to dig a well in a hilly town. Perforce they had to collect at the foot of the upper-caste Hindu well and depend on the bounty of some of their superiors to pour water into their pitchers.

More often than not there was no upper caste Hindu present. Most of them were rich enough to get the water-carriers to supply them with plenty of fresh water every morning for their baths and kitchens, and only those came to the well who were either fond of an open-air bath or too poor to pay for the water-carrier’s services. So the outcasts had to wait for a chance to bring some upper – caste Hindu to the well, for luck to decide that he was kind, for fate to ordain that he had time to get their pitchers filled with water.

They crowded around the well, congested the space below its high brick platform, morning, noon and night, joining their hands in servile humility to every passerby; cursing their fate, and bemoaning their lot, if they were refused the help they wanted; praying, beseeching and blessing, if some generous soul condescended to listen to them, or to help them.

When Sohini reached the well there were already about ten other outcasts waiting. But there was no one to give them water. She had come as fast as she could to the well, full of fear and anxiety that she would have to wait her turn since she could see from a distance that there was already a crowd. She didn’t feel disappointed so much as depressed to realise that she would be the eleventh to receive water. She had sensed the feeling in her brother’s soul.

He was tired. He was thirsty. She had felt like a mother as she issued from her home to fetch water, a mother going out to fetch food and drink for her loved ones at home. Now as she sat in a row with her fellow-sufferers, her heart sank. There was no sign of anyone passing that way who could be a possible benefactor. But she was patient. She had in her an inbred fortitude, obvious in her curious reserve, in her docile and peaceful bearing.

(Word Notes: outcast = जातियुत। mount = चढ़ना। brook = नाला, छोटी नदी। contaminate = संदूषित करना। perforce = मजबूरनं। bounty = उदारता। pitchers = घड़े। ordain = आदेश देना। congested = भीड़ भरा। servile = चापलूस। humility = विनम्रता। bemoaning = पछताना। beseeching = मनुहार करना। condescended = कृपा दिखाना। fetch = जाकर लाना। benefactor = भलाई करने वाला। inbred = जन्मजात। fortitude = साहस। docile = विनीत, अधीन। bearing = आचरण।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Position of outcast for water
1.1. Not allowed to mount the platform of the well
1.2. Their drawing water considered polluting the source
1.3. Not allowed to access the nearby brook-it would contain

2. The problem of the outcast
2.1. Had no well of their own – cost a lot of money in a hilly area
2.2. Had to collect water at the foot of the Hindu well
2.3. Had to depend on the bounty of the superiors to pour water into their pitcher
2.4. They had to wait for the upper caste Hindus at the well

3. Position of the upper caste Hindus
3.1. Rich enough to get water carriers
3.2. Some came to the well
3.2.1. For open-air bath.
3.2.2.Not able to pay for the water carriers

4. If somebody refuses the outcasts had to
4.1. Pray
4.2. Beseech
4.3. Bless
4.4. So that some generous soul condescended to listen to them or to help them

5. When Sohini reached the well
5.1. About ten outcasts already waited there
5.2. No one there to give them water
5.3. Full of fear and anxiety
5.4. Not disappointed – she would be 11th to receive water
5.5. Tired

6. Her mental condition at that time
6.1. Sensed the feeling in her brother’s soul
6.2. Felt like a mother to her brother for he was
6.2.1. Tired
6.2.2. Thirsty
6.3. Patient – though there was nobody to fill the pitcher at the well
6.4. Her heart sank – when she waited

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
The outcasts were allowed to draw water neither from the well nor from the brook since they would contaminate the source. They could not dig a well of their own due to lack of money. So they had to depend on the mercy of the upper caste Hindus for pouring water into their pitchers. But very few Hindus came to the well so they had to wait. Sohini came to the well to get water for her brother. There were already ten persons waiting before her. So she sat there to wait patiently with her fellow sufferers.
Title – Outcastes and their Sufferings

Question 6.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
It is surprising that sometimes we don’t listen to what people say to us. We hear them, but we don’t listen to them. I was curious to know how hearing is different from listening. I had thought both were synonyms, but gradually, I realised there is a big difference between the two words. Hearing is a physical phenomenon. Whenever somebody speaks, the sound waves generated reach you, and you definitely hear whatever is said to you. However, even if you hear something, it doesn’t always mean that you actually understand whatever is being said. Paying attention to whatever you hear means you are really listening Consciously using your mind to understand whatever is being said is listening.

Diving deeper, I found that listening is not only hearing with attention but is much more than that. Listening is hearing with full attention and applying our mind. Most of the time, we listen to someone, but our minds are full of needless chatter and there doesn’t seem to be enough space to accommodate what is being spoken. We come with a lot of prejudices and preconceived notions about the speaker or the subject on which he is talking. We pretend to listen to the speaker, but deep inside, we sit in judgement and are dying to pronounce right or wrong, true or false, yes or no.

Sometimes, we even come prepared with a negative mindset of proving the speaker wrong. Even if the speaker says nothing harmful, we are ready to pounce on him with our own version of things. What we should ideally do is listen first with full awareness. Once we have done that, we can decide whether we want to make a judgement or not. Once we do that, communication will be perfect and our interpersonal relationship will become so much better.

Listening well doesn’t mean one has to say the right thing at the right moment. In fact, sometimes if words are left unspoken, there is a feeling of tension and negativity. Therefore, it is better to speak out your mind but do so with awareness after listening to the speaker with total concentration.

Let’s look at this in another way. When you really listen, you imbibe not only what is being spoken, but you also understand what is not spoken as well. Most of the time we don’t really listen even to people who really matter to us. That’s how misunderstandings grow among families, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters.

(Word Notes: synonyms = पर्यायवाची। phenomenon = घटना। consciously = होश हवास में। needless = फालतू। chatter = बकबक। accommodate = समायोजित करना। prejudices = पूर्वाग्रह। preconceived = पहले से ही मन में स्थिर कर लिया हुआ। notion = विचार। pronounce = अपना मत व्यक्त करना। pounce = झपटना। awareness = जानकारी। interpersonal = अंतर्वेयक्तिक। imbibe = आत्मसात करना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Difference between listening and hearing

Hearing Listening
1.1. Physical phenomenon Mental phenomenon
1.2. Only generated sound waves reach to us The mind is also used and attention is paid
1.3. Not understanding what is said. Actually understanding what is said.

2. What cannot be called listening?
2.1. While listening mind is full of needless chatter
2.2. Not enough space to accommodate what is being spoken
2.3. Prejudices and preconceived notions about
2.3.1. Speaker
2.3.2. Subject
2.4. Pretending to listen but we are ready to
2.4.1. Give our judgement
2.4.2. Dying to prove something wrong
2.5. Ready to project our own version of things even if no harmful thing has been said
3. What should one do?
3.1. Listen with full awareness then make a judgement – communication will be perfect
3.2. The interpersonal relationship becomes much better

4. Listening well means
4.1. Say the right things at the right moment
4.2. Unspoken words create a feeling of tension and negativity
4.3. Speak out your mind after listening with total concentration
4.4. Listening well enables us to imbibe
4.4.1. Spoken words
4.4.2. Unspoken thoughts/ideas
4.5. Misunderstanding can be dispelled by listening properly

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Summary
There is a big difference between hearing and listening. Hearing is a physical phenomenon while hearing with attention and applying mind is listening. If we are prejudiced against the speaker, we will sit in judgement and be ready to pounce on him. We must first listen with full awareness and then decide whether we want to make a judgement. It is better to speak out our mind but after listening to the speaker with total concentration. To avoid creating misunderstanding we must listen to the people who matter to us.
Title – Hearing Versus Listening

Question 7.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Although stupidity is commonly defined as a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not showing good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she isn’t very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness. First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing.

It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still on the roof. We call this absent-mindedness. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than causing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is hurt by stupid behaviour. The next type – serious stupidity – is more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm.

Irresponsible advice given to others is also serious stupidity. An example is a person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention may be to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help, an amateur will only worsen the situation. Even worse is the third kind of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week-old kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections, exposure or the wheels of a passing vehicle.

Yet they are able to tell themselves that ‘they will find nice homes ‘or’ animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong.

His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or to take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is – ‘But I didn’t think….’. This, however, is not a proper excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.

