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6.Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II

Passage-1.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

Fasting is said to bring a host of benefits, provided it’s done under medical supervision. Doctors explain how to go about it. Food is to the body what fuel is to a motor vehicle. It provides energy, helps repair and rejuvenate the body and confers many other benefits. A lot of research has been done and is being done on fasting. 

When one fasts, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed. While fasting, the natural process of toxin excretion continues, while influx of new toxins is reduced. The energy usually used for digestion is redirected to immune function and cell growth. Fasting helps you heal with greater speed, cleanses your liver, kidneys and colon, purifies your blood, helps you lose excess weight and water, flushes out toxins, clears the eyes and tongue and cleanses the breath.

Another research says fasting, even occasionally, helps in detoxification. Through fasting, we restrict digestive activity and so energy is utilised to cleanse different systems. Fasting improves metabolism, sharpens the senses, calms the mind, helps lose weight, improves general immunity, improves concentration and mental clarity. 

Fasting, if understood and done under supervision, has tremendous benefits and impacts at various planes; mental, emotional, physical and spiritual. Specifically, it serves as an aid to effective detoxification, helps in repair and rejuvenation, offers rest to the gastro-intestinal system and promotes mobilisation of excess fat.

The crucial point to note is the difference between fasting and starvation. Research suggests there are major health benefits to calorie restriction. Among other things, it slows down the ageing process. According to the US National Academy of Sciences, other benefits include stress resistance, increased insulin sensitivity and increased lifespan.

Glucose is the body’s primary fuel source and is essential for the brain’s functioning. When denied glucose for more than 4-8 hours, the body converts glycogen stored in the liver into a usuable form of fuel and supplements it with small amounts of protein.

This will last for up to 12 hours before the body turns to glycogen stored in muscles. If glucose is still denied at this point, the body continues to use fat for as long as it is available. If the fast is not broken, starvation occurs, as the body begins to use protein for fuel. Death can occur if fasting is pursued to the point of complete starvation. 

Word-Meanings : fasting = उपवास I a host of = so many, बहुत सारे । rejuvenate = युवा बना देना। confer = प्रदान करना। cleansed = साफ करना । excretion = मल त्याग । colon = वृहदांत्र। flushes out = बाहर बहा देता है। toxin = जीवविष (जहर) | occasionally = now and then, कभी-कभार । detoxification = विषहरण | restrict = प्रतिबंधित करना | metabolism = उपापचय । immunity = प्रतिरक्षा | tremendous = बहुत अधिक, impact = प्रभाव crucial = important, महत्वपूर्ण | starvation = भूखे मरना | is pursued = is continued, जारी रखना ।

Question 1. 
Fasting improves our :
(a) metabolism 
(b) immunity 
(c) mental clarity 
(d) all of these
Answer: 
(d) all of these

Question 2. 
Fasting provides us :
(a) energy 
(b) weight
(c) irritation 
(d) toxins 
Answer: 
(a) energy 

Question 3. 
Benefits of fasting are : 
(a) mental and spiritual
(b) emotional
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) social 
Answer:
(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 4. 
Fasting :
(a) slows down the ageing process
(b)causes starvation
(c) does not restrict digestive activity 
(d) does not help in losing weight 
Answer:
(a) slows down the ageing process

Question 5. 
The antonym of ‘benefits’ is : 
(a) virtues 
(b) advantages 
(c) evils
(d) losses 
Answer:
(d) losses 

Question 6. 
The synonym of ‘primary’ is : 
(a) ability 
(b) foolishness
(c) main
(d) kindness. 
Answer:
(c) main

Passage-2.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

May be it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. 

A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me.

Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home-that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. 

I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear the right clothes and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognize and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps us to cope with our lives as adults.

