Day
Night

2. Synthesis

Synthesis में दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया Simple, Complex या Compound Sentence बनाया जाता है।
Synthesis का अध्ययन निम्न शीर्षकों (headings) के अन्तर्गत किया जाता है – 

(1) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence
(साधारण वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक साधारण वाक्य बनाना) 

(2) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence
(साधारण वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक मिश्रित वाक्य बनाना) 

(3) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Compound Sentence 
(साधारण वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक संयुक्त वाक्य बनाना)

Formation Of Simple Sentences.

दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Simple Sentence बनाना || 

Rule 1. Participle का प्रयोग करके ऐसे Verbs जो Verb तथा Adjective दोनों का काम करें Participle कहलाते हैं । जब दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को जोड़कर एक Simple Sentence बनाना होता है तो उनमें से केवल एक वाक्य के verb को FiniteVerb के रूप में प्रयोग करते हैं तथा अन्य वाक्यों के Verbs को Participles के रूप में बदल देते हैं।

नोट – साधारणतया Participle के द्वारा Simple Sentence को तब जोड़ा जाता है जब विभिन्न Simple Sentences का Subject तो एक ही होता है परन्तु FiniteVerbs भिन्न होते हैं । यदि भिन्न-भिन्न वाक्यों में भिन्न-भिन्न Subjects आये हैं, तो यह नियम लागू नहीं होता ।

Participle के प्रयोग से वाक्य जोड़ते समय यह ध्यान रखना चाहिये कि कौन-सा कार्य पहले और कौन-सा कार्य बाद में हुआ है । जो कार्य पहले हुआ है, उसको दिखाने वाले FiniteVerb को Participle में बदल देते हैं तथा जो कार्य या क्रिया अन्त में हो उसे Finite रहने देते हैं । जैसे —

She saw a snake. She ran away with fear.
इन दोनों वाक्यों का कर्ता She है । इनके दोनों Verbs से यह पता चलता है कि दो कार्य किये गये हैं; पहले साँप देखने का, इसके बाद डर कर भागने का । अतः इन्हें इस प्रकार जोड़ दें –
Seeing a snake, she ran away with fear. Participle तीन प्रकार के होते हैं जिनसे भिन्न-भिन्न Simple Sentences निम्न प्रकार जोड़े जाते हैं –

(a) Present Participle- यह क्रिया के अन्त में ing लगाने से बनता है । हिन्दी में इसका अर्थ हुए’ या ‘करके’ होता है । इसमें दो कार्य साथ-साथ चलते हैं । बहुधा दूसरा कार्य पहले कार्य का फल होता है।

1. Separate – I reached home. I took off my clothes.
Combined – Reaching home, I took off my clothes. 

2. Separate – I was hungry. I took my food. 
Combined – Being hungry, I took my food. 

3. Separate – She was tired of walking. She lay down to take rest.
Combined – Being tired of walking, she lay down to take rest. 
अगर Present Participle का सम्बन्ध वाक्य के Object से हो तो उसे Object के बाद में रखते हैं । 
जैसे Separate – I saw Ramesh. He was abusing his neighbour. 
Combined – I saw Ramesh abusing his neighbour.
उपर्युक्त वाक्य में Participle का सम्बन्ध वाक्य के Object ‘Ramesh’ से है।

(b) Past Participle- यह क्रिया का third form होता है और इसका प्रयोग Adjective के रूप में होता है । जैसे निम्न उदाहरण में lost का प्रयोग विशेषण के रूप में हुआ है –
Separate – I found my pen. It was lost.
Combined – I found my lost pen. 

(c) Perfect Participle- इसमें having के साथ Verb की third form प्रयोग में लायी जाती है। जब एक कार्य पूर्ण रूप से समाप्त हो जाय और तब उसके बाद दूसरा कार्य प्रारम्भ हो तो जो क्रिया कार्य को समाप्त होना दिखाती है, उसे Perfect Participle 
Separate – She had completed her written work. She went to the market.
Combined – Having completed her written work, she went to the market. 
Participle का Passive form having been के साथ Verb के third form से बनता है । जैसे –
Separate – He was punished by his teacher. He felt sorry.
Combined – Having been punished by his teacher, he felt sorry. 
नोट – ‘He was punished’ Passive Voice में है । 
अत: Participle के भी Passive form having been punished’ 

Exercise 1.

Combine each set of the following Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using a Participle: 

1. She went to the garden. She plucked flowers. 
2. I saw a ball. I picked it up. 
3. The servant swept the room. He went away. 
4. He came to me. He gave me this letter. 
5. The poor man worked. He laughed. He thus spent his life. 
6. I was walking in the field. I saw a snake. I ran away. 
7. He went up the hill. He saw an old temple. 
8. He went home. He met his mother. He touched her feet. 
9. The child lost his pen. He began to weep. 
10. He was disguised as a saint. He escaped to Nepal.
Answers:
1. Going to the garden, she plucked flowers. 
2. Seeing a ball, I picked it up. 
3. Having swept the room, the servant went away. 
4. Coming to me, he gave me this letter. 
5. The poor man spent his life working and laughing. 
6. Seeing a snake while walking in the field, I ran away. 
7. Going up the hill, he saw a temple. 
8. Going home and meeting his mother, he touched her feet. 
9. Having lost his pen, the child began to weep. 
10. Disguised as a saint, he escaped to Nepal. 