(Word Notes: relatively = अपेक्षाकृत। exists = आस्तित्व में होना। seriousness = गंभीरता। amusing = दिलचस्प। inconvenience = असुविधा। embarrassment = उलझन। psychiatrist = मनौवैज्ञानिक। amateur = नौसीखिया। guilty = दोषी। excuse = बहाना। involved = लिप्त होना। proper = उचित।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. ‘ Definition of stupidity
1.1. Common definition
1.1.1. Lacking normal intelligence
1.1.2. Not using good judgement or sense
1.2. According to the author
1.2.1. Not acting brightly
1.2.2. Has three levels of seriousness

2. First level
2.1. Harmless
2.2. Often amusing
2.3. Absent-minded.
2.4. No one hurt

3. Second level
3.1. Serious – more dangerous
3.2. Practical jokes
3.3. Intention humorous but the risk of harm
3.4. Giving irresponsible advice – though the intention to help

4. Third level
4.1. The worst
4.2. Moral stupidity – not able to think about the results of one’s action
4.3. Unwilling to take responsibility

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
A stupid person is not the man who lacks intelligence but one who does not use good judgement or sense. The word ‘stupidity’ is derived from the Latin word meaning senseless and defined as the behaviour of a person with normal intelligence who acts foolishly in a particular situation. Seriousness divides stupidity into three levels. The first is simple, harmless and often amusing. The second is serious, more dangerous and includes practical jokes. The third, the worst, is moral stupidity. It occurs when a person is not willing to take any responsibility for his actions.
Title – Stupidity

Question 8.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is present in our body. It’s an important component of our cell walls and other tissues, but it is thought to be harmful if in excess. It can lead to blockages caused by plaque formation in the heart’s arteries causing heart disease and heart attacks. Such blockages can also happen in arteries, in the legs or in the brain. Cholesterol is produced in the liver, and the amount produced is influenced by our genes.

The food we consume, too, has an effect on cholesterol levels. Fatty foods, especially those high in saturated fats, and foods high in simple sugars such as cold drinks increase cholesterol levels. Lack of physical activity and exercise also leads to elevated levels. We can reduce cholesterol levels by following a heart-healthy lifestyle, which includes regular physical activity for at least 30 minutes daily and a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in saturated sugar.

Statins are a group of drugs most recommended for those with high cholesterol. Red yeast rice has been shown to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Include garlic and flaxseed in your daily diet. Olive oil, Canola oil or other oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids can be used for cooking in order to reduce cholesterol through food. The ill effects of high cholesterol take time to show, and you may not realise it until it’s a bit too late. Cholesterol, by itself, is important because it insulates nerve cells and membranes. Being a fatty substance, it does not dissolve in the blood and is packaged into protein.

There are ‘good’ HDL cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol. Bad cholesterol can stick to the smooth lining of the blood vessels, where it is absorbed, while HDL mops up excess bad cholesterol and removes it from blood vessels. Even moderate physical activity can help increase HDL cholesterol. Exercise five days a week, whether you are overweight or underweight. Aerobic exercises like walking, cycling, swimming, slow jogging, dancing, etc.

for 45 minutes, three times a week and anaerobic exercises like weight training, and sprinting, for another three days will help increase good and reduce bad cholesterol. In order to maximize your cardiovascular fitness, aerobic exercises should raise your heart rate to a certain level. This level is called your target heart zone. Keep your heart rate elevated for at least 20 minutes. Always warm up, stretch, and cool down-relax-before and after any workout to avoid injuries. All these contribute to a healthier and fitter life.

(Word Notes: waxy = मोम जैसा। tissue = उत्तक। excess = अधिक मात्रा में। blockage = बाधा। plaque = दाँत का मैल। consume = उपभोग करना। saturated = सान्द्र, संतृप्त। elevated = उन्नत। flaxseed = अलसी। insulates = आवरण चढ़ाता है। membranes = झिल्लियाँ। dissolve = घुलना। absorb = सोखना। mop up = साफ करना। moderate = थोड़ी सी।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1.Cholesterol
1.1. A waxy substance present in the body
1.2. An important component of our cell walls and other tissues
1.3. Harmful in excess

2. Harmful impacts
2.1. Blockages by plaque formation
2.1.1. In heart’s arteries
2.1.2. In legs.
2.1.3. In brain
2.2. Heart diseases
2.3. Heart attacks.

3. Cholesterol amount controlled
3.1. Produced in liver
3.2. The food we consume – fatty food
3.3. Influenced by genes
3.4. Physical activity and exercise

4. How to control
4.1. Heart-healthy lifestyle
4.1.1. Regular physical activity – at least 30 minutes a day
4.1.2. Diet high in fruits and vegetable and low in saturated sugar
4.2. Statins
4.2.1. Red yeast rice
4.2.2. Garlic and flaxseed
4.2.3 Oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids

5. Types of cholesterol
5.1. LDL -Bad-sticks to the smooth lining of the blood vessels
5.2. HDL -Good- mops up excess bad cholesterol and removes from blood vessels

6. For a healthier and fitter lifestyle.
6.1. Exercise five days a week
6.2. Aerobic exercises for 45 minutes three times a week, raise the heart rate
6.2.1. Walking
6.2.2. Cycling
6.2.3. Swimming
6.2.4. Slow jogging
6.2.5. Dancing
6.3. Anaerobic exercises three days a week
6.3.1. Weight training
6.3.2. Sprinting

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Cholesterol, a waxy substance present in our body, is an important component of cell walls and other tissues. It can be harmful when it is in excess. Its level is affected by our genes, food and lifestyle. It can be controlled by leading heart-healthy life, doing regular exercise and having a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and monounsaturated oil. There are ‘good’ HDL cholesterol and ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol. To ensure an increase in HDL level and to lead a healthier life and fitter life, one must do aerobic and anaerobic exercises at least five days a week.
Title – Cholesterol and Health

Question 9.
Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Salt, a miraculous gift of nature, is one of the most useful and amazing minerals on earth derived from the sea and rocks. Do you know that it is the only rock that humans can eat? Salt has seasoned our history, language and food, besides making nutritious foods more palatable. It is used in all bakery products, prepared foods, sauces, soups, spices, cereals, dairy foods, meats, poultry.

It is also an extraordinarily effective food preservative, retarding the growth of spoilage by micro-organisms and making food storage possible long without refrigeration. How much salt is necessary for human consumption? Medical experts agree that everyone should practise some reasonable ‘moderation’ in salt consumption. For the average person, a moderate amount might run from 4 to 10 gm a day, or roughly half to one and one-third tablespoons.”

The equivalent of one to two gm of this salt allowance would come from the natural sodium in food. The rest would be added in processing, preparation or at the table. Common salt, chloride of sodium, is chemically represented by the symbol NaCl. The human body has a continual need for salt. Sodium chloride or the common salt is 39 per cent sodium and 61 per cent chloride. Forming a solution in the body, these two components separate into sodium and chloride ions, each with a different task.

Chloride maintains the balance of water between the living cell and its environment, plays a part in digestion, and pairs with sodium to maintain the blood’s acid-base balance, critical for life. Sodium assists in regulating the volume of blood and blood pressure. It facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses and is necessary for heart and muscle contractions.

Although the popular conception is that salt is a flavour enhancer, a recent American study suggests that it functions as a flavour filter on food, selectively enhancing and suppressing various tastes. Other studies show that the use of salt suppresses the bitter taste of dark green vegetables like bitter gourd (Kerela).

Salt’s functions in the body are already elucidated. Deficiency signs include lethargy, dizziness cramps and palpitation. In women, excessive-salt intake promotes fluid retardation and can cause breast pain. But what the good salt can do, in the right dose, is unequaled. Snorers should try spraying their nose with salt water to make it easier to breathe.

(Word Notes: miraculous = चमत्कारी। amazing = आश्चर्यजनक। derive = प्राप्त करना। nutritious food = पौष्टिक भोजन। season = बधारना। palatable = स्वादिष्ट। poultry = पालतू मुर्गी, बतख, मुर्गे आदि। moderate = संयमित। extraordinary = असाधारण। preservative = रक्षक। retarding the growth = विकास अवरुद्ध होना या करना। consumption = उपभोग। transmission = प्रेषण या विस्तार या भेजना। contraction = सिकुड़न। elucidated = व्याख्या की जा चुकी है। deficiency = कमी। lethargy = सुस्ती dizziness = चक्कर। cramps = ऐंठन। palpitation = तेज धड़कन। snorers = खर्राटे लेने वाले लोग। mineral = खनिज। reasonable = संयमित मात्रा। roughly = मोटे तौर पर। enhances = बढ़ाने वाला। suppress = दबाना। retardation = बाधा।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Salt – Useful & Amazing Mineral:
1.1.derived from sea & rocks (only edible rock)

2.used in various foods
1.2.bakery product
1.2.prepared food/dairy foods
1.2.sauces, soups, spices, cereals, etc.
1.2.meat/poultry.

