1 Vocabulary Number

आशय-Noun (संज्ञा) का रूप जो उस Noun के एक अथवा एक से अधिक होने का ज्ञान कराता है-Number (वचन) कहलाता है। प्रकार-अंग्रेजी में Number (वचन) दो प्रकार के होते हैं। 

1. Singular Number – प्रसिद्ध विद्वान रेन व मार्टिन के अनुसार, जब कोई Noun केवल एक व्यक्ति अथवा एक वस्तु अथवा एक स्थान का बोध कराता है तो उसे Singular Number (एकवचन) कहते हैं, जैसे – boy, girl, man (एक व्यक्ति); chair, book, tree (एक वस्तु); city, village, school (एक स्थान)। 

2. Plural Number-रेन व मार्टिन के अनुसार, जब कोई Noun एक से अधिक व्यक्तियों अथवा वस्तुओं अथवा स्थानों का बोध कराता है तो उसे Plural Number (बहुवचन) कहते हैं, जैसे – boys, girls, men, chairs, books, trees; cities, villages, schools आदि। Singular से Plural बनाने के लिए प्रमुख नियम निम्न प्रकार हैं

Rule : 1: Singular से Plural बनाने के लिए Noun के अंत में प्रायः – जोड़ देने से Plural Number बन जाता है, जैसे
Book – Books; Bird – Birds

Rule : 2: जिस Noun के अन्त में -6, -ss, -ch, – sh, अथवा x हो तो उस Noun के अन्त में -es जोड़ देने से
Plural Number बन जाता है, जैसे Bus – Buses, Bench’ – Benches 

Rule : 3: अधिकतर Noun जिसके अन्त में हो तो उनके अन्त में -es जोड़ देने से Plural Number बन जाता है, जैसे
Mango – Mangoes; Potato – Potatoes 

Rule : 4: जिस Noun के अन्त में -y हो और उसके पहले कोई Consonant हो तो-y को हटाकर -ies जोड़ देने से Plural Number बन जाता है, जैसेBaby – Babies; Country – Countries 

Rule :5: जिस Noun के अन्त में -y हो और -y के पहले कोई Vowel हो तो अन्त में -5 लगा देने से Plural Number बन जाता है, जैसे Boy .- Boys; Donkey – Donkeys 

Rule : 6: जिस Noun के अन्त में -fहो तो इन्हें Plural बनाने के लिए 
(i) f – अथवा -fe को हटा दो, 
(ii) इनके स्थान पर -ves लगा दो।
Thief – Thieves, 
Leaf – Leaves 

Rule: 7: अपवाद : कुछ शब्दों के अन्त में-f अथवा
-fe होते हुए भी Plural बनाने के लिए-s लगता है,|ves नहीं लगता है, जैसेChief – Chiefs; . Proof – Proofs 

Rule:8 : कुछ Nouns के अन्दर का Vowel बदलने से Plural बन जाता है, जैसे
Man – Men; 
Tooth – Teeth 

Rule: 9: कुछ शब्द ऐसे हैं जिनके अन्त में -ren लगाने से Plural बनता है, तथा कुछ शब्द ऐसे हैं जिनके अन्त में -en लगाने से Plural बनता है, जैसे Child – Children; Ox – Oxen 

Rule: 10: कुछ Nouns का Singular तथा Plural में समान रूप रहता है, जैसे Deer (हिरन) Deer; Public (जनता) Public Sheep (भेड़) Sheep 

Rule : 11 : कुछ Nouns का Singular नहीं होता है, सदैव Plural में ही प्रयोग होते हैं, जैस  -innings, scissors, pants, trousers. 

प्रयोग We won by an innings. She has a pair of scissors. (कैंची) 

Rule: 12 : Pronouns के Plural निम्न प्रकार होते हैं

I – We; 
My – Our 
Me – Us; 
Myself – Ourselves 
He – They; 
His – Their 
Himself – Themselves; 
You – They; 
Yourself – Yourselves 
She -. They; 
Her – Their 
Herself :- Themselves;
It – They; 
Itself – Themselves; 
This – These; 
That – Those 

Rule 13. Verbs के Plural निम्न प्रकार होते

is – are
has – have
was – were

पाठ्यपुस्तक Honeydew में प्रयुक्त |
प्रमुख शब्दों के Plural 

Lesson 1 

Singular — Plural 

mark — marks
shop — shops
Century — centuries
garage — garages
envelope — envelopes
bottle — bottles
man — men
greatcoat — greatcoats
goalpost — goalposts
foot — feet
orphan — orphans
window — widows
treasure — treasures
trench — trenches
desk — desks
condition — coniditions
drawer — drawers
surprise — surprises
knife — knives
feeling — feelings
pile —  piles
breath — breaths
child — children
wife — wives
dugout — dugouts
army — armys

Lesson 2

island — islands
earthquake — earthquakes
society — societies
tremor — tremors
policeman — policemen
life — lives
way — ways
story — stories
wave — waves
family —  families
direction — directions
leaf — leaves
beach — beaches
penny — pennies
whirlpool — whirlpools
landslide — landslides
carcass — carcasses
volcano — volcanoes
buffalo — buffaloes
leopard — leopards

Lesson 3

Jimpse — glimpses
bubble — bubbles
rivairy — rivalries
foreigner — foreigners
tax — taxes
industry — industries
responsibility — responsibilities
spark — sparks
picture — pictures
countryman — countrymen
slave — slaves
misery — miseries
policy — policies
revolt — revolts
mass — masses
landlord — landlords