Word-Meanings: vividly = clearly, on सुस्पष्ट रूप से | scared =  beast = पशु | creak = चरचराहट | pound = तेजी से धड़कना । shy = शर्मिला । constantly = continuously, लगातार । evolving = उदविकास | cope with= to deal successfully with a difficult matter or situation, निभाना

Question 1. 
As a child, the narrator was terrified of the : 
(a) thieves 
(b) ghosts
(c) dark
(d) dark and getting lost 
Answer:
(d) dark and getting lost 

Question 2. 
There was …………. in his room. 
(a) total darkness 
(b) total light 
(c) never total darkness
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) never total darkness

Question 3. 
At night, the narrator often saw the images of : 
(a) pious persons
(b) burglars 
(c) preachers
(d) burglars and monsters 
Answer:
(d) burglars and monsters 

Question 4. 
The narrator in his childhood was : 
(a) liked by others
(b) praised and admired by others 
(c) honoured by others
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(d) none of these 

Question 5.
The antonym of ‘still’ is : 
(a) calm 
(b) not moving 
(c) active
(d) stillborn 
Answer:
(c) active

Question 6. 
The synonym of the word ‘continuously’ is : 
(a) occasionally 
(b) constantly 
(c) obviously 
(d) courageourly
Answer:
(b) constantly 

Passage-3 

Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow 

Salt, a miraculous gift of nature, is one of the most useful and amazing minerals on earth derived from the sea and rocks. Do you know that it is the only rock that humans can eat ?

Salt has seasoned our history, language and food, besides making nutritious foods more palatable. It is used in all bakery products, prepared foods, sauces, soups, spices, cereals, dairy foods, meats and poultry. It is also an extraordinarily effective food preservative, retarding the growth of spoilage by micro-organisms and making food storage possible for long without refrigeration.

How much salt is necessary for human consumption ? Medical experts agree that everyone should practise some reasonable ‘moderation’ in salt consumption. For an average person, a moderate amount might run from 4 to 10 gm a day, or roughly half to one and one-third tablespoons. The equivalent of one to two gm of this salt allowance would come from the natural sodium in food. The rest would be added in processing, preparation or at the table.

Common salt, a chloride of sodium, is chemically represented by the symbol NaCl. The human body has a continual need for salt. Sodium chloride or common salt is 39 per cent sodium and 61 per cent chloride. Forming a solution in the body, these two components separate into sodium and chloride ions, each with a different task. 

Chloride maintains the balance of water between the living cell and its environment, plays a part in digestion, and pairs with sodium to maintain the blood’s acid-base balance, critical for life. Sodium assists in regulating the volume of blood and blood pressure. It facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses and is necessary for heart and muscle contractions. 

Although the popular conception is that salt is a flavour enhancer, a recent American study suggests that it functions as a flavour filter on food, selectively enhancing and suppressing various tastes. Other studies show that the use of salt suppresses the bitter taste of dark green vegetables like bitter gourd (karela).

Salt’s functions in the body are already elucidated. Deficiency signs include lethargy, dizziness cramps and palpitation. In women, excessive-salt intake promotes fluid retardation and can cause breast pain. But what the good salt can do, in the right dose, is unequalled. Snorers should try spraying their nose with salt water to make it easier to breathe.

Word-Meansings : miraculous = चमत्कारी | amazing = wonderful, आश्चर्यजनक I derive = प्राप्त ! करना। nutritious food = पौष्टिक भोजन। season = बघारना I palatable = स्वादिष्ट | poultry = पालतू मुर्गी, बत्तख, मुर्गे आदि। moderate= संयमित I extraordinary = not common, असाधारण | preservative = रक्षक |retarding the growth = विकास अवरुद्ध होना या करना | consumption = उपभोग । transmission = प्रेषण या विस्तार या भेजना | contraction = सिकुड़न । elucidated = explained, व्याख्या की जा चुकी है । deficiency = a state of not having enough of something, कमी। lethargy = सुस्ती | dizziness = चक्कर। cramps = ऐंठन । palpitation = तेज धड़कन । snorers = people who snore, खर्राटे लेने वाले लोग। mineral = खनिज | reasonable = alimited amount of something, संयमित मात्रा | roughly = मोटे तौर पर | enhances = बढ़ाने वाला I suppress = दबाना | retardation = बाधा ।

Question 1. 
Salt is derived from the : 
(a) sea 
(b) mountains 
(c) plains
(d) sea and rocks
Answer:
(d) sea and rocks