1.3 extraordinary food preservative
1.3.1 retards growth of spoilage
1.3.2 food storage possible

2. Quantity required for a person:
2.1. moderate consumption
2.1.1. the average person – 4 – 10 gm (1/2 – 1/3 tablespoons) per day
2.1.2. 1-2 gm natural sodium in food

3. Chemistry of salt:
Symbol: NaCl (39% sodium 61% chloride)

4. Functions of sodium & chloride:
4.1. Chloride –
4.1.1. balance of water.
4.1.2. digestion
4.2. Chloride with sodium – maintains blood’s acid-base balance
4.3. Sodium – regulates BP

5. Popular conception:
5.1. flavour enhancer
5.2. suppresses the better taste of dark green vegetables.

6. Deficiency signs:
6.1. lethargy
6.2. dizziness
6.3. cramps
6.4. palpitation

7. Excess of salt signs in women:
7.1. promote fluid retardation
7.2. breast pain

8. Humorous use – salt water spray on nose effective for snorers

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Salt is an amazing gift of nature. It is obtained from sea and rocks (edible rocks). It makes our food nutritious and delicious. It is used in various food items like sauces, soups, spices, cereals, dairy products, meat/poultry and other food items. It works as a natural preservative. A person should consume 4 to 10 gm (12 to 11/3 tablespoon)of salt a day. Right quantity of salt is necessary for maintaining water balance, digestion, blood pressure, etc. Its deficiency causes lethargy, dizziness, palpitation, etc. In women, excessive salt can promote fluid retardation and cause breast pain. Its spray is useful for snorers by making breathing easier.
Title – ‘Salt: A Miraculous Gift of Nature’

Question 10.
Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The medicinal, insecticidal and religious significance of Neem tree is enshrined in mythology. The reference is that when ‘Amrit’, the heavenly nectar, was being taken to gods, a few drops fell on it. Since then the tree has assumed such an exalted position in our life.The Ayurvedic texts show the efficiency of the tree in almost all sorts of human diseases. The renowned Hindu physician and authority “Susruta” (100 AD) has dealt extensively with it.

The bark is a tonic, an astringent, an antipyretic, a cure for nausea. It is an effective cure for skin diseases and ulcers. The leaf is a known antiseptic. It is extensively used in treating pimples, smallpox, jaundice, ulcers, tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands, leprosy, rheumatism and worms. Neem oil contains a compound Azadirachtin which is a powerful remedy for various skin ailments and pyorrhea. It is also a hair tonic. Its essence is used in toothpaste and beauty aids. The stems serve as toothbrushes, toothpaste and toothpicks.

The sweet-smelling flower extract is a food stimulant and an effective cure for indigestion. Its (Neem tree) gum is effective in curing chronic skin infections and leprosy. The insecticidal value of neem is rather phenomenal. A few leaves put into the granary protect it from insects. A layer of neem leaves between the folds keeps silks and woollens moth-free. Neem is an air purifier and protects people from malaria and cholera.

As a standard remedy for burns neem leaves is soaked in oil and smeared over burnt tissues. Take crushed leaves in the form of pills grinding it with jaggery, dried in the shade, and consume twice or thrice daily till the burns begin to heal. Boil neem leaves and make a concentration to treat fungal infections. First, cool it and then make a paste with a ripe banana to apply over the infection for half an hour.

The boiled neem water can be used for the treatment of skin inflammations. To restore facial beauty, use an emulsion made of lime juice and coconut milk and add rose petals or jasmine, mix a paste made of neem leaves and turmeric rhizome in the emulsion and apply over the affected spots.

(Word Notes: medicinal = चिकित्सकीय। insecticidal = कीट नाशकीय। enshrined = पवित्र मानकर सुरक्षित रखा गया। mythology = पौराणिक शास्त्र। nectar = अमृत। exalted = प्रशंसात्मक। extensively = विस्तारपूर्वक। bark = छाल। antipyretic = दर्दनाशक। nausea = जी मिचलाना। flower extract = फूलों का अर्क। leprosy = कुष्ठ रोग। crushed leaves = पत्तियों का चूरा। jaggery = गुड़। dried = सूखा। twice = दो बार। ripe = पका हुआ। inflammation = जलन। emulsion = घोल। petals = पँखुड़ियाँ। turmeric = हल्दी। phenomenal = असाधारण। assumed = कल्पित। exalted = उत्कृष्ट। efficacy = प्रभावकारिता। renowned = प्रसिद्ध। jaundice = पीलिया। soaked = भिगोये रखना। smeared = चुपड़ना। concentration = सान्द्रण।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Importance of Neem
1.1. medicine
1.2. insecticide
1.3. religion – Amrit

2. Bark – tonic as & for
2.1. antipyretic
2.2. nausea
2.3. ulcer

3. The leaf
3.1. antiseptic for
3.1.1. tumours
3.1.2. pimples
3.1.3. smallpox
3.1.4. jaundice
3.1.5. ulcer
3.1.6. T.B. of the lymphatic glands
3.2. remedy for burns
3.2.1. neem leaves soaked in oil
3.2.2. eat pills of crushed leaves with jaggery
3.3. for fungal infection – apply a paste of concentrated boiled leaves and ripe banana
3.4. skin inflammation & dermatitis – use boiled neem water
3.5. restores facial beauty – an emulsion of lime, coconut milk, rose petals, neem leaves

4. Neem oil contains ‘Azadirachtin’ – useful in/as
4.1.1. skin ailments
4.1.2. pyorrhea
4.1.3. hair tonic
4.1.4. toothpaste & beauty aids

5. Stem
5.1. toothbrush
5.2. toothpaste
5.3. toothpick

6. Flower extract
6.1. stimulant.
6.2. tonic for indigestion

7. Gum
7.1. chronic skin infection
7.2. leprosy

8. Insecticidal value:
8.1. protects granary
8.2. keeps silks & woollens moth free
8.3. air purifier
8.4. protects from
8.4.1. malaria
8.4.2. cholera

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Neem is really a wonderful tree. It is significant because of its medicinal, insecticidal and religious value. Every part of the neem tree is very useful. Its bark is a tonic. Its leaves are used in treating pimples, smallpox, jaundice, leprosy, etc. Neem oil is a very effective remedy for skin ailments. Its gum is useful for chronic skin infections. Neem leaves keep silks and woollens month free. It (neem) is a remedy for burns. It is a natural air purifier. Its use also restores facial beauty.
Title – ‘Neem-The Nectar’

Question 11.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
The categorisation of cinema into art cinema and commercial cinema was largely an offshoot of the emergence of the new movement in the seventies. It is said by art-film directors in their defence that it is the inclusion of spicy elements that explains the success of commercial films. Their films, on the other hand, do not make use of sure success formula. They, however, pride themselves on their greater concern for social issues compared to the mainstream film-makers. Nevertheless, the low success of art-films makes one doubt their efficacy as vehicles of mass communication.

Ever since its inception, cinema has served as both a source of entertainment and of education for the masses. It is the entertainment value of cinema that makes it an effective tool for creating social awareness among the masses. There is no doubt regarding offbeat cinema’s commitment to social reform, but it is generally observed that art films are marked by the slowness of pace. The story is presented in what is seen popularly a boring and monotonous manner, often causing the audience to yawn through the length of the film. In direct contrast, a commercial film proceeds at a brisk pace.

Moreover, it is marked by an interesting presentation of the story, which is often interspersed with elements like a song, dance, comedy and action. All this makes it more receptive to the public. The difference between art-cinema and commercial cinema, perhaps, lies in the fact that while: art-cinema administers the bitter pill to the public as it is, the commercial cinema administers the same bitter pill after coating it with a sweetener, thus making it more palatable. No wonder that while commercial films attract huge crowds to the cinema halls, the art-films are screened to sparse audiences.

It is the lack of the element of entertainment in art-cinema more than anything else, that accounts for its low popularity among the masses. Is not the primary purpose of cinema to entertain? In a predominantly illiterate society like India, cinema is – for the bulk of its population – a source of relief after a hard day’s work. The offbeat films, instead of relieving, further tax the mind of the viewer by bringing him face to face with the stark and unadulterated reality. Hence, with all its social relevance, the offbeat cinema manages to reach only a limited audience comprising mainly the educated and the intellectual sections of society.

(Word Notes: categorisation = वर्गीकरण। offshoot = उपशाखा। pride = गर्व करते हैं। mainstream = मुख्य धारा। emergence = आविर्भाव। inclusion = जोड़ना। commitment = वचनबद्धता। observed = देखा जाता है। pace = गति। proceeds = आगे बढ़ता है। receptive = ग्रहणशील। administer = कुछ देना। predominantly = मुख्यतः। bulk = अधिकांश। relieving = मुक्त करना। unadulterated = जैसा का तैसा। comprising = मिलकर बना होना। nevertheless = फिर भी। inception = आरम्भ। tool = हथियार यो औजार (यहाँ) माध्यम। awareness = जागरूकता। monotonous = नीरसे। to yawn = जम्हाई लेना। brisk pace = तेज गति। interspersed = छितरी या बिखरी हुई। art-cinema = कला-सिनेमा। palatable = रोचक। huge crowd = भारी भीड़। sparse = विरल या स्वल्प। relevance = प्रासंगिकता। efficacy = प्रभावकारिता। offbeat = गैरपरम्परागत।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Types of cinema
1.1. art cinema
1.2. commercial cinema.