Rule 2. Infinitive का प्रयोग करेके

क्रिया में to जोड़कर Infinitive बनाया जाता है । हिन्दी में अर्थ निकालने पर क्रिया के अन्त में ‘ना’, ‘नी’, ‘ने’ आता है। Infinitive के प्रयोग द्वारा वाक्यों को जोड़ते समय एक वाक्य के Finite Verb को उसी रूप में रहने देते हैं तथा दूसरे या अन्य वाक्यों के Finite Verb को Infinitive में बदल देते हैं । उद्देश्य या फल दिखाने वाली Finite क्रिया को Infinitive में बदलना चाहिये।

1. Separate – He took a knife. He wanted to kill the hen.
Combined – He took a knife to kill the hen. 

2. Separate – He is very weak. He cannot walk.
Combined – He is too weak to walk. 

3. Separate – He wants to study. He has gone to Jaipur.
Combined – He has gone to Jaipur to study. 

4. Separate – Iam leaving for Kolkata. I shall live there.
Combined – I am leaving for Kolkata to live there.

 5. Separate – The book was very difficult. She could not understand.
Combined – The book was too difficult for her to understand.

Exercise 2.

Combine each set of the following Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using an Infinitive: 

1. He has three daughters. He has to get them married. 
2. Give him a chair. He will sit on it. 
3. She is very fat. She cannot run.
4. I want a knife. I shall cut vegetables with it. 
5. Hari went to Agra. He wanted to see the Taj. 
6. He has no money. He can’t buy a smart phone. 
7. She will go to Jaipur. She will see her father. 
8. He is very old. He cannot walk.
9. Sita went to Bikaner. She went there to see her sister. 
10. He had a large family. He had to provide for them. 
Answers:
1. He has to get his three daughter married. 
2. Give him a chair to sit on. 
3. She is too fat to run. 
4. I want a knife to cut vegetables. 
5. Hari went to Agra to see the Taj. 
6. He has no money to buy a smart
7. She will go to Jaipur to see her father. 
8. He is too old to walk. 
9. Sita went to Bikaner to see her sister. 
10. He had to provide for a large family.

Rule 3. Nominative Absolute का प्रयोग करके

Nominative Absolute उस कर्ता (Nominative) को कहते हैं, जो वाक्य में स्वतन्त्र (Absolute) रहता है । यह Participle से पहले प्रयोग होता है । ऐसे कर्ता का कोई भी प्रभाव वाक्य के Verb पर नहीं पड़ता, क्योंकि यह न तो किसी FiniteVerb का कर्ता होता है और न कर्म । जैसे –
(i) The sun having set, the stars came up in the sky. 
(ii) The meeting being over, all members left the hall. 
उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में sun तथा meeting, Nominative Absolutes हैं।

Nominative Absolute का प्रयोग तब होता है जब प्रत्येक वाक्य का Subject एक ही न होकर अलग-अलग होते हैं । दूसरे, उन वाक्यों के Verbs से ऐसा मालूम पड़ता है कि जो कार्य एक दूसरे के बाद होते हैं उनके बीच एक प्रकार का causal relation (कारण और उसके परिणाम का सम्बन्ध) है । Synthesis करते समय जो कार्य पहले हो उसके कर्ता को 

Participle के पहले रख देते हैं । जैसे –
Separate – The sun set. The stars came up in the sky.
Combined – The sun having set, the stars came up in the sky. 

उपर्युक्त वाक्य में पहले सूर्य का अस्त होना हुआ और उसके बाद सितारों का आकाश में उदय होना हुआ । इसलिये पहले वाक्य के कर्ता (sun) को Participle (having set) के पहले रखा गया है अर्थात् sun को Nominative Absolute कर दिया गया है तथा दूसरे वाक्य को उसी तरह रहने दिया गया है ।

1. Separate – The police arrived. The dacoits ran away. 
Combined – The police having arrived, the dacoits ran away.

2. Separate – The picture was interesting. We enjoyed it very much. 
Combined – The picture being interesting, weenjoyed it very much. 

3. Separate – The teacher was absent. The boys did not work.
Combined – The teacher being absent, the boys did not work. 

4. Separate – The sun rose. The birds began to fly.
Combined – The sun having risen, the birds began to fly. 

5. Separate – The captain was killed. The army fled. (यह Passive वाक्य है)
Combined – The captain having been killed, the army fled. 

Note- 
(i) जब वाक्य में क्रियाओं is, are, am, was, were का प्रयोग main verb के रूप में होता है तो Subject के पश्चात् being का प्रयोग होता है । (उदाहरण 2, 3)
(ii) Subject के बाद having का प्रयोग Active Voice में करते हैं । (उदाहरण 1, 4) 
(iii) Subject के बाद having been का प्रयोग Passive Voice में करते हैं । (उदाहरण 5)

Exercise 3.

Combine each set of the following Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using Nominative Absolute: 

1. The sun set. The birds started flying towards their nests. 
2. The play was over, All left the field. 
3. The bell rang. The school closed. 
4. The rain stopped. Children went out to play. 
5. The letter was written. He posted it at once. 
6. The classwork was over. The students left the class. 
7. The police arrived. The mob dispersed. 
8. The sun set. They returned to their homes. 
9. My pocket was picked. I had no money for bus fare. 
10. The college was closed. The boys went home.
Answers:
1. The sun having set, the birds started flying towards their nests. 
2. The play being over, all left the field. 
3. The bell having rung, the school closed. 
4. The rain having stopped, children went out to play. 
5. The letter having been written, he posted it at once.
6. The classwork being over, the students left the class. 
7. The police having arrived, the mob dispersed. 
8. The sun having set, they returned to their homes. 
9. My pocket having been picked, I had no money for bus fare. 
10. The college having been closed, the boys went home. 

Rule 4. Gerund या Noun के पूर्व Preposition का प्रयोग करके ।
Gerund बनाने के लिए Verb के first form में ing जोड़ना चाहिए । हिन्दी में अर्थ निकालने पर इसमें भी क्रिया के अन्त में ‘ना’ ,’नी’ , ‘ने’ आता है।

1. Separate – Sita bought a pen. She gave five rupees for it.
Combined – Sita bought a pen for five rupees. 

2. Separate – He gave me advice. He also helped me.
Combined – Besides giving me advice, he also helped me. 

3. Separate – I made my best efforts. I could not pass B. A.
Combined – In spite of my best efforts, I could not pass B.A. 