Question 2. 
Food storage for a long time without refrigeration is possible with the help of: 
(a) neem 
(b) sugar 
(c) spices
(d) salt 
Answer:
(d) salt 

Question 3.
An average person should take salt …………… a day.
(a) 3 to 6 gm 
(b) 4 to 10 gm 
(c) 7 to 10 gm 
(d) 9 to 10 gm 
Answer:
(b) 4 to 10 gm 

Question 4.
Common salt has a mixture of : 
(a) 40 percent of sodium and 60 per cent of chloride 
(b) 38 percent of sodium and 62 per cent of chloride 
(c) 37 percent of sodium and 63 per cent of chloride
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(d) none of these 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘made or caused by human beings’: 
(a) natural
(b) unnatural 
(c) naturalize 
(d) naturalist 
Answer:
(a) natural

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘a state of not having enough of something’ : 
(a) defensive 
(b) deficiency 
(c) defiance 
(d) definitely
Answer:
(b) deficiency 

Passage-4.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a Clean India drive and Mission, launched as a national campaign by the Indian Government in order to cover the 4041 statutory towns aiming maintained cleanliness of streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, has officially launched this mission on 2nd of October (the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi) in 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi (Bapu’s Samadhi). While launching the event, Prime Minister himself cleaned the road. It was the biggest cleanliness drive ever in India when approximately 3 million government employees including students from schools and colleges took part in the cleanliness activities.

On the day of launch of the event, the PM himself nominated the names of nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas–Salman Khan, Anil Ambani, Kamal Haasan, Kapil Sharma, Priyanka Chopra, Baba Ramdeo, Sachin Tendulkar and Shashi Tharoor. 

Schools and colleges have participated in the event by organizing many cleanliness activities according to their own themes. Students of India participated in this event. PM had also requested all those nine nominees to call another nine people separately to participate in this cleanliness drive as well as continue the chain of calling nine people by each and every participating member of the mission until the message reaches to the every Indian in every corner of the country to make it a national mission.

This mission aimed to join each and every Indian from all walks of life in the same way that a tree grows and spreads its branchęs. Swachh Bharat Mission aims to construct individual sanitary latrines for household purposes for the people living under poverty line, convert dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines, provide facility of hand pumps, safe and secure bathing, set up sanitary marts, construct drains, dispose off solid and liquid wastes, enhance health and education awareness, provide household and environmental sanitation facilities and many more.

Earlier, many awareness programmes (such as Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, etc.) about the environmental sanitation and personal cleanliness were launched by the Indian Government. However, these could not be so effective to make India a clean India.

Word-Meanings : launched = started an activity, किसी कार्य की तुरुआत की | participate = take part, भाग लेना

Question 1. 
Where was Swachh Bharat Abhiyan programme launched from? 
(a) Rajghat, Delhi 
(b) Noida
(c) Thane, Mumbai 
(d) Lucknow 
Answer:
(a) Rajghat, Delhi 

Question 2. 
How many persons did take part in the cleanliness drive? 
(a) 10 
(b) 9 
(c) 8
(d) 7 
Answer:
(b) 9 

Question 3. 
Which programmes were launched before this programme by the Government of India? 
(a) Total Sanitation Campaign
(b) Sabka Ghar Swachh 
(c) Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan
(d) Both (a) & (c) 
Answer:
(d) Both (a) & (c) 

Question 4. 
What is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? 
(a) A mission for satellites
(b) A mission for missiles 
(c) A clean India drive
(d) None of these 
Answer:
(c) A clean India drive

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘to take part or become involved’: 
(a) protest 
(b) participate 
(c) partial
(d) parole 
Answer:
(b) participate 

Question 6.
Choose from the following opposite of ‘to stop something’: 
(a) discover
(b) to stop producing something 
(c) continue
(d) discourage
Answer:
(c) continue

Passage-5.

Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :

Do you know that the Asiatic Elephant, the Tiger, the Cheetah, the Arabian Onyx, the Okapi and the magnificent Andean Condor are among the world’s most endangered species? What is an endangered species ? Endangered species are animals or plants that will soon die out. Many animals and plants become endangered or extinct each year. Recently, however, the rate of their dying out has increased dramatically. 