2. The success of commercial films
2.1. spicy elements
2.2. song
2.3. dance

3. Art films
3.1. low success
3.2. concern for social issues

4. Purpose of cinema
4.1. entertainment
4.2. education.
4.3. social awareness

5. Difference between art cinema and commercial cinema

Art Cinema Commercial Cinema
(i) Story-boring, lack of entertainment, lengthy, social issue, reality. (i) Story-attractive, spicy element.
(ii) No song, dance, comedy, action, etc. (ii) Song, dance, comedy, action, etc. are used
(iii) Attracts limited audience (a) educated (b) intellectuals (iii) Attracts-huge crowds – Illiterates for relief after hard work
(iv) Bitter pill (iv) Bitter pill with a sweet coating

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Cinema can be put into two categories, i.e., commercial cinema, and art cinema. Commercial films are more popular among masses. These films present spicy elements, i.e., songs, dance, and comedy, etc. They provide the perfect entertainment to the masses. On the other hand, art cinema is not so popular among the masses. It has a limited audience because they don’t present spicy elements. These films are mainly based on social issues and reality, hence not easy to understand for ordinary audience.
Title – Cinema: Art versus Commercial

Question 12.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
There are two problems which cause great worry to our educationists – the problem of religious and moral instruction in a land of many faiths and the problem arising out of a large variety of languages. Taking up the education of children we see that they should be trained to love one another, to be kind and helpful to all, to be tender to the lower animals and to observe and think right. The task of teaching them how to read and write and to count and calculate is important, but it should not make us lose sight of the primary aim of moulding personality in the right way.

For this, it is necessary to call into aid, culture, tradition and religion. But in our country we have, in the same school, to look after boys and girls born in different faiths and belonging to families that live in diverse ways of life and follow different forms of worship associated with different denominations of religion. It will not do to tread the easy path of evading difficulties by attending solely to physical culture and intellectual education.

We have to evolve a suitable technique and method for serving the spiritual needs of school children professing different faiths. We should thereby promote an atmosphere of mutual respect, a fuller understanding and helpful co-operation among the different communities in our society. Again we must remain one people and we have, therefore, to give basic training in our schools to speak and understand more languages than one and to appreciate and respect the different religions prevailing in India.

It is not right for us in India to be dissuaded from this by considerations as to numbing the young mind. What is necessary must be done. And it is not in fact, too great a burden. Any attempt to do away with or steamroll the differences through governmental coercion and indirect pressure would be as futile as it would be unwise.

Any imposition of a single way of life and form of worship on all children or neglect of a section of the pupils in this respect or barren secularisation will lead to conflict between school and home life which is harmful.

(Word Notes: instruction = निर्देश। arising out = उठती हुई। tender = नरम या उदार। task = कार्य। lose sight = (यहाँ) परवाह न करना। moulding = ढालना। diverse = भिन्न-भिन्न। associated = जुड़े हुए। tread = चलना। evading = बचाते हुए। attending = परवाह करना। solely = केवल। evolve = विकास करना। technique = तकनीक। professing = दावा करते हुए। promote = प्रोत्साहित करना। mutual = आपसी। prevailing = प्रचलित। dissuaded = मना किया गया। consideration = विचार। overtaking = नियन्त्रित करते हुए। steamroll = दबा देना। coercion = ताकत का प्रयोग। futile = व्यर्थ। imposition = जबरदस्ती थोपना। barren = खोखले। conflict = विवाद।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Problems before our educationists:
1.1.religious and moral instructions because we have children
1.1.1 born in different faiths
1.1.2. living in diverse ways of life
1.1.3. following different religions
1.1.4. following different forms of worship
1.1.5. speaking a large variety of languages

2. The children should be taught to
2.1. love one another
2.2. be kind and helpful to all
2.3. be tender to animals
2.4. observe and think right

3. Primary Aim
3.1. personality development in the right way
3.2. develop suitable techniques and methods for
3.2.1. serving spiritual need
3.2.2. promoting an atmosphere of mutual respect
3.2.3. being helpful
3.2.4. speaking and understanding more than one language
3.2.5. respecting and appreciating different religions

4. Wrong and unwise to
4.1.use any kind of pressure to accept
4.2. impose a single way of life and form of worship

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
In a land of many faiths, there are two big problems before our educationists. One is the problem of religious and moral instruction and the other problem arises out of a large variety of languages. We should teach our children to love one another, to be kind and helpful and to be tender to animals. They should not only be provided formal education but also mould their personality in the right way. We should promote mutual respect, fuller understanding, and cooperation among different communities. We should train our children to speak and understand more languages and to appreciate and respect other religions. Imposition will be futile. No single way of life or worship should be promoted.
Title – Human Values and Education.

Question 13.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Real praise, the sincere compliment is probably the most useful social tool of all. It’s the valued gold coin for conversation. Yet today, it is in danger of losing its brightness. For it is greatly misused and not properly exchanged. What is a true compliment? It’s one that benefits both giver and receiver. Once a painter and his young assistant were painting our house. The older man was wearing shiny new shoes. As the man started painting skillfully, my father-in-law said to the boy, “Son, when you can show up on the job to paint a house, wearing new shoes, you will be the master of your trade.”

The painter smiled and did the best job. We all like to have our sense of personal worth built up or pointed out. And when one expert adds to another’s sense of dignity and speaks favourably of his skill, he is offering a compliment of the highest and rarest kind.A compliment differs from flattery in that it is objective and is given without thought of gain. Flattery is often merely lip service or excessive praise given for motive other than expressed.

The greatest efforts of the human race have always resulted from the love of praise. This should be inspired in childhood. The wise parent makes it a point to compliment a child who deserves it. A woman I know has a 12-year-old son who considers washing dishes for his mother a great honour. One night, while washing a large dish, it slipped and crashed on the floor. Then his mother said, “You know, Robert, of all the times you have washed the dishes for me, this is the first time you dropped one”. Anxiety left the boy’s face and he smiled.

As one psychologist advises, “Praise virtue and you will find few vices to criticise”. There is an art in this giving of compliments. Thus, the good compliment is always to the point and its timing is important. Don’t wait too long to tell a person what a good talk he gave or how well he cut your grass. But don’t do it immediately when he is expecting it either. Wait. Then when he thinks you may have forgotten, pass the praise.

(Word Notes: compliment = प्रशंसा/अभिनन्दन। probably = शायद। assistant = सहायक। skillfully = निपुणता से। merely = केवल। excessive = अत्यधिक। motives = (यहाँ) उद्देश्य (स्वार्थपूर्ण)।dishes = (यहाँ) बर्तन। crashed = टूटकर टुकड़े-टुकड़े हो गयी। anxiety = चिन्ता। psychologist = मनोवैज्ञानिक। flattery = चापलूसी। deserves = योग्य होना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:

1. The most useful social tools:
1.1. real praise
1.2. sincere compliment

2. Gold coin of our conversation in danger:
2.1. losing its brightness
2.2. greatly misused
2.3. not properly exchanged

3. True compliment benefits:
3.1. giver
3.2. receiver

4. Speaking favourably of others’ skills is:
4.1. offering compliment
4.1.1.highest kind
4.1.2. rarest kind

5. Compliment differs from flattery:
5.1. in objective
5.2. given without thought of gain

6. flattery is:
6.1. lip service
6.2. excessive praise
6.3. for motives

7. The greatest effort of the human race:
7.1. love of praise
7.1.1. should be inspired in childhood

8. Psychological advice:
8.1. praise virtue
8.2. find few vices to criticise

9. Art of giving compliment:
9.1. to the point
9.2. timely
9.3. don’t wait too long to tell

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Real praise or a sincere compliment is the most useful social tool. It is our way of conversation that makes our compliment effective but now it is losing its impact because it is greatly missed. A true compliment is beneficial for both the giver and the receiver. Speaking favourably of others’ skills or appreciating others is offering a compliment of the highest and rarest kind. A true compliment is not flattery. It is objective and without expecting any return, while flattery is excessive praise offered for selfish motives. A good compliment is always to the point and offered timely.
Title – Compliment: The Most Useful Social Tool.’

Question 14.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Cycling survives as a popular pastime because it yields pleasure and benefits. First of all, cycling provides exercise, the need for which is felt by most of the people. The development of machinery tends to deprive us of adequate opportunities for expanding energy while earning a livelihood. Other opportunities should be created through the medium of, sport. Of cycling, many people hastily say that it is “hard work”, but a fit and practised rider does not agree with this verdict.

The art of easy cycling must be cultivated, as will be shown later, but once it has been acquired, a long day’s run should not unduly tire any rider endowed with a normal measure of health. Nobody has better described the exercise of cycling than the late Twells Brex, who said enthusiastically, speaking from experience: “You move along by your own glad effort.” Many of us wish to use our legs and our lungs, as well as our eyes.

An active and healthy person ought not to be contented to travel always as a mere passenger -“like an image pushed from behind”, as Stevenson says, that is not life, those who would turn all active cyclists into sedentary motor-drivers, or into idle passengers, would serve the nation better if they restricted their attention to the aged and infirm.

It is often said that the cyclist cannot travel as fast or as far as the motorist. Admitting this, the cyclist may be permitted to ask if it is always desirable that travel should involve modern motoring speeds (or accidents). It is an enjoyment of a traveller in search of pleasure to be measured merely in miles, or, what is worse in miles-per-hour, or what is worse still, in miles-per-gallon?

Surely the cyclist, pedalling calmly along at a modest twelve miles an hour is able to assimilate scenery more easily, more completely, and with more enjoyment, than the hurrying occupant of a car! Cyclists believe that their method of travel is a sensible and convenient compromise between walking and driving.