4. Separate – The moon rose. The journey was not ended.
Combined – The moon rose before the end of the journey. 

5. Separate – Sita had failed. She heard the news. She fainted.
Combined – On hearing the news of her failure, Sita fainted. 

6. Separate – You helped me. I would have failed.
Combined – I would have failed without your help. 

यदि दो Simple Sentences, Passive Voice में हों तो उन्हें जोड़ते समय Gerund के Passive form (being + Verb के third form) के पहले Preposition का प्रयोग करना चाहिए । जैसे –

Separate – He was awarded. He was given a trophy. 
Combined – He was awarded by being given a trophy.

Exercise 4.

Combine each of the following groups of Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using a Preposition before a Gerund or Noun: 

1. My brother is ill. He has high fever. 
2. He saw the moon. He became glad. 
3. He gave them his advice. He helped them liberally. 
4. I bought a watch. I paid Rs 500 for this. 
5. You helped me. I would have been drowned. 
6. He behaved rudely with me. I was quite displeased. 
7. I reached the station. I bought tickets. 
8. The mother saw the child. She was very happy.
9. He returned safely. All were glad. 
10. Sohan sold his house. He sold it for fifty lac rupees.
Answers:
1. My brother is ill with high fever. 
2. He became glad on seeing the moon. 
3. Besides giving them his advice, he helped them liberally. 
4. I bought a watch for Rs. 500. 
5. I would have been drowned without your help. 
6. I was quite displeased with him for his rude behaviour. 
7. After reaching the station, I bought tickets. 
8. The mother was very happy on seeing the child. 
9. All were glad at his safe return. 
10. Sohan sold his house for fifty lac rupees. 

Rule 5.Noun या Phrase in Apposition का प्रयोग करके
Apposition का अर्थ है side by side और इसीलिए किसी Noun या Phrase को उस Noun के बगल में रखा जाता है जिसकी व्याख्या की जाती है । जो Noun या Phrase, apposition में रहता है उसे दो अल्पविराम (commas) के बीच रखा जाता है । जैसे
Separate – Suresh is a teacher. He is very gentle.
Combined – Suresh, a teacher, is very gentle. 
यहाँ teacher एक Noun है जो दूसरे Noun Suresh की व्याख्या करता है । अत: teacher, Suresh के साथ apposition में है। विधि का प्रयोग तब होता है जब विभिन्न वाक्यों में कोई ऐसे दो Nouns हों जो एक ही वस्तु, व्यक्ति या स्थान को प्रकट करते हों । ऐसी स्थिति में उनका प्रयोग apposition के रूप में होता है । अन्य उदाहरण देखिये –

1. Separate – Ravi was the best boy in the class. He was the monitor.
Combined – Ravi, the monitor, was the best boy in the class. 

2. Separate – Tagore was the author of the Gitanjali. He was a great poet of Bengal. 
Combined – Tagore, a great poet of Bengal, was the author of the Gitanjali.
Or 
Tagore, the author of the Gitanjali, was a great poet of Bengal. 

3. Separate – My brother went to Delhi. Delhi is the capital of India.
Combined – My brother went to Delhi, the capital of India. 

4. Separate – Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader: He is called the Father of the Nation.
Combined – Mahatma Gandhi, a great leader, is called the Father of the Nation. 

5. Separate – Columbus was a famous sailor. He was an Italian. He discovered America. 
Combined – Columbus, a famous Italian sailor, discovered America.
Or 
Columbus, the discoverer of America, was a famous Italian sailor. 

6. Separate – Indira Gandhi was our Prime Minister. She was shot dead by her security
guards. Combined – Indira Gandhi, our Prime Minister, was shot dead by her security guards.

Exercise 5.

Combine each of the following groups of Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using a Noun or Phrase in Apposition: 

1. Dr Radha Krishnan was the President of India. He was a great philosopher. 
2. Mohan was the only son of his father. He died in an accident. 
3. Nalanda was once the biggest centre of learning. It is now a heap of ruins. 
4. Mr Saxena was our Principal. He was very learned. 
5. Shahjahan was a great Mughal Emperor. He built the Taj. It is the finest building in the country.
6. I have never been to Mumbai. It is the biggest seaport of India. 
7. Kalidas was a great Sanskrit poet. He was the author of the ‘Shakuntlam’. 
8. Nehru was a great statesman. He was the first Prime Minister of India: 
9. Lava and Kush were the sons of Sita. They were very brave. 
10. Milton was a famous English poet. He was blind.
Answers:
1. Dr Radhakrishnan, the President of India, was a great philosopher. 
2. Mohan, the only son of his father, died in an accident. 
3. Nalanda, once the biggest centre of learning, is now a heap of ruins. 
4. Mr Saxena, our Principal, was very learned. 
5. Shahjahan, a great Mughal Emperor, built the Taj, the finest building in the country. 
6. I have never been to Mumbai, the biggest sea-port of India. 
7. Kalidas, a great Sanskrit poet, was the author of the ‘Shakuntalam’. 
8. Nehru, the first PrimeMinister of India, was a great statesman. 
9. Lava and Kush, the sons of Sita, were very brave. 
10. Milton, a famous English poet, was blind.

Rule 6. Adverb या Adverbial Phrase का प्रयोग करके

Adverb साधारणतया -ly का प्रयोग करके बनता है । यदि एक वाक्य के कुछ शब्द मिलकर Adverb का कार्य करते हैं तब उसे Adverbial Phrase कहते हैं । यह विधि तब प्रयोग में लायी जाती है जब दोनों वाक्यों में से कोई एक वाक्य दूसरे वाक्य की मुख्य क्रिया की विशेषता प्रकट करता है । जो वाक्य विशेषता प्रकट करता है उसे Adverb या Adverbial Phrase में बदल देते हैं । जैसे
(i) He went to college. He was punctual. यहाँ दूसरे वाक्य का punctual शब्द पहले वाक्य की क्रिया went की विशेषता बताता है । 
अत: punctual शब्द को Adverb में बदल कर दोनों वाक्यों को मिलाकर इस प्रकार लिख सकते हैं :
He went to college punctually. 