It is estimated that 27,000 species become extinct each year and about 3 species an hour. Since 1996, scientists calculated that 124 types of amphibians, 1,108 types of birds, 734 types of fish, 1,096 types of mammals and 253 types of reptiles became endangered. These statistics also apply to plants.

What makes them endangered ? There are many reasons that can cause a species of animals or plants to become endangered, or even extinct. To accommodate the increasing human population, more and more land is taken away from these animals or plants. With the little amount of land, these animals or plants have a little source of food. 

Sometimes, animals or plants can’t adapt to the limited space they now have and die. Animals and plants also become endangered because of the chemicals that people use. Hunting and trading are other reasons that threaten the lives of many innocent living creatures. Lastly, pollution is another huge factor causing these animals or plants to become endangered.

You might ask what one individual can do. But even one person can make a difference. First of all, try not to waste natural resources, recycle your garbage. By recycling, you’re helping to save many trees from being cut down for paper. These trees then can remain as homes for many animals and plants in the wild. Keep your neighbourhood clean. This can prevent any accidental death of animals or plants. Don’t buy any product that comes from animals. If you can, contribute to organizations that help protect wildlife. Last and the most important is to learn about these creatures. 

Word-Meanings : magnificent = extremely impressive, वैभवपूर्ण| endangered = in danger of disappearing from the world, खतरे में | species = a group of animals that are all the same and that can breed together, प्रजाति|’extinct = no longer existing, विलुप्त | dramatically = showing feelings in a very obvious way because you want other people to notice you, नाटकीय ढंग से I

estimated – अनुमानत| amphibians = animals that can live both on land and in water, जल-स्थल चर I mammals = animals that give birth to live babies not eggs and feed their scarce = lack, अभाव | trading = for trade, व्यापारिक उद्देश्य हतु I recycle = to use again, पुनः काम में लाना I garbage = waste material, कचरा | accidental = by chance, आकस्मिकI protect = to defend, संरक्षण करना।

Question 1. 
How many types of birds have become endangered ? 
(a) 1018 
(b) 1108 
(c) 8011
(d) 1107 
Answer:
(b) 1108 

Question 2. 
Which animals are among the world’s most endangered species ?
(a) the Asiatic Elephant 
(b) the Tiger & the Cheetah 
(c) the Arabian Onyx & the Okapi and Andean condor
(d) all the above 
Answer:
(d) all the above 

Question 3. 
Don’t buy any product that comes from : 
(a) malls
(b) shops
(c) tradesmen 
(d) animals 
Answer:
(d) animals 

Question 4. 
If trees are saved, they can be homes for many : 
(a) children
(b) homeless families 
(c) animals 
(d) animals and plants 
Answer:
(d) animals and plants 

Question 5. 
Find the word similar to ‘animals that can live both on land and in water’:
(a) amphibians 
(b) mammals 
(c) reptiles
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(a) amphibians 

Question 6. 
Find the word opposite to ‘small’ : 
(a) not large 
(b) huge
(c) smart
(d) smack
Answer:
(b) huge

Passage-6. 

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

Getting a good night’s sleep can help you cope with stress more effectively. But not getting enough sleep can cause more stress. Insomniacs have higher concentrations of stress harmones than others. Women are sensitive to sleep disturbances. Their sleep problems frequently interfere with their daily activities.

Experts believe that sleep, especially deep sleep, enables our nervous system to function well. Without it, we lose our ability to concentrate, remember or analyse. Some experts speculate that during deep sleep, cells manufacture more proteins, which are essential for cell growth and repair of damage from things like stress and ultraviolet rays.

Scientists believe that activity in the area of the brain that controls emotions and social interactions lessens during sleep and, that deep sleep may help people be emotionally and socially adept when awake. Sleep may also help our brain to store a newly learned activity in its memory bank. In a study in Canada, students deprived of sleep after learning a complex logic game showed a 30 per cent learning deficit when tested a week later compared with students not deprived of sleep.