(Word Notes: survives = जीवित है। pastime = मनोरंजन। deprive = वंचित करना। adequate = पर्याप्त। livelihood = जीनिकोपार्जन या जीविका कमाना। hastily = जल्दी में। cultivated = (यहाँ) विकसित किया जाना। acquired = (यहाँ) सीख लिया जाना। enthusiastically = उत्साहपूर्वक या जोश में। content = संतुष्ट। sedentary = (यहाँ) गतिहीन। infirm = कमजोर। assimilate = आत्मसात् करनाया (यहाँ) जब्त करना। expanding = विस्तार करना। endowed = सम्पन्न। desirable = वांछनीय। convenient = सुविधाजनक। unduly = अनावश्यक रूप से।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Cycling – a popular pastime – yields:
1.1.pleasure to move along with glad effort
1.2.most essential for health
1.2.1. provides energy for a long day’s work

2. A healthy person should not become
2.1. sedentary driver.
2.2. idle passenger
2.3. should keep in mind
2.3.1. age
2.3.2. infirmity

3. Cyclist v/s Motorist:

Cyclist A motorist
(i) can’t travel fast travels fast and may meet with an accident
(ii) can enjoy by pedalling calmly sits inactive hurries
(iii) can enjoy the scenery no enjoyment

4. Cyclists believe cycling.
4.1. better than walking & driving
4.2. convenient than walking & driving

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Cycling is a popular pastime. It provides pleasure and benefits. It is a kind of exercise that keeps us fit. Cycling is an art. It is a kind of sport. The pleasure of riding a bicycle cannot be measured in terms of speed. Undoubtedly, a cyclist can’t travel as fast as a motorist. But a cyclist enjoys more than a motorist. Many people say that it is hard work but a fit and practised rider doesn’t agree with them. Cyclists believe that their method of travel is a sensible and convenient compromise between walking and driving. Title – Cycling – A Good Pastime

Question 15.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
Before we can develop a really effective programme to prevent auto accidents, we will have to learn far more than we now know about why such accidents happen. The National Safety Council, while pointing out that most accidents result from a combination of causes, and that “few accidents are investigated carefully enough to determine exactly what their underlying causes were,” estimates that in about 80% of accidents, the most important single factor is the driver himself.

Bad weather, poor road conditions, and defects in cars do cause some accidents. But such circumstances appear to be of minor significance compared with the mental and physical condition of the driver. And recent research indicates that the driver’s physical condition is of less importance than his personality and his emotional state. Many, if not most, accidents are the result of wayward impulses and motivations of faulty judgements and attitudes, of poorly controlled aggressiveness and competitiveness.

Nearly two-thirds of the drivers involved in fatal accidents were speeding, driving while under the influence of alcohol, disregarding stop lights or signs, or otherwise violating the law, according to the Safety Council. The pertinent question is why people drive so fast, drive after drinking, take risks in passing or in general, commit dangerous, careless, illegal, impulsive, or unfriendly acts when they get behind the wheel?

A small beginning has been made towards finding answers to this question. Several studies comprehensively described by Dr Ross McFarland and his associates have probed the personality and emotional characteristics of so-called accident-prone drivers and discovered such traits as emotional instability, impulsiveness, suggestibility, excitability, lack of proper sense of social responsibility, aggressiveness, and intolerance of authority.

Although the fault may be found with the quality of this research in terms of controls and other safeguards, it may prove provocative enough to lead to sounder efforts. “A man drives as he lives,” says Dr Tillman and Hobbs in an article in the American Journal of Psychiatry. “If his personal life is marked by caution, tolerance, foresight, consideration for others, he will drive in the same way. If his personal life is devoid of these desirable characteristics, his driving will be characterized by aggressiveness and over a long period of time, he will have a higher accident rate than his more stable companions.”

(Word Notes: investigated = जाँच-पड़ताल की गयी। minor = कम महत्त्वपूर्ण। significance = महत्व। indicates = दिखाती है। impulses = आवेग। motivation = प्रेरणा। comprehensively = पूर्णरूप से। probed = जाँच – पड़ताल की गयी। characteristics = लक्षण या विशेषताएँ। traits = गुण। foresight = पूर्वदृष्टि। wayward = सनकी। aggressiveness = आक्रामकता। pertinent = प्रासंगिक। instability = अस्थिरता। suggestibility = सम्मोहनीयता। excitability = उत्तेजनीयता। provocative = उत्तेजक। underlying = मूलभूत। circumstances = परिस्थितियां। intolerance = असहिष्णुता। devoid = से रहित होना। desirable = वांछनीय। stable = स्थिर।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Causes of Accidents:
1.1. driver – main cause – 80%
1.2. minor causes
1.2.1. bad weather
1.2.2. poor road condition
1.2.3. defects in cars

2 Condition of drivers:
2.1. mental
2.2. physical
2.3. their personality
2.4. emotional

3. Characteristics of accident-prone drivers:
3.1. emotional instability
3.2. impulsiveness
3.3. faulty judgement
3.4. attitude
3.5. aggressiveness
3.6. competitiveness
3.7. excitability
3.8. lacking a sense of social responsibility
3.9. intolerance

4. Causes of fatal accidents:
4.1. fast speed
4.2. effect of alcohol
4.3. violation of road rules

5. Personal factors which affect driving:
5.1. Drivers’ attitude in personal life if he
5.1.1. cautious
5.1.2. tolerant
5.1.3. has foresight.
5.1.4. has consideration for others

6. lack of desirable qualities: more accidents

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
The major cause of 80% of accidents is the driver himself. Other causes are – bad weather, poor condition of roads, defects in cars, etc. Drivers’ mental and physical condition is responsible for their reckless driving. Their personality and emotional state are more responsible for accidents. These accidents occur because of driver’s impulsiveness, faulty judgement, aggressiveness, the effect of alcohol, breach of the rules of roads, lack of proper sense of social responsibility, etc. If the driver’s personal life is marked by caution, tolerance, foresight, and consideration for others, he will drive in the same way.
Title – ‘Causes of Accidents’

Question 16.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
To date, happiness has defied definition. Most people tend to equate happiness with fun, good living, plenty of money. If happiness were synonymous with all this, rich people with all their luxuries and countless parties would be perpetually happy. But in actual fact, they are, frequently, acutely unhappy, despite their riches and ability to indulge in fun activities at will. Fun is what we experience during an act; happiness is that intangible something we experience after an act. We may have fun watching a movie, going shopping, meeting friends – these are all fun activities that afford us fleeting moments of relaxation and enjoyment.

Happiness, on the other hand, is a much stronger, deeper and more abiding emotion. If we perceive happiness as the ultimate goal, we must also devise a way to reach that goal. The way to happiness is not a smooth, broad highway along which we can cruise at a comfortable speed. It is a path through rocky and rugged terrain and the going can become very tough at times. At these times we have to roll up our sleeves and with pitchfork and shovel make our way onwards. This pursuit of happiness lasts a lifetime. Great happiness is earned only by great effort and effort not in spurts but diligent, constant effort.

In this connection we are confronted with another fallacy, that fun and pleasure mean happiness and thus pain, its corollary, must be synonymous with unhappiness. But in fact, the truth is quite different. Things that bring us happiness, more often than not, involve some amount of pain. It is because of the misconception that people avoid the very endeavour that is the source of true happiness.

Difficult endeavours – such as the raising of children, establishing deeper relationships with loved ones, trying to do something worthwhile in life-hold the promise of a world of happiness. Happiness is not a permanent vocation. Another prevalent belief is that if one were rich enough not to have to work, one would be blissfully happy.

But a job is more than just a paychequer. Almost, all religions teach us that work is worship. Work holds the key to happiness as doing something which increases confidence and self-worth. It brings on a feeling of satisfaction, of doing something, of contributing. Job satisfaction comes less from how much one earns than from the challenge of the job.