(ii) I finished the work. It took me no time. यहाँ दूसरा वाक्य पहले वाक्य की क्रिया finished की विशेषता बता रहा है । इसको Adverbial Phrase ‘in no time’ में बदलकर दोनों वाक्यों को मिलाकर इस प्रकार लिख सकते हैं –
I finished the work in no time. 

अन्य उदाहरण –

1. Separate – Rana Pratap was the glory of Mewar. There is no doubt about it.
Combined – Rana Pratap was undoubtedly the glory of Mewar. 

2. Separate – The student read the book. He read it in a hurry. 
Combined – The student read the book hurriedly.

3. Separate – The tree was cut down. The cutting down was slow.
Combined – The tree was cut down slowly.

4. Separate – He played cricket. He played happily. 
Combined – He played cricket happily. 

5. Separate – He did his work. He was not careful about it. 
Combined – He did his work carelessly. 

6. Separate – The sun set. The boys had not completed the work. 
Combined – The boys had not completed the work by sunset.

Exercise 6.

Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into a Simple Sentence by using an

Adverb or Adverbial Phrase: 

1. He was at fault. There is no doubt in it. 
2. He went to market. He was ina hurry. 
3. I shall return by the morning. I am definite about it. 
4. I thanked him. I did it with all my heart. 
5. The river was flowing. Its flow was slow. 
6. He did it. He did it with a great success. 
7. He spent all his money. This was foolish. 
8. She will pass the examination. It is certain. 
9. The leader spoke. He spoke for a few minutes. 
10. He failed. It was unfortunate.
Answers:
1. He was undoubtedly at fault. 
2. He went to the market in a hurry. 
3. I shall definitely return by the morning. 
4. I thanked him with all my heart. 
5. The river was flowing slowly. 
6. He successfully did it. 
7. He spent all his money foolishly. 
8. She will pass the examination certainly. 
Or 
She will certainly pass the examination. 
9. The leader spoke for a few minutes. 
10. Unfortunately he failed. 

Rule 7. Adjective का प्रयोग करके
जब दोनों वाक्यों में से किसी एक वाक्य में ऐसे विशेषण का प्रयोग किया गया है, जो दूसरे वाक्य में किसी संज्ञा की विशेषता प्रकट करता है तो उस विशेषण को मुख्य वाक्य में Noun के पास रखकर Simple Sentence बनाते हैं । निम्न उदाहरणों में विशेषण blind, lame तथा notorious को क्रमशः boy, man तथा thief के पास रखकर Simple Sentence बनाया गया है। जैसे

1. Separate – A boy came to my office. The boy was blind.
Combined – A blind boy came to my office.

2. Separate – Ram gave a rupee to a man. The man was lame.
Combined – Ram gave a rupee to a lame man. 

3. Separate – The police caught a thief. The thief was notorious. 
Combined – The police caught a notorious thief.

Exercise 7.

Combine each set of Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence by using an Adjective: 

1. Tagore was a Bengali. He was a great poet. 
2. He is my brother. He is intelligent. 
3. The Principal fined a boy. The boy was naughty. 
4. I bought a pen. It was costly. 
5. A boy was weeping bitterly. He was hungry. 
6. They killed a snake. It was poisonous. 
7. I met a woman. She was poor. 
8. I saw a woman. She was very old. 
9. A girl was sitting in the chair. She was young. 
10. He left his home one night. It was very dark.
Answers:
1. Tagore was a great Bengali poet. 
2. My brother is intelligent. 
3. The Principal fined a naughty boy. 
4. I bought a costly pen. 
5. A hungry boy was weeping bitterly. 
6. They killed a poisonous snake. 
7. I met a poor woman. 
8. I saw a very old woman. 
9. A young girl was sitting in the chair. 
10. He left his home one very dark night. 

Exercise 8.(Miscellaneous)

Combine each of the sets of Simple Sentences into a Simple Sentence: 

1. There are three prisoners in the jail. They are to be hanged. 
2. He found a purse. He was walking on the road. 
3. Archana lost her book. It was a costly book. She lost it last evening. 
4. The teacher entered the room. He took his seat. 
5. Ashok was the emperor of India. He worked for the betterment of his people. He was very kind and generous. 
6. He has an old car. He wants to sell it. 
7. He dismissed his servant. He was a fool. 
8. I went to the market. Mohan also went with me.
Answers:
1. There are three prisoners in the jail to be hanged. 
2. While walking on the road, he found a purse. 
3. Archana lost her costly book last evening. 
4. Having entered the room, the teacher took his seat. 
5. Ashok, a very kind and generous emperor of India, worked for the betterment of his people. 
6. He wants to sell his old car. 
7. He dismissed his foolish servant. 
8. Mohan and I went to the market.

Formation Of Complex Sentences.

दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Complex Sentence बनाना

Complex Sentence में एक PrincipalClause तथा एक या अधिक Subordinate Clause (आश्रित उपवाक्य) होते हैं । इसलिये दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Complex Sentence बनाते समय यह आवश्यक है कि दिये हुए Simple Sentences में से एक को Principal Clause तथा अन्य वाक्यों को Subordinate Clause में बदलना चाहिए।

Subordinate Clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं –

(i) Noun Clause 
(ii) Adjective Clause
(iii) Adverb Clause 

अत: Simple Sentences से Complex Sentences निम्न तीन प्रकार से बनाये जाते हैं – 

Rule 1. Noun Clause ant trattato Noun Clause only Ita gott fel I Hahal

1. Separate – You are a thief. It is known to all. 
Combined – That you are a thief, is known to all. (Subject to a Verb) 

2. Separate – Ram is a dull boy. Every teacher knows it. 
Combined – Every teacher knows that Ram is a dull boy. (Object to a Verb)