The effects of sleep deprivation on other bodily functions are just as alarming. In studies from five medical centres across the country, researchers established that individuals with insomnia were also more likely to have poor health, including chest pain, arthritis and depression, and to have difficulty accomplishing daily tasks. Another breakthrough study revealed that even temporary loss of sleep can affect the body’s ability to break down carbohydrates, interfere with the function of various harmones and worsen the severity of ailments such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

So whatever works to help you sleep well, whether it’s regular exercise earlier in the day, weekly massages, yoga, meditation or a lavender scented bath, make time for it today. 

Word-Meanings : insomniacs = people without sleep, जिनको नींद न आती हो concentration = a lot of something, अधिक संख्या। harmones = substance produced within the body, हारमोन। speculate = guess, अनुमान लगते हैं | deficit = want, poti deprived of = prevented from,  The दिए गए। arthritis = जोड़ों की बीमारी। depression = sadness in a great quantity, अत्यधिक उदासी। accomplishing = completing, पूर्ण करते हुए| severity = intensity, अधिकता | massages = rubbing the body, मालिश meditation = deep thought, चिन्तन | lavender-scented = scented with lavender, खूशबूदार बैंगनी फूलों की सुगंध वाले पौधे।

Question 1. 
Sleep problems interfere women : 
(a) in their legs
(b) in their daily activities 
(c) in their hands
(d) Both (a) & (b) 
Answer:
(b) in their daily activities 

Question 2. 
Experts believe about sleep that it :
(a) enables our respiratory system to function well 
(b) helps the nervous system to process well 
(c) makes us muscular
(d) Both (a) & (c) 
Answer:
(a) enables our respiratory system to function well 

Question 3. 
Activities which make people sleep well are : 
(a) regular exercises
(b) weekly massages 
(c) yoga and meditations
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 4. 
People suffering from insomnia have : 
(a) poor health 
(b) chest pain 
(c) depression 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following opposite to ‘earliar than something’: 
(a) after 
(b) begin
(c) earlier 
(d) after-effect 
Answer:
(a) after 

Question 6. 
Choose from the following synonym to ‘to make something in large quantities using machines’: 
(a) producer 
(b) manufacture
(c) profess. 
(d) prohibit
Answer:
(b) manufacture

Passage-7.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

The lazy man says, “Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow.” But the wise man takes as his motto the old proverb, “Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.” And the man, who systematically clears off the work that belongs to each day as it comes, not only avoids the mental burden of unperformed duties, but is also the only man who knows the true leisure. 

For at the end of the day, he can spend the time remains in recreation and enjoyment with clear conscience, knowing he is well ahead with his work. Nowadays, modern man runs after the time, trying to utilize the time up to the possible degree. But the fact is, nature has granted 24 hours to everyone, whether he is poor or rich. 

The nature of working within these 24 hours makes anyone either rich or poor. Today, man wants more time to endeavour his tasks. He is in a labyrinth of materialism and has lost to figure out his primary aim. Here, the nature of procrastination matters. Man avoids his most valuable family, friends and relationships while running after the materialistic accomplishment of tasks.

Man can know the entire world but he forgets to scrutinize himself while putting off his own introspection for tomorrow. He should follow the old proverb but he should not forget to value himself. He should be man of action as well as man of self-examination.

Man should not be the slave of time. He should categorize his time for the primary purpose, i.e. family, friends, and himself, and for the secondary one, i.e. the tasks of the material world. In this way, he can live his life with more enthusiasm and can avail the leisure of the world in the particular time.

Word-Meanings : leisure = free time, आराम l endeavour = a sincere attempt, कोशिश | labyrinth = a maze like structure, जाल | procrastination = act of delaying, आज  का काम कल पूरा, सारा, accomplishment = the act of completion, काम कल करना I entire = whole, complete, पूरा, सारा scrutinize = to examine with great care, निरीक्षण करना| enthusiasm = zeal, eagerness, जोश । 

Question 1.
A man should be a: 
(a) man of action
(b) man of self examination 
(c) both (a) & (b)
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) both (a) & (b)

Question 2. 
Nature has granted …………… hours to everyone.
(a) 20
(b) 23 
(c) 24
(d) 30 
Answer:
(c) 24