Lesson 4.

memory — memories
country — countries
dress — dresses
sandwich — sandwiches
anxiety — anxieties
journal — journals
publisher — publishers
resource — resources
witness — witnesses
bookshelf — bookshelves
thriller — thrillers
agency — agencies
tooth — teeth
month — months

Lesson 5.

summit — summits
emotion — emotions
mountain — mountains
attempt — attempts
height — heights
cloud — clouds
monkey — monkeys
experience — experiences
peak — peaks
road — roads
obstacle — obstacles
difficulty — difficulties
climber — clinthers
valley — valleys
relie — relies
inspiration — inspirations

Lesson 6.

farm — farms
pupil — pupils
dream — dreams
doe — does
finger — fingers
fawn — fawns
arm — arms
hoof –hooves
bush — bushes
neck — necks

Lesson 7.

scientist — scientists
physicist —  physicists
guth — guilts
corpse — corpses
accessory — accessories
university — universities
reality — realities
thought — thoughts
phrase — phrases
possibility — possibilities

Lesson 8.

season — seasons
insect — insects
roof — roofs
visitor — visitors
creeper — creepers
umbrella — umbrellas
seed — seeds
shrew — shrews
rainbow — rainbows
rodent — rodents
snake — snakes
marble — marbles

Lesson 9.

stone — stones
cottage — cottages
rock — rocks
day — days
image — images
sympathy — sympathies
reply — replies
face — faces
feature — features
prophecy — prophecies
wheel — wheels
inhabitant — inhabitants
soul — souls
field — fields

Lesson 10.

neiglour — neighbours
stranger — strangers
tear — tears
preacher — preachers
place — places
visitor — visitors
creeper — creepers
umbrella — umbrellas
traveller — travellers
poet — poets
deed — deeds
hearer — hearers
guest — guests

Practice Exercise 1.

Choose the correct answer : 

Question 1. 
Two Gujrati gentlemen from a group of…………..discovered Bepin Babu lying unconscious beside a boulder. 
(a) picnics 
(b) picnic
(c) picnickers 
(d) picnicker 
(c) picnickers 

Question 2. 
He weighed his…………….one by one, but I turned away.
(a) coin 
(b) coins 
(c) coined 
(d) coining 
(b) coins 

Question 3. 
Of all the…………..which surged through me as I stood on the summit of Everest. 
(a) emotion 
(b) emotions 
(c) feel
(d) show 
(b) emotions 

Question 4.
The man who has been to the…. never the same again. 
(a) mountains 
(b) mountain
(c) mountaineer 
(d) mounting 
(a) mountains 

Question 5. 
Man takes delight in overcoming…..
(a) obstacle 
(b) obstacles
(c) obstacled 
(d) problem 
(b) obstacles

Question 6. 
Jody allowed his….. … drift back to the fawn. 
(a) thought 
(b) idea 
(c) thoughts 
(d) line
(c) thoughts 

Question 7. 
They turned their…………….on their long scrawny…………and hissed at them. 
(a) tail, leg 
(b) ear, eye
(c) heads, necks 
(d) head, neck 
(c) heads, necks 

Question 8. 
The mind buoyant with thoughts that came out in frozen………..and……… stiff as corpses. 
(a) phrases, sentences 
(b) phrase, sentence 
(c) voice, word
(d) letter, voice 
(a) phrases, sentences 

Question 9. 
I felt a huge relief and exhilaration in the…………….of my body. 
(a) possible 
(b) possibly 
(c) possibilities 
(d) impossible
(c) possibilities 

Practice Exercise 2.

Fill in the blanks with the plurals of the words given in the brackets: 

1. What are the ……… of bird watching? (joy)
2. There were many…………. in the forest (young bird) 
3. We need some ……………… (camera) 
4. Film industry needs many ……. (camera man)
5. I could not go to the ……………. for fifteen days. (field) 
6. I am glad that you and the …………. are well. (child) 
7. We got a lot of ………….. this year. (potato) 
8. He has written numerous ………………. his life (incident) 
9. I had formed a habit of taking (long walk) 
10. I saw the beautiful handwriting of and young men (lawyer) 
11. He would never develop the great …………. of hard work and honesty. (quality) 
12. I saw two …………. in the river. (crocodile) 
13. There are many ………….. for the animals. (cage) 
14. All the ……… went to the zoo. (classmate) 
15. I know the …………….. of service. (place)
1. joys 
2. young birds 
3. cameras 
4. camera men 
5. fields 
6. children 
7. potatoes 
8. incidents 
9. long walks 
10. lawyers 
11. qualities 
12. crocodiles 
13. cages 
14. classmates 
15. places 

Practice Exercise 3.

Fill in the blanks with the plurals of the words given in the brackets : 

1. I thank you on behalf of our ……… (viewer)
2. My uncle gave me the famous book “Indian (Bird) 
3. How many …….. are there in your club ? (member) 
4. Different persons have different (hobby) 
5. I read it several ……… (time) 
6. These ………….. were not much far. (city) 
7. He bought four ………….. from the market. (beehive) 
8. There were two …………… Over the river. (drawbridge) 
9. I was here to meet you twenty. ago. (minute) 
10. The watch was decorated with tiny ………. (diamond) 
1. viewers 
2. Birds 
3. members 
4. hobbies 
5. times 
6. cities 
7. beehives 
8. drawbridges 
9. minutes 
10. diamonds