3. Separate – I told you that yesterday. You must rely on it.
Combined — You must rely on what I told you yesterday. (Object to a Preposition) 

4. Separate – Ram has failed in the examination. The reason is his carelessness. 
Combined – The reason of Ram’s failure in the examination is that he is careless. (Complement to a Verb) 

5. Separate – Gandhiji was shot dead. The news spread all over the country like a wild
Combined – The news, that Gandhiji was shot dead, spread all over the country like a wild fire. (In apposition to a Noun) 

Note- 
(i) Synthesis के लिए दिये गये वाक्यों का हिन्दी में अर्थ निकालने के पश्चात् उन्हें पहले हिन्दी में जोड़ना चाहिये और उसके पश्चात् उसका अंग्रेजी में अनुवाद करना अच्छा रहता है।
(ii) Noun Clause aree Hall of caref can I Who, which, where, why, what, when, that Friifoto द्वारा जब Noun Clause बनाया जाता है तो इनका अर्थ हिन्दी में कोई ऐसा शब्द होता है जो ‘क’ से आरम्भ होता है । 

जैसे– ‘कि’, ‘कौन’, ‘क्या’, ‘कि कहाँ’, ‘कि क्यों’, ‘कि कब’ । कभी-कभी ‘जो कुछ’ का भी अर्थ हो सकता है । जैसे —

1. Separate – He does not know. Who is she?
Combined – He does not know who she is. 

2. Separate – Tell me. Where is she?
Combined – Tell me where she is. 

(iii) If या whether के द्वारा भी Noun Clause बनाया जाता है, जब उसका अर्थ ‘कि क्या’ होता है। जैसे –

Separate – He may be innocent. I do not know. 
Combined – I do not know if/whether (कि क्या) he is innocent.

Exercise 9.

Combine each set of Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence by using a Noun Clause: 

1. It is clear. You have committed a crime. 
2. The earth moves round the sun. My teacher told me. 
3. He is very sincere. Nobody doubts it. 
4. Who wrote the Ram Charit Manas? Can you tell me? 
5. You are kind to me. I will not forget it. 
6. He is very honest. I do not doubt it. 
7. You have acted wrongly. I believe so. 
8. The rains would come. That was our hope. Our hope was wrong. 
9. The clouds would disperse. That was our hope. Our hope was cheering. 
10. Honesty is the best policy. That is known to all.
Answers:
1. It is clear that you have committed a crime. 
2. My teacher told me that the earth moves round the sun. 
3. Nobody doubts that he is very sincere. 
4. Can you tell me who wrote the Ram Charit Manas? 
5. I will not forget that you are kind to me. 
6. I do not doubt that he is very honest. 
7. I believe that you have acted wrongly. 
8. Our hope that rains would come was wrong. 
9. Our hope that clouds would disperse was cheering. 
10. That honesty is the best policy is known to all.

Rule 2. Adjective Clause at reason

यदि एक वाक्य के अन्तर्गत आये हुए Noun या Pronoun के लिये दूसरे,वाक्य में कोई बात कही गयी है तो दूसरे वाक्य को Adjective Clause बना देते हैं। जैसे –
Separate – I saw a dog. 

The dog was lying on the road.
यहाँ पहले वाक्य में dog के बारे में कहा गया है और दूसरे में उसी के बारे में बात कही गई है । इसीलिए इन्हें Adjective Clause के द्वारा जोड़ा गया है। अन्य उदाहरण देखिये –

1. Separate – I gave him a camera: The camera was very cheap.
Combined – I gave him a camera which was very cheap. 

2. Separate – This is the school. I was taught here in my childhood.
Combined – This is the school where I was taught in my childhood. 

3. Separate – The man was caught. He stole my watch.
Combined – The man who stole my watch was caught. 

4. Separate – He was weeping for some reason. Nobody knew the reason.
Combined – Nobody knew the reason why he was weeping. 

Note- Adjective Clause किसी Relative Pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, that) अथवा किसी – Relative Adverb (how, why, when, where) से शुरू होता है । यह ध्यान रखना चाहिये कि जहाँ तक सम्भव हो इन शब्दों को उन शब्दों के पास रखना चाहिये जिनकी विशेषतायें प्रकट की जा रही हों अर्थात् Relative Pronoun तथा Relative Adverb का Antecedent (पूर्ववर्ती) उनसे पहले प्रयोग होना चाहिये।

Exercise 10.

Combine each set of Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence by usįng an Adjective

Clause: 

1. My brother will come from Delhi. I do not know the time. 
2. The pen is mine. It is on the table. 
3. Ramesh is a good boy. He belongs to a good family. 
4. I have a dog. It is very faithful. 
5. We came upon a certain cottage. Here a shepherd was living with his family. 
6. The boy is standing there. He is my brother. 
7. He did not come to school today. Do you know the reason? 
8. Will you give me the watch ? It is on the table. 
9. I bought a pen a few days back. I have lost it. 
10. The book is in my hand. I like it most. 
Answers:
1. I do not know the time when my brother will come from Delhi. 
Or 
The time when my brother will come from Delhi, is not known to me. 
2. The pen which is on the table is mine. 
3. Ramesh, who belongs to a good family, is a good boy. 
4. I have a dog which is very faithful. 
5. We came upon a certain cottage in which a shephered was living with his family. 
6. The boy who is standing there is my brother. 
7. Do you know the reason why he did not come to school today? 
8. Will you give me the watch which is on the table? 
9. I have lost the pen which I bought a few days back. 
10. I like the book which is in my hand. 