Question 3. 
The man can understand the importance of leisure :
(a) who performs his work regularly 
(b) who does not perform his work properly 
(c) who always puts off the work for the next day
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) who performs his work regularly 

Question 4. 
The nature of working makes anyone : 
(a) rich 
(b) poor
(c) rich and poor 
(d) rich or poor 
Answer:
(d) rich or poor 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the word opposite to ‘spiritual’ : 
(a) materialize 
(b) material 
(c) spirit
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(b) material

Question 6.
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘free time’: 
(a) busy time 
(b) engaged
(c) leisure
(d) all of these
Answer:
(c) leisure

Passage-8.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

Thrice in her life my wife narrowly escaped death through serious illness. At the time of her first attack, Satyagraha was going on or was about to commence. She had frequent haemorrhages. A medical friend advised a surgical operation, to which she agreed after some hesitation. She was extremely emaciated, and the doctor had to perform the operation without chloroform. 

It was successful, but she had to suffer much pain. She, however, endured it with wonderful bravery, The doctor and his wife who nursed her were all attention. This was in Durban. The doctor gave me leave to go to Johannesburg, and told me not to have any anxiety about the patient.

In a few days, however, I received a letter to the effect that Kasturbai was worse, too weak to sit up in bed, and had once become unconscious. The doctor knew that he might not, without my consent, give her wines or meat. So he telephoned me at Johannesburg for permission to give her beef tea. 

I replied saying I could not grant the permission, but that if she was in a condition to express her wish in the matter, she might be consulted, and she was free to do as she liked. “But”, said the doctor, “I refuse to consult the patient’s wishes in the matter. You must come yourself. If you do not leave me free to prescribe whatever diet I like, I will not hold myself responsible for your wife’s life.” I took the train for Durban the same day, and met the doctor who quietly broke this news to me : “I had already given Mrs Gandhi beef tea when I telephoned you.”

“Now, Doctor, I call this a fraud,” said I.
“No question of fraud in prescribing medicine or diet for a patient. In fact, we doctors consider it a virtue to deceive patients or their relatives, if thereby we can save our patients,” said the doctor with determination. I was deeply pained, but kept cool. The doctor was a good man and a personal friend.

He and his wife had laid me under a debt of gratitude, but I was not prepared to put up with his medical morals. “Doctor, tell me what you propose to do now. I would never allow my wife to be given meat or beef, even if the denial meant her death, unless of course she desired to take it.”

“You are welcome to your philosophy. I tell you that, so long as you keep your wife under my treatment, I must have the option to give her anything I wish. If you don’t like this, I must regretfully ask you to remove her. I can’t see her die under my roof.” 

Word-Meanings : narrowly = only by a small amount, बाल-बाल,commence = begin, प्रारम्भ होना। haemorrhage = हेमरेज, आंतरिक रक्तस्राव । anxiety = feeling of fear, भय, चिंता। unconscious = a state like sleep caused by injury, अचेत beef = meat of cow, गय का माँस  fraud = cheating, धोखा-धड़ी। option = something that you can choose to have or do, विकल्प।

Question 1. 
When did Gandhiji’s wife escape death through serious illness for the first time ? 
(a) After Satyagraha
(b) During Satyagraha 
(c) After the completion of Satyagraha 
(d) None of these 
Answer:
(b) During Satyagraha 

Question 2. 
What was the condition of Kasturbai at the second time when she escaped death? 
(a) too strong to sit up in bed
(b) too weak to sit up in sofa 
(c) became unconscious forever
(d) too weak to sit up in bed 
Answer:
(d) too weak to sit up in bed 

Question 3. 
What did the doctor want to give Kasturbai when her condition became worse ?
(a) beef and mint tea 
(b) beef tea only 
(c) mint coffee 
(d) none of these
Answer:
(b) beef tea only 

Question 4. 
To save the patient’s life, a doctor may deceive his : 
(a) patient
(b) relatives 
(c) both (a) and (b) 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) both (a) and (b) 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following opposite to ‘not achieving what you wanted’:
(a) unsuccessful. 
(b) meaningful 
(c) successful 
(d) wonderful
Answer:
(b) meaningful 

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the synonym of ‘feeling of fear or worry’: 
(a) fearlessness 
(b) anxiety. 
(c) contentment 
(d) dissatisfaction
Answer:
(c) contentment 

Passage-9.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

Women in ancient India were free, well educated and well respected. A wife shared all her husband’s privileges. She was his companion. This freedom continued even after the Vedic age. It was only in the time of Manu that we find women regarded as chattels, whose place is only in the home, though even he allows that they are like goddesses. Still, according to him, a woman is never fit for independence.