(Word Notes: to date = इस समय तक। defied = (यहाँ) चुनौती दी है। tend to = झुकाव रखते हैं। equate = बराबरी पर रखना। synonymous = समानार्थक। luxuries = आराम की वस्तुएँ। perpetually = अनन्त रूप से। acutely = (यहाँ) अत्यधिक। despite of = के बावजूद। indulge = में व्यस्त रहना। at will = इच्छानुसार। intangible = अमूर्त या अस्पष्ट। fleeting = क्षणिक या शीघ्र गुजरने वाले। relaxation = आराम। abiding = स्थायी। perceive = सोचते हो। smooth = बिना बाधा के। cruise = चलना। rugged = विषम। terrain = क्षेत्र। tough = कठिन। roll up our sleeves = तैयार रहें। shovel = बेलचा। pursuit = खोज। spurts = अचानक (विस्फोट)। confronted = सामना हुआ है। fallacy = गलतफहमी। corollary = इसका प्रत्यक्ष परिणाम। misconception = गलत धारणा। endeavour = प्रयत्न। blissfully = आनन्दपूर्वक। vocation = जीवन बिताने का ढंग। devise = ईजाद करना। pitch fork = कांटेदार पंजा। diligent = कठिन प्रयास। constant = सततः। worthwhile = करने योग्य। prevelent = व्याप्त। contributing = योगदान देना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Definition of happiness
1.1. not synonym of fun.
1.2. is intangible – we experience happiness after a successful act
1.3. stronger, deeper, more abiding emotion
1.4. an ultimate goal

2. Fun:
2.1. we experience during an act
2.1.1. by watching a movie, going shopping, meeting friends
2.1.2. relaxation & enjoyment

3. Way to happiness:
3.1. not smooth & comfortable
3.2. the very tough-rocky and rugged area
3.3. lasts a lifetime
3.4. needs diligent and constant efforts

4. Fallacies regarding happiness:
4.1. true happiness
4.1.1. not synonymous with pleasure
4.1.2. lies in raising children
4.1.3. loving people
4.1.4. doing worthwhile things

5. Facts about Happiness:
5.1. happiness isn’t permanent
5.2. work is worship
5.2.1. key to happiness
5.2.2. increases confidence & self-worth
5.2.3. self-satisfaction

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary or Abstraction
Happiness defies definition. People equate happiness with fun, money, and living a luxurious life. In fact, happiness is not the synonym of fun. People despite living a very luxurious life, are not often happy. Watching a movie, going shopping, and meeting friends may be a part of the fun but not necessarily happiness. Fun activities give us fleeting moments of relaxation and enjoyment while happiness is a much stronger, deeper, and abiding emotion. True happiness comes out of work and by doing some worthwhile things in life. Work gives us satisfaction and self-confidence which ultimately gives us happiness. Way to happiness is rocky and very tough. Hence, work is the key to happiness
Title – ‘Work: Key to Happiness’

Question 17. (S S Exam 2012)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
There are seven schools of Yoga, differing from one another, and yet having a common objective. The system expounded by Patanjali in his ‘Yoga Sutras’ is that of Raja Yoga and includes much of the teaching of the other six. ‘Hatha Yoga’ consists largely of a system of bodily exercises calculated to stimulate the mental and spiritual faculties.

‘Mantra Yoga’ is a ritualistic course of meditation on certain mystical syllables. ‘Bhakti Yoga’ emphasises devotion. The remaining schools do not command much importance. It may be worthwhile examining if the yoga method and the modern technique of Mental Hygiene have any common features.

Yoga in the words of Patanjali”‘is attained by studying the fluctuations of the mind”. The student of yoga is necessarily one who is dissatisfied with his own adaptation to life and to the external world, for no other reason would induce a man to engage in such an exacting course. His search is not avowedly a search for God, but rather a striving for self-knowledge and internal mental balance.

Patanjali says that if the student is of such a temperament that the idea of God appeals to him, that is to be encouraged, for the approach to equilibrium through devotion to God is thereby made the more rapid. If, on the other hand, the student is unable to accept the hypothesis of God, there are other paths of approach.

Yoga, in other words, encourages but does not insist upon the devotional approach. Even though Mental Hygiene is intimately associated with Ethics and Religion, this study must confine itself to the psychological aspects of the subject.

(Word Notes: expounded = वर्णित (वर्णन किया गया)। to stimulate = सक्रिय करना। spiritual faculties = आध्यात्मिक शक्तियाँ। ritualistic = धर्म या संस्कार सम्बन्धी। meditation = योग या ध्यान। emphasises = जोर देता है। devotion = भक्ति। is attained = (प्राप्त) किया जाता है। fluctuation = उतार-चढ़ाव। necessarily = आवश्यक रूप से। adaptation = ग्रहणशीलता। induce = राजी करना। exactly = ठीक-ठीक। avowed = स्वीकारी। striving = कठिन प्रयास करते हुए। temperament = मिजाज (स्वभाव)। equilibrium = संतुलन। rapid = तेज। hypothesis = परिकल्पना (यहाँ विचार)। insist = ज़ोर देना। intimately = घनिष्ठता से। confine = सीमित। psychological = मनोवैज्ञानिक।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1.Important schools of yoga – expounded by Patanjali
1.1. Raja Yoga-teaching of other six
1.2. Hatha Yoga-body exercises to stimulate the mental and spiritual faculties
1.3. devotion
1.4. Bhakti Yoga ritualistic course of meditation

2. The objective of different yogas:
2.1. common objective
2.2. self-knowledge
2.3. internal & mental balance

3. Yoga is attained:
by studying the fluctuations of the mind.

4. Student of yoga:
4.1. strives for self-knowledge & internal mental balance.

5. Yoga encourages: devotional approach

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary or Abstraction
There are seven schools of yoga. Some of the important schools of yoga are- Raja yoga, Hatha yoga, Mantra yoga, Bhakti yoga, etc. The object of all the yogas is common-that is to gain self-knowledge and internal mental balance. Yoga is attained by studying the fluctuations of the mind. Yoga encourages a devotional approach and stimulates mental and spiritual faculties.
Title – Yoga and Its Importance

Question 18. (S S Exam 2013)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Modern life is sophisticated and complex. Simple living and high thinking is a thing of the past. Complex living and low thinking have replaced this motto. Most of the people are artificial and sophisticated. They have one thing in their heart and another on their lips. Majority of the people in the cities are deceitful. The face is no more the index of the mind. Only expert psychologists can study the character of a man from the outlook of a person. The world is full of cheats and robbers. Many a man with simple looks may be a crook in reality.

It is a world of make-believe and shows business. Acting and mannerism are the rules of the day. The new generation is clear and smart. It is beyond recognition. Very few people are dependable in respect to their character and integrity. In this world of complexity and artificiality, manners are all important. You cannot move in society unless you know about good manners and possess them. Even if you may not have good meals, you have to maintain certain minimum standards of dress and make-up. Manners have become a part and parcel of life. Without proper manners, you are not welcome anywhere.

However honest may be your intention and however innocent your behaviour unless you can put up a tactful show of manners, you will not earn the respect of your fellow beings. For good manners, you must maintain a good personality. A clean dress, a clean body, certain patients in giving ears to the other party are necessary qualifications of a person professing to know manners. These qualifications are important for success in any walk of life. Their importance is all-pervading in modern times. Simplicity, innocence, honesty and similar traits of this kind have lost their values. These traits make a simpleton of any intelligent person in modern society.

(Word Notes: sophisticated = परिष्कृत। complex = जटिल। deceitful = बेईमान। psychologists = मनोवैज्ञानिक। outlook = दृष्टिकोण। crook = बेईमान। mannerism = व्यवहार। dependable = विश्वसनीय। integrity = सत्यनिष्ठा। complexity = जटिलता। conversation = वार्तालाप। professing = प्रकट करते हुए। simpleton = बुद्धू, गोबर – गणेश।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Modern life:
1.1. complex living
1.2. low thinking
1.3. artificial characters
1.4. the difference in thought and on lips.

2. Majority of people:
2.1. deceitful
2.2. cheats and robbers

3. Needs of modern society:
3.1. good manners
3.2. good meals
3.3. standards of dress
3.4. tactful show of manners

4. Requirements for a good personality:
4.1. proper manners
4.2. clean dress and body
4.3. good conversation.

5. Lost values:
5.1. simplicity
5.2. innocence
5.3. honesty
5.4. high thinking
5.5. intelligent to simpleton

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
In modern life, complex living and low thinking have taken place of simple living and high thinking. Now people have a difference in thoughts and on lips. The majority of people are cheats and robbers. In modern life, people have faith in artificiality, pomp and show. Now the concept of being accepted is good personality, good manners, clean dress and good power of conversation. But high virtues have lost their value these days.
Title- Modern Life: Complex Living and Low Thinking.

Question 19. (Sr. Sec. Supplementary 2013)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Religion as I saw it, practised, and accepted even by thinking minds, whether it was Hinduism or Islam or Buddhism or Christianity, did not attract me. It seemed to be closely associated with superstitious practices and dogmatic beliefs and behind it lay a method of approach to life’s problems which was certainly not that of science. There was an element of magic about it, an uncritical credulousness, a reliance on the supernatural. Yet it was obvious that religion had supplied some deeply felt inner need of human nature and that the vast majority of people all over the world could not do without some form of religious belief.

It had produced many fine types of men and women, as well as bigoted, narrow-minded, cruel tyrants. It had given a set of values to human life, and though some of these values had no application today, or were even harmful, others were still the foundation of morality and ethics. In the wider sense of the word, religion dealt with the uncharted regions of human experience; uncharted that is, by the scientific positive knowledge of the day. In a sense, it might be considered an extension of the known and charted region, though the methods of science and religion were utterly unlike each other, and to a large extent, they had to deal with different kinds of media.

It was obvious that there was a vast unknown region all around us, and science, with its magnificent achievements, knew little enough about it, though it was making tentative approaches in the direction. Probably also the normal methods of science, its dealings with the visible world and the process of life, were not wholly adapted to the physical, the artistic, the spiritual, and other elements of the invisible world. Life does not consist entirely of what we see and hear and feel, the visible world which is undergoing a change in time and space.