Rule 3. Adverb Clause का प्रयोग करके

Adverb Clause का प्रयोग time,place, reason, condition, comparison, contrast, result, purpose तथा manner प्रकट करता है । उसी के अनुसार Adverb Clause जोड़ने के लिए भिन्न-भिन्न Conjunctions का प्रयोग होता

1. Time (समय) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions whenever, when, while, till, until, before, after, as long as, as soon as, since आदि हैं । इनके प्रयोग से एक वाक्य को AdverbClause बनाकर Synthesise करना। जैसे

Separate – I waited for Ram Gopal. I waited till his arrival. 
Combined – I waited for Ram Gopal till he arrived. (showing time) 

2. Place (स्थान) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions where, wherever हैं । इनके प्रयोग से Adverb Clause of Place बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे –

Separate – Nehru went to many places. He was welcomed everywhere. 
Combined – Nehru was welcomed wherever he went. (showing place) 

3. Reason (कारण) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions because, since तथा as हैं । इनके प्रयोग से Adverb Clause of Reason बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे

Separate — He is weak. I shall teach him. 
Combined – I shall teach him because he is weak. (showing reason) 

4. Condition (शर्त) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions if, unless, in case आदि हैं । इनके प्रयोग से । Adverb Clause of Condition बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे –

Separate – Do not work too hard. You will lose your health. 
Combined – If you work too hard, you will lose your health. (showing condition)

5.Comparison (तुलना) बताने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions than, so, as….as तथा so….as आदि हैं । इनके प्रयोग से Adverb Clause of Comparison बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे

Separate – Sita is beautiful. Sarla is equally beautiful.
Combined – Sarla is as beautiful as Sita is. (showing comparison)

6.Contrast (अन्तर, विरोध) बताने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions though, although और even if हैं । इनके प्रयोग से Adverb Clause of Contrast बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे

Separate – He is poor. He is honest.
Combined – Although he is poor, he is honest. (showing contrast)

7. Result (परिणाम) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions पहले Clause में so तथा दूसरे में that हैं । इनके प्रयोग से AdverbClause of Result बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे

Separate – He was very poor. He could not buy this book.
Combined – He was so poor that he could not buy this book. (showing result)

8. Purpose (उद्देश्य) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions so that (ताकि), in order that (ताकि), lest आदि हैं So that, in order that के बाद may या might तथा lest के बाद should का प्रयोग होता है । इनके प्रयोग से
AdverbClause of Purpose बनाकर Synthesise करना । जैसे –

Separate – I drew my sword. I wanted to defend myself.
Combined – I drew my sword so that I might defend myself. (showing purpose)

9. Manner (ढंग) प्रदर्शित करने के लिए – मुख्य Conjunctions as, so far as हैं । इनके प्रयोग से Adverb
Clause of Manner le Synthesise II –

Separate – You have treated me in a certain way. I will treat you in the same way.
Combined – I will treat you as you have treated me. (showing manner) 

Exercise 11.

Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence by using an Adverb 

Clause: 
1. He waited for his brother. He waited till his arrival. 
2. Work hard. You will get success. 
3. He was quite tired. He could scarcely stand. 
4. He worked hard. He failed in the examination. 
5. You shall have to marry. You are already 30 years old.
6. You must work harder. You will not pass. 
7. The bell rang. They all came up at once. 
8. He ran so quickly. He soon overtook his father. 
9. Lila is more intelligent. I am less intelligent. 
10. I will return. Do not go till then.
Answers:
1. He waited for his brother till he arrived. 
2. If you work hard, you will get success. 
3. He was so tired that he could scarcely stand. 
4. Though he worked hard, he failed in the examination. 
5. You shall have to marry because you are already 30 years old. 
6. If you don’t work harder, you will not pass. 
7. When the bell rang they all came up at once. 
8. He ran so quickly that he soon overtook his father. 
9. Lila is more intelligent than I am. 
10. Do not go till I return. 

Exercise 12. (Miscellaneous) 
 
Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into a Complex Sentence: 
 
1. The two friends quarrelled. I could not know the reason. 
2. I know the boy. He stole your watch. 
3. The rose is a beautiful flower. It is certain. 
4. He saw a snake. Soon he ran away. 
5. I was going on a road. I saw two dogs. They were fighting.
6. He died in an accident. This news is not true. 
7. The milkman came to my house last evening. The sun was setting then.
8. I do not know the reason. He did not come. 
9. I met Harish yesterday. He lives at Allahabad. Allahabad is a sacred city of the Hindus. 
10. It will rain. It is certain.
Answers:
1. I could not know the reason why the two friends quarrelled. 
2. I know the boy who stole your watch. 
3. It is certain that the rose is a beautiful flower. 
4. As soon as he saw a snake, he ran away. 
5. While going on a road, I saw two dogs which were fighting. 
6. That he died in an accident is not true. 
7. When the milkman came to my house last evening, the sun was setting. 
8. I do not know the reason why he did not come. 
9. Yesterday I met Harish who lives at Allahabad which is a sacred city of the Hindus. 
10. That it will rain is certain. 

Formation Of Compound Sentences.

दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Compound Sentence बनाना 

Rule 1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions or yet anedo दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Compound Sentence बनाने के लिए Co-ordinating Conjunctions का प्रयोग होता है | Co-ordinating Conjunctions निम्नलिखित चार प्रकार के होते हैं जो चार प्रकार के वाक्यों को जोड़ने के काम आते हैं –

(a) Cumulative (जोड़ बताने वाले) Conjunctions and; as well as; both…..and; not only…..but also आदि ] का प्रयोग करके यदि एक कथन (statement) को दूसरे कथन से जोड़ा जाता है तो ऊपर के किसी Conjunction का प्रयोग होगा । जैसे –

1. Separate – He took my pen yesterday. He returned it today.
Combined – He took my pen yesterday and returned it today. 

2. Separate – He was marked absent. He was turned out of the class.
Combined – He was marked absent and turned out of the class.
Or 
He was marked absent as well as turned out of the class.
Or 
He was not only marked absent but also turned out of the class. 