It is not quite clear why women lost their high position. Perhaps one of the reasons may have been the fact that when the Aryans first came to India, it was not essential to be specifically trained in order to take part in religious ceremonies. We hear of Gosha and Lopamudra who were skilled in composing hymns and in philosophical discussions.

Later, women were gradually deprived of rights and given a status inferior to that of men. However, the Vedic wife was supreme in her household and free to do what she liked. During the Vedic period, there were some women who could probably read and write. Early marriage was not in the practice. Girls were allowed to choose their husbands. If, for any reason, a girl remained unmarried, she stayed on with her parents and obtained a share of her father’s property.

The custom of swayamvara existed during this period. The bride was asked to select a husband out of a number of worthy youngmen. Damayanti chose Nala as her husband in a similar way. The custom of dowry existed, but a marriage was indissoluble. A wife was not ill treated by her husband’s people. On the other hand, she was regarded as the supreme mistress of the house. In later times, polygamy became common, and a wife was jealous of the other.

The women of ancient India, like the great majority of women in this country today, possessed a calm philosophy and a tranquil outlook on life. They were capable of enduring untold hardships or receiving the highest honours with the same equanimity. The picture of Sita alone is enough to prove the point. She is the ideal which every true-hearted Indian woman desires to emulate.
A striking characteristic of Hindu women of old time is that they took no delight in revenge, but almost always forgave those who had done evil to them. Draupadi’s attitude towards Ashvatthama, who killed her five sons, is the classic example of forgiveness.

Word-Meanings: 

ancient = very old, पुरातन, प्रचीन | privileges = facilities, सुविधाएँ| chattels = slave, movable property, चल संपत्ति, दास | hymns = religious songs, भजन | gradually = slowly, धीरे-धीरे| deprived = lacking, to deny something, वंचित करना | probably = perhaps, शायद obtain = to get hold of, to acquire, प्राप्त करना | indissoluble = indestructible, lasting, अधिक चलने वाली जो खत्म न हो । polygamy = having more than one spouse, बहु-विवाह । tranquil = calm, free from, emotional disturbance, I equanimity = calmness, Stif I emulate = to attempt to equal, to copy, | striking = making a strong impression, प्रभावशाली । delight = happiness, खुशी । classic = high quality, उच्च गुण।

Question 1. 
In ancient India, the women were : 
(a) free
(b) well educated & respected 
(c) both (a) & (b)
(d) uneducated 
Answer:
(c) both (a) & (b)

Question 2. 
What did make the Vedic wife jealous ? 
(a) having more than one wife
(b) having more than one servant 
(c) having more than one friend 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) having more than one wife

Question 3.
Hindu women of olden times did not take delight in: 
(a) love
(b) revenge 
(c) kindness 
(d) respecting their elders 
Answer:
(b) revenge 

Question 4. 
Like most of the present day women of India, the women of the olden times in India had: 
(a) a calm philosophy
(b) a tranquil outlook on life 
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 5. 
Choose the opposite word of ‘the present or recent times’ : 
(a) ancient
(b) ancestor 
(c) moderate 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) ancient

Question 6. 
Choose the word which has the same meaning as ‘making a great impression’: 
(a) skirting 
(b) bistriking 
(c) dancing
(d) concluding
Answer:
(b) bistriking 

Passage-10.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Motivations for ruralism in underdeveloped countries are understandably different from those in developed countries. There, it is a sheer physical necessity for the very act of man’s survival. In the third world countries, which are predominantly rural, the only level that can lift human life above its present sub-human level, is rural development. 

Rural life in such countries has been stagnating for centuries. Nothing worthwhile has been done to ameliorate the condition of the rural population which is only slightly different from that of their quadruped counterparts. Ignorance, ill-health and poverty have become synonymous with rural life in the undeveloped and underdeveloped countries.