(Word Notes: associate = सम्बन्धित होना। superstitious = अंधविश्वासी। dogmatic = हठधर्मी। uncritical = अविवेकपूर्ण। credulousness = विश्वास प्रवणता। reliance = आस्था। supernatural = अलौकिक। obvious = स्पष्ट। bigoted = कट्टर। tyrant = निरंकुश शासक। ethics = नीतिशास्त्र। uncharted = अज्ञात। extension = विस्तार। utterly = पूर्ण रूप से। tentative = प्रायोगिक। spiritual = आध्यात्मिक।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-heading.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Religion seemed to be associated with
1.1. superstitious practices
1.2. dogmatic beliefs
1.3. a scientific approach

2. An element of magic
2.1. an uncritical credulousness
2.2. a reliance on supernatural

3. Religion had produced
3.1. many fine types of men and women
3.2. bigoted
3.3. narrow-minded
3.4. cruel tyrants
3.5. a set of values to human life

4. Religion dealt with:
4.1. uncharted regions of human experience
4.1.1. considered an extension of the known and charted region
4.2. Methods of science and religion utterly unlike one another

5. Normal methods of science not wholly adapted to:
5.1. physical
5.2. artistic
5.3. spiritual
5.4. other elements of the invisible world

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
No religion could attract me due to superstitious practices and dogmatic beliefs. Religion continued in practice because of an uncritical credulousness, a reliance on the supernatural. It was obvious that the vast majority of people could not do without religion. Religion had not only produced many fine types of men and women but also given a set of values to human life. On the other hand, it had produced bigoted, narrow-minded and cruel tyrants.

Religion also dealt with the uncharted regions of human experience. The methods of science and religion were totally unlike each other. Science was making tentative approaches to vast unknown regions all around us. The normal methods of science were not wholly adapted to the physical, the artistic, the spiritual and other elements of the invisible world.
Title – Religion and Science

Question 20. (S. S. Exam 2014)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Success comes to those who work with concentration and have thoroughness in action. Anyone who achieves success in the management of any great affair of life is entitled to honour. May he be an artist who paints a picture, an author who writes a book, a housewife who manages the household affairs or a soldier who wins the battle – the credit goes to his ardent spirit which is responsible for getting the job done thoroughly without getting discouraged by the failures.

Nothing great and durable was ever achieved without perseverance. It is only by practice, patience, labour, thoroughness and an eye for perfection that man reaches the minutest details of the problem, overcomes them and attains his goal. There is not even a single statesman who has not been a man of industry.

Louis XIV rightly said, “It is by toil that kings govern”. Washington, an indefatigable man of business trained himself in the habits of application, study and methodical work and successfully brought them to bear in the affairs of the government. Wellington, the head of his army in Spain directed the precise manner in which the soldiers were to cook their breakfast while on duty. He specified the exact speed at which bullocks were to be driven.

If every detail in action is carefully arranged and well executed, then efficiency is secured. : Booker T. Washington, a great American leader and educator, gained admission to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Virginia. The head teacher got impressed by his quality of thoroughness in work. When asked to clean the adjoining room, he swept the room three times and dusted every bit of furniture four times. This superb quality of thoroughness in work impressed the head teacher and Washington got admission in the school of his dreams.

So, it should be borne in mind that behind every dream and success lies a long trail of passionate efforts which the world may never come to know. But if anyone thinks that great success can be achieved without thoroughness, then it is better if thoroughness becomes our second nature and with the boon bestowed upon us, we can reap the harvest of our toil for the rest of our lives.

(WordNotes: concentration = एकाग्रता। thoroughness = सम्पूर्णता। affair = कार्य। entitled = हकदार। credit = श्रेय। ardent = तीव्र, उत्साही। spirit = जोश। durable = टिकाऊ। perseverance = दृढ़ता। attain = प्राप्त करना। indefatigable = अथक। methodical = सचेत। adjoining = निकटस्थ। borne= दृढ़तापूर्वक चेतना में लाना। trail = (यहाँ) चलना। passionate = तीव्र। bestowed = प्रदान किया, दिया। harvest = फसल। toil = minutest = अति सूक्ष्म। overcoat = जीतना। statesman = वक्ता। bear= दायित्व लेना। precise = सही, स्पष्ट। exerted = कठिन परिश्रम। कार्य सम्पादित करना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Success comes to those who:
1.1. worķwith concentration
1.2. have thoroughness in action

2. Nothing great and durable achieved without
2.1. practice
2.2. patience
2.3. labour
2.4. thoroughness

3. Washington trained himself in the habits of:
3.1. application
3.2. study
3.3. methodical work

4. Wellington directed the soldiers to secure efficiency
4.1. to cook their breakfast – while on duty
4.2. specified exact speed – at which Bullock to be driven

5. Every dream and success lies in:
5.1. a long trail of passionate efforts – the world may never come to know

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Those who work with concentration and have thoroughness in action get success, whether they are painters, authors, housewives or any other professionals. It is the ardent spirit that makes the work done thoroughly. Without perseverance, not a single leader has yet succeeded. Many great people like Washington, Brooker T.

Washington, Wellington gained success in their life by toiling hard and engaging themselves in passionate efforts. Brooker T. Washington impressed his head teacher by the quality of thoroughness in work whereas Wellington directed the soldiers to cook their breakfast while on duty. So, at last, it is wrong to think to achieve success without thoroughness in action and concentration in work.
Title – Success – Mantra

Question 21. (S.S. Exam 2015)
Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The idea that women’s rights are human fights has presently gained momentum globally and has secured recognition internationally now. However, this idea is not new to India. Swami Vivekananda observed that a civilization could be judged by the way it treats its women. If a truly democratic and equitable society is to be created then women from all segments including the less privileged must be given voice in decisions that affect their lives and that of their family. Hence the fact of the need for protection of women’s rights has been present in the Indian social and political system.

Several steps have been taken by the Government for protection of rights of the women. To give recognition to the women, it has been made compulsory to include mother’s name along with that of the father in the various application forms required to be filled for an Indian child while seeking admission in a school. Several changes have been made in personal laws to protect women’s rights and remove inherent inequalities.

The Government of India has taken several measures to help and support the women especially of the weaker sections of society. Those include the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh and the Mahila Samakhya programmes. The formation of Self Help Groups of women is another important step in giving voice to women. Financial independence has not only given a boost to the confidence of women, but it has also freed their families from the clutches of the village money lenders.

The field of literacy is one where women have played an important role, be it at the stage of atmosphere building or teaching of the illiterates, especially in the state of Rajasthan. As far as literacy is concerned, women have played an important role. They have been appreciated by the Government also, and every year when the Akshar Mitrą (Friends of Letters) awards are given, quite a number of women get awards too.

Ours is a developing the country and media has a prominent role in shaping or remoulding the attitudes of its populace. By giving space to success stories of women, the media can effectively contribute to the glorious world of women and her existence.

(Word Notes: gained = प्राप्त कर ली। momentum = विकास की निरंतरता। globally = विश्व-व्यापी प्रकार से। secured = प्राप्त कर लिया। recognition = सार्वजनिक प्रशंसा। observed = टिप्पणी की। equitable = निष्पक्ष। segments = भागों। privileged = विशेषाधिकार संपन्न। protection = संरक्षण। compulsory = अनिवार्य। include = जोड़ना। along with= के साथ। seek= पानी। inherent = अंतर्निहित। inequalities = असमानताएँ। measures = उपाय। support= सहारा देना। formation = संरचना। boost = बढ़ावा, वृद्धि। clutches = शिकंजे। money lenders = साहूकारों। literacy = साक्षरता। concerned = संबंधित होनी, की बात होना। prominent = महत्वपूर्ण। remoulding = पुनः संवारना। populace = लोग। contribute = योगदान देना। glorious = भव्य।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Women’s rights fight:
1.1. not new for India
1.2. gained momentum globally.
1.3. secured international recognition
1.4. present in the Indian political system

2. Steps were taken to protect and remove inequalities:
2.1. Included mother’s name with that of father
2.2. made several changes in personal laws.

3. Measures to help and support
3.1. formed Rashtriya Mahila Kosh
3.2. started Mahila Samakhya programme
3.3. Formed self-help groups

4. Results:
4.1. financial independence
4.2. freedom from the clutches of money lenders

5. Support by women in literacy programme:
5.1. build atmosphere
5.2. teach illiterates
5.3. appreciated by government
5.4. get Akshar Mitra awards

6. Role of media in the campaign:
6.1. shape and remould the attitudes of the populace
6.2. highlight the success stories of women.

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Women’s right is to give voice to them. It is not new to India but it has secured recognition internationally now. Several steps have been taken for their rights such as including the mother’s name with the child and making several changes in the personal laws. Various groups of women are formed for their financial help. They have made them independent. Women have helped in the literacy programme in Rajasthan. Media can also help a lot in the fight of women’s right.
Title – Women’s Rights – Human Fights

Question 22. (S.S. Exam 2016)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Work is essential for man. It is a blessing. It is one of the precious privileges he has. It is the source of all other rights. It brings him the good things of life and promotes his well-being. Work is an integral part of life. Without it, life is deprived of its substance and character. Work gives us happiness. It banishes vice and poverty from life. Work, according to Carlyle, is the grand cure of all the maladies that beset mankind. It is the key to all progress. Work is life, idleness is death.