(b) Alternative (वैकल्पिक) Conjunctions का प्रयोग करके – [either (या तो)…..or (या); neither (न तो)….nor (न); or; otherwise (नहीं तो, अन्यथा) आदि] यदि एक कथन दूसरे कथन का विकल्प (choice) हो तो ऐसे Conjunctions से जोड़ते हैं। जैसे –

1. Separate – Make haste. We shall miss the train. 
Combined – Make haste or we shall miss the train.
Or 
Make haste otherwise we shall miss the train. 

2. Separate – Come in time. Do not come at all.
Combined – Either come in time or do not come at all. 

(c) Adversative (विरोध बताने वाले) Conjunctions [but, however, still (तो भी), yet (तो भी), nevertheless, whereas, while आदि का प्रयोग करके – यदि दो वाक्यों के कथन में परस्पर विरोध हो तो ऐसे Conjunctions से जोड़ते हैं । जैसे

1. Separate – He is lazy. He is clever.
Combined – He is lazy but he is clever. 

2. Separate – He is poor. He is honest.
Combined – He is poor yet he is honest. 

3. Separate – He is ill. He works hard.
Combined – He is ill still he works hard. 

4. Separate – Wise men show their faults. Fools avoid them.
Combined – Wise men show their faults whereas fools avoid them.

(d) Illative (परिणाम बताने वाले) Conjunctions [therefore; for; so; hence आदि का प्रयोग करके – यदि दो कथनों में कारण-परिणाम का भाव प्रकट हो तो ऐसे Conjunctions से जोड़ते हैं । जैसे –

1. Separate – I cannot die in peace. I am a sinner.
2. Separate – He is the son of a professor. He is intelligent.
Combined – He is the son of a professor therefore he is intelligent. 

3. Separate – He left his studies. He had no money.
Combined – He had no money so he left his studies. 

Rule 2. Relative Pronouns या Relative Adverbs at an area 
ota Relative Pronouns या. Relative Adverbs for per continuative sense Sentences of taat Compound जैसे –

1. Relative Adverbs of em continuative sense tant Compound Sentences of old –

1. Separate – I met Harish. He gave me a book.
Combined – I met Harish, who (= and he) gave me a book. 

2. Separate – He shot the bird. It flew away.
Combined – He shot the bird, which (= and it) flew away. 

3. Separate – We went to Kolkata last year. We stayed there for four days. 
Combined – Last year we went to Kolkata, where (= and there) we stayed for four days.

Exercise 13. 

Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into a Compound Sentence: 

1. You did not obey me. You failed. 
2. He is intelligent. He is not proud. 
3. He grew very weak. He did not break the fast. 
4. I met Mohan. He was a lecturer. 
5. The Rajputs were victorious. They were brave. 
6. I visited Delhi. It is the capital of India. 
7. He is rich. He is not contented. 
8. I tried my best. I could not succeed. 
9. Speak the truth. You will be respected by all. 
10. Give me your money bag. You will be shot dead.
Answers:
1. You did not obey me so you failed. 
2. He is intelligent yet he is not proud. 
3. He grew very weak but he did not break the fast. 
4. I met Mohan, who (and he) was a lecturer. 
5. The Rajputs were brave so they were victorious. 
6. I visited Delhi, which (and it) is the capital of India. 
7. He is rich yet he is not contented. 
8. I tried my best yet I could not succeed. 
9. Speak the truth and you will be respected by all. 
10. Give me your money bag or you will be shot dead. 

Exercise 14 (Miscellaneous) :

Combine the sentences as indicated in the brackets: 

1. The boy wrote a letter. The boy went to school. (Simple) 
2. He saw his mother. He was glad. (Simple) 
3. I have two books. I have to read them. (Simple) 
4. I want to take the pen. It is lying on the table. (Simple) 
5. I am sure. I will finish the work. (Simple) 
6. Do it. You will be punished. (Compound) 
7. Be quick. You will be late. (Compound) 
8. Touch it. You will die at once. (Compound) 
9. We cannot help you. We have no money at present. (Compound) 
10. I have a watch. It does not work well. (Complex) 
11. We went to the hospital. There we saw a dead body. (Complex) 
Answers:
1. Having written a letter, the boy went to school. 
2. He was glad to see his mother. 
3. I have two books to read. 
4. I want to take the pen lying on the table. 
5. I am sure of finishing the work. 
6. Do it or you will be punished. 
7. Be quick otherwise you will be late. 
8. Touch it and you will die at once. 
9. We have no money at present so we cannot help you. 
Or
We cannot help you because we have no money at present. 
10. I have a watch which doesn’t work well. 
11. We went to the hospital where we saw a dead body. 

Exercise 15. 

Combine each of the following sets of Sentences as directed: 

1. Sarita is an intelligent girl. She can do any exercise of this book. (use ‘such-that’) 
2. The question was hard. Boys failed to do it. (use ‘so-that)
3. The Prime Minister reached the meeting hall. The organisers greeted him warmly. (use ‘when’) 
4. We went to Jaipur. We stayed for five days there. (use ‘where’) 
5. ‘He is quite rich. He can arrange a good party. (use ‘enough to’) 
6. He likes to go home. He does not like to go to the cinema. (use ‘would rather-than) 
7. Rahman is a singer. He is a dancer, too. (use ‘both-and’) 
8. He is very honest. He cannot accept a bribe. (use ‘too-to’) 
9. He made all efforts. He couldn’t get the job. (though) 
10. He made all efforts. He couldn’t get the job. (use ‘in spite of) 
11. They walked very fast. They wanted to catch the train. (use ‘in order to’) 
12. Do your work. The teacher will come. (use ’till’) 
Answers:
1. Sarita is such an intelligent girl that she can do any exercise of this book. 
2. The question was so hard that the boys failed to do it. 
3. When the Prime Minister reached the meeting hall, the organisers greeted him warmly. 
4. We went to Jaipur where we stayed for five days. 
5. He is rich enough to arrange a good party. 
6. He would rather go home than go to the cinema. 
7. Rahman is both a singer and a dancer. 
8. He is too honest to accept a bribe. 
9. Though he made all efforts, he could not get the job. 
10. In spite of all his efforts, he could not get the job. 
11. They walked very fast in order to catch the train. 
12. Do your work till the teacher comes.