The prosperity of any nation depends on the work of the people there. If they remain like lotus-eaters, no nation can progress or achieve anything remarkable. The prosperity.achieved by nations like Japan and Israel bears out this. No pains, no gains. All kind of work deserves our respect. But there are a number of people who consider some kinds of work ignoble and inferior. The work of farmers is much more important than that of teachers.

The reason is that if the farmers do not work, we shall not get any food-stuff. If streetcleaners do not work, life in cities and town will prove difficult. “It does not disgrace a gentleman,” says Ruskin,” to become an errand boy or a day labourer, but it disgraces him much to become a knave and a thief”. For Carlyle, work is worship. According to him, there is perennial nobleness and even sacredness in work.

To work is to pray. The worker is the saviour of society, the redeemer of the race, Tagore says God is the tiller of the hard ground and the path-maker. “He is with them in the sun and in the shower and his garment is covered with dust.” The best form of worship, according to Gurudev, is to work and serve others. It is necessary for our young men and women to recognize the dignity of labour.

Most of them prefer white collar jobs to manual work. Manual work according to Gandhiji gives an opportunity to all who wish to take part in the government and the well-being of the state. We should look up to the worker who earns his livelihood by the sweat of his brow.

(Word Notes: precious privilege = बहुमूल्य सौभाग्य। banishes = छुटकारा दिलाता है, दूर भगाता है। maladies = बीमारियों। lotus-eater = आलसी व्यक्ति। remarkable = महत्वपूर्ण। deserve = पात्र है। ignoble = बुरा। inferior = तुच्छ। errand boy = सामान को लाने ले-जाने वाला लड़का। disgrace = अपमान करना। knave = धूर्त। perennial = निरन्तर। saviour = रक्षक। redeemer = अच्छा बनकर कुछ काम करने वाला। dignity = गरिमा। white collar job = क्लर्क का काम। lookup = मान सम्मान से देखना। sweat of brow = पसीना बहाकर, मेहनत कर।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. Work is
(i) blessing
(ii) precious privilege
(iii) source of rights
(iv) the promoter of well being

2. Profits of doing work
(i) give us happiness
ii) remover vice and poverty
(iii) grand cure of maladies

3. Whose work is inferior
(i). No work is inferior
(ii) The work of farmers, street cleaners are not inferior. It is superior to the work of so many people.

4. Opinion about work
(i) Ruskin: It does not disgrace a gentleman to become an errand boy or a day labourer.
(ii) Carlyle: Work is worship. Work is to pray. The worker is the saviour of society. Work is the key to all progress.
(iii) Tagore: To work and serve others is the best form of worship.
(iv) Gandhiji: Manual labour gives the opportunity to all

5. Without work
(i) No nation can progress
(ii) achieve anything remarkable.

6. Disgraceful is
To become a knave’ and a thief.

7. Examples of hard work
Countries like Japan and Israel have achieved great progress only due to the hard work of their people.

8. No pains, no gains.

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Work is essential. It is a blessing. Without work life is useless. Work is the key to all progress. Due to hard work countries like Japan and Israel are progressing. All kinds of work deserve our respect. No work is inferior. Work is worship according to Carlyle. The best worship is to work, according to Gurudev. Gandhiji gave importance to manual labour.
Title – Importance of Work

Question 23. (S. S. Exam 2017)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Happy is the man who acquires the habit of reading when he is young. He has secured a life long source of pleasure, instruction and inspiration. So long as he has his beloved books, he need never feel lonely. He always has a pleasant occupation of leisure moments, so that he need never feel bored. He is the possessor of wealth more precious than gold. Ruskin calls books. “King’s Treasures” – treasuries filled, not with gold and silver and precious stones, but with riches much more valuable than these – knowledge, noble thoughts and high ideals.

Poor indeed is the man who does not read, and empty is his life. The blessings which the reading habit confers on its possessor are many provided we choose the right kind of books. Reading gives the highest kind of pleasure. Some books we read simply for pleasure and amusement – for example, good novels. And novels and books of imagination must have their place in everybody’s reading.

When we are tired, or the brain is weary with serious study, it is healthy recreation to lose ourselves in some absorbing story written by a master hand. Books are the most faithful of friends. Our friends may change or die, but our books are always patiently waiting to talk to us. They are never cross, peevish or unwilling to converse, as our friends sometimes are. No wonder a reader becomes a “book lover”.

(Word Notes: acquire = अर्जित कर लेना। secured = सुरक्षित करना। inspiration = प्रेरणा। so long as = जब तक। Occupation = समय यापन का ढंग। leisure = फुर्सत। bored = ऊबना। possessor = धारण करना। empty = खाली। blessing = सौभाग्य। confer = प्रदान करना। amusement = मनोरंजन। weary = थका हुआ। recreation = मनोरंजन। absorbing = किसी की सम्पूर्ण रुचि को बनाए हुए। master = कुशल। peevish = चिढ़ा हुआ। unwilling = अनिच्छुक। converse = वार्तालाप करना।)

Question 1. (4 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. A habit of reading books – a source of
1.1. Pleasure
1.2. Instruction
1.3. Inspiration

2. A reader always
2.1. Happy
2.2. Never feels lonely
2.3. Never feels bored

3. The person who does not read is
3.1. Poor
3.2. Empty

4. Blessing through right kind of books are
4.1. Pleasure
4.2. Amusement
4.2.1. Books
4.2.2. Novels
4.3. Healthy recreation

5. Books – faithful friends
5.1. Never
5.1.1. Changes
5.1.2. Crosses
5.1.3. Dies
5.1.4. Peevish
5.1.5. Unwilling to converse
5.2. Patiently wait

6. Ruskin Bond
6.1. King’s Treasure-filled
6.1.1. Gold
6.1.2. Precious stones
6.2. Knowledge
6.3. Noble thoughts
6.4. High ideas

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
Books are faithful friends for they provide pleasure, instruction and inspiration. The person who has developed the habit of reading a good book is always happy, never bored. He has the treasure of knowledge, high ideals. Books never change or die like a friend. They are never cross, peevish or unwilling to converse. But they wait for us. The life of the man is empty who does not read. He is poor indeed.
Title – Books – Faithful Friends

Question 24. (S. S. Exam 2018)
Read the passage given below and answer the questions:
This problem of the art of living is one which for two thousand years has interested and perplexed the world’s philosophers ………….. Most people would agree that, apart from the eternal verities, the art of living consists in the achievement of happiness and in the avoidance of unhappiness. Happiness has little to do with enjoyment or even pleasure; it is something for more reputable than self-indulgence. Happiness can only be found in the free and successful expression of one’s own personality. I shall now examine that phrase and therefore repeat it.

Happiness, or the art of living, consists in the free and successful expression of one’s own personality, what do I mean by that? I mean something for more than the selfishness of self-seeking. People who are selfish or self-centered or conceited have not begun to learn the art of living; they have not mastered even the ABC of the art. Of all the miserable people in the world, there are none so miserable as those who think only of themselves and whose every motive is the self-seeking motive.

You see, every man or woman born into this world is given certain personal virtues and cursed with certain personal defects. If he or she seeks to express his or her own personality, which I hold to be the art of living, he must strive always to express his virtues and to suppress his defects. He must not express the worst in himself; he must express the best in himself. He will never be happy if he falls into the dreary round of selfishness.

(Word Notes: has interested = (जानने की) रुचि जगाई है। perplexed = भ्रमिते, किंकर्तव्यविमूढ़। eternal = शा२वत, निरन्तर विद्यमान। consist in (Phrasal verb) = में होना, से बना होना। achievement = उपलब्धि। pleasure = प्रसन्नता, आनन्द। self-indulgence = आत्म – आसाक्ति, स्वयं में मगन रहने की भावना। self-seeking = स्वहित पूर्ति की भावना (N) स्वार्थपरायण (A)। conceited = दम्भी, अहंकारी। ABC = प्राथमिक सामान्य तथ्य। miserable = दयनीय। virtues = सदाचार, सद्गुण। strive = कठिन प्रयास करना। suppress = दमन करना, रोक लगाना। dreary = दुःखद, निरस।)

Question 1. (2 marks)
On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings.
Answer:
Notes:
1. The art of living consists
1.1. in the achievement of happiness
1.2. in the avoidance of unhappiness

2. Happiness
2.1. is not self-indulgence
2.2. is not selfishness

3. Happiness can only be found
in the free and successful expression of one’s personality

4. Every man or woman
4.1. has certain personal virtues
4.2. is cursed with certain personal defects.

5. This art of living is
5.1. to express virtues
5.2. to suppress defects

Question 2. (2 marks)
Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
Answer:
Summary
The world’s philosophers have always strived to know the art of living and they, at last, define it as the achievement of happiness. Happiness is the free and successful expression of one’s own personality. It has nothing to do with selfishness or self-centeredness. A man having the art of living always expresses his virtues and suppresses his defects with having a desire of selfishness.
Title – The Art of Living