Exercise 16.

Combine these sentences into one simple sentence: 

1. I have many books. I have to read them all. 
2. It was his birthday. We congratulated him. 
3. He sent his son to America. He wanted to educate him. 
4. Naveen is tired. He needs rest. 
5. Yogita took a pen. She wanted to write a story. 
6. He was tired. He went to bed so early. 
7. Hiroshima was once a prosperous town. It is now a heap of ruins. 
8. The holidays are at end. Boys are returning to school. 
9. Mother lit fire she had to cook food. 
10. He got up early. He went to station.
Answers:
No Answers

Exercise 17.

Combine each of the following sets of Simple Sentences into one sentence as directed: 

1. He heard a noise. He stopped. [use – participle] 
2. The boy finished his work. He slept. [use – participle] 
3. She was proud. She refused the gift. [use – participle] 
4. He cannot buy a bicycle. He is very poor. [use – infinitive] 
5. He studied hard. He wanted to secure first division. [use – infinitive] 
6. She is going to Delhi. She will buy a car. [use – infinitive] 
7. The school was over. The boys went home. [use – Absolute Phrase] 
8. The sun had set. It became dark. [use – Absolute Phrase] 
9. It was cold. No one went out. [use – Absolute Phrase] 
10. Delhi is an old city. It is the capital of India. [use – phrase in apposition]
11. My brother is a doctor. His name is Suresh Kumar. [use – phrase in apposition] 
12. The sun set. The journey was not ended. [use – preposition before gerund/noun] 
13. Ram killeu Ravan. He returned to Ayodhya. [use – preposition before gerund/noun] 
14. She read a book. She was in a hurry. [use – adverb or adverbial phrase] 
15. Do this work. There should be no delay. [use – adverb or adverbial phrase]
Answers:
1. Hearing a noise, he stopped. 
2. Having finished his work the boy slept. 
3. Being proud she refused the gift. 
4. He is too poor to buy a bicycle. 
5. He studied hard to secure first division. 
6. She is going to Delhi to buy a car. 
7. The school, being over, the boys went home.
8. The sun, having set, it became dark. 
9. It, being cold, no one went out. 
10. Delhi, the capital of India, is an old city. 
11. My brother, Suresh Kumar, is a doctor. 
12. The sun set before the end of the journey. 
13. After killing Ravan, Ram returned to Ayodhya. 
14. She read a book hurriedly. 
15. Do this work without delay. 

Exercise 18.

Combine the following sets of sentences into one sentence using the words given in brackets: 

1. The two friends quarreled. I could not know the reason. (why)
2. Ramesh bought a book. It was very interesting. (which) 
3. Work hard. You will get success. (if) 
4. He finished his work. He went to the hospital. (having finished)
5. Will he come? I don’t know. (whether) 
6. You must rise early. You will improve your health. (infinitive)
7. The rose is a beautiful flower. It is certain. (certainly)
8. He will get through the examination. It is sure. (that)
9. The sun rose. It filled the sky with light. (and) 
10. Good boys work. Bad boys make mischief. (but) 
11. Forests check soil erosion. They also give us timber. (not only……….but also) 
12. The boy wrote a letter. He went to school. (after) 
13. He was hungry. He ate two apples. (so) 
14. I have two books. I have to read them. (infinitive) 
15. He is leaving for Delhi. He will live there. (infinitive) 
Answers:
1. I could not know the reason why the two friends quarreled. 
2. Ramesh bought a book which was very interesting. 
3. If you work hard, you will get success. 
4. Having finished his work, he went to the hospital. 
5. I don’t know whether he will come. 
6. You must rise early to improve your health. 
7. The rose is certainly a beautiful flower. 
8. It is sure that he will get through the examination. 
9. The sun rose and filled the sky with light. 
10. Good boys work but bad boys make mischief. 
11. Forests not only check soil erosion but also give us timber. 
12. After the boy had written a letter, he went to school. 
13. He was hungry so he ate two apples. 
14. I have two books to read them. 
15. He is leaving for Delhi to live there. 

Exercise 19.

Combine the following sets of sentences into one sentence using the words given in brackets: 

1. Work hard. You will not pass. (unless)
2. Work hard. You will not pass. (if) 
3. Be quick. You will be late. (or) 
4. Mohan was punished. He disobeyed his teacher. (because)
5. We have no money. We cannot help you. (so) 
6. The horse is very wild. It cannot be controlled. (too………..to)
7. This ceiling is very high. You cannot touch it. (enough……..to)
8. He was very weak. He could not run fast. (so…………that)
9. They pulled very hard. The log came out on to the bank. (so……..that)
10. She hired a taxi. She could reach the examination centre in time. (so that) 
11. He reached the school gate. The first period started. (as)
12. The poetess stood to recite her poems. The audience applauded her warmly. (no sooner…than) 
13. He entered the room. The snake bit him. (as soon as) 
14. He couldn’t take flight. It was a bad weather. (owing to) 
15. Anurag was studying. A thief entered the room. (while)
Answers:
1. Unless you work hard, you will not pass. 
2. If you do not work hard, you will not pass. 
3. Be quick or you will be late. 
4. Mohan was punished because he disobeyed his teacher. 
5. We have no money so we cannot help you. 
6. The horse is to wild to be controlled. 
7. This ceiling is high enough for you to touch.
8. He was so weak that he could not run fast. 
9. They pulled so hard that the log came out on to the bank. 
10. She hired a taxi so that she could reach the examination centre in time. 
11. As he reached the school gate, the first period started. 
12. No sooner did the poetess stand to recite her poems than the audience applauded her warmly. 
13. As soon as he entered the room, the snake bit him. 
14. Owing to a bad weather, he couldn’t take flight. 
15. While Anurag was studying, a thief entered the room.

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