 But the worst tragedy is that the concerned human populations have taken this state of affairs for granted, as something unalterable, something for which there is no remedy. Every ray of hope has gone out of their lives. In such countries rural development is the inevitable condition of any material or non-material advancement. As such, enlightened sections of all such countries have been taking ever growing interest in the question of rural development. 
 
 This was also part of the legacy of their freedom struggle. In countries like India, it is well-known that attempts at rural development were an inseparable part of the Independence Movement. Leaders like Gandhiji realized quite well that real India lived in her stagnating villages. Cities, which were mostly the products of western colonialism, were just artificial show pieces. Even then, there were two worlds. The posh areas, where the affluent few, mostly the products and custodians of imperial interest lived, were little islands engulfed by the vast ocean of dirt, represented by the vast majority of people.
 
Cities were by no means unknown to India, but in ancient India, they were integral parts, organically related to the rest of the country and society. But modern cities are exotic centres of commercial and industrial exploitation. Cities in ancient India were the flowers of cultural and artistic excellence of the nation, modern cities are just parasites, preying on and debilitating the country.

Word-Meanings : 
sheer = only, hest, महज, सिर्फ predominantly = mostly, mainly, अधिकांशतः मुख्यतः। stagnating = stopping development, उन्नति रोकना। worthwhile = useful, संतोषजनक, सार्थक ameliorate = to make somthing better, सुधारना, बेहतर करना | quadruped = any creature with four feet, चौपाया, जानवर। unalterable = that cannot be changed, जिसे बदला न जा सके। remedy = to change or improve something, सुधारना | inevitable = that cannot be avoided, अवश्यंभावी। legacy = inheritence, वसीयत। posh = fashionable and expensive, धनवान, समृद्ध। exotic = unusual and interesting, आकर्षक| debilitating = making (the country) weaker, aer को कमजोर कर रहे हैं। engulf = to cover or surround something, पूरा घेर लेना। 

Question 1.
What is the urgent need of the hour in villages ? 
(a) Development
(b) Rural development 
(c) Migration to cities
(d) none of these
Answer:
(b) Rural development 

Question 2. 
What are the modern cities like ? 
(a) parasites & preying
(b) debilitating the nation 
(c) Both (a) & (b)
(d) benevolent 
Answer:
(c) Both (a) & (b)

Question 3. 
In the under developed countries, the condition of villages is not better due to : 
(a) ignorance 
(b) ill health 
(c) poverty
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 4. 
The ancient cities of India were full of :
(a) cultural excellent 
(b) artistic excellence 
(c) social excellence 
(d) Both (a) and (b) 
Answer:
(d) Both (a) and (b) 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following antonym of ‘urban’: 
(a) rural 
(b) urbane 
(c) rusty
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) rural 

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘that cannot be avoided’: 
(a) evitable 
(b) inevitable 
(c) inexusable 
(d) inexpensive
Answer:
(b) inevitable 

Passage-11 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Tourists to Jammu and Kashmir have another attraction – a floating post office on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, the first in the country. ‘Floating Post Office, Dal Lake’ – claimed to be the only one such post office in the world – is built on an intricately carved maroon houseboat, fastened on the western edge of the Dal Lake.

This post office lets you avail of all the regular postal services available in the country while being afloat. The seal used on everything posted from Floating Post Office is unique – along with the date and address, it bears the design of a boatman rowing a shikara on the Dal Lake.

The special feature of this post office is that letters posted from here carry a special design which has the picturesque scenery of Dal Lake and Srinagar city. These pictures reach wherever these letters are posted to and hence promote Kashmir as a tourist destination across the world.

This is actually a heritage post office that has existed since British times. It was called Nehru Park Post Office before 2011. But then the chief postmaster John Samuel renamed it as ‘Floating Post Office’.

The post office’s houseboat has two small rooms – one serves as the office and the other a small museum that traces the philatelic history of the state postal department. It has a shop that sells postage stamps and other products. But for the locals, Floating Post Office is more than an object of fascination. ₹1-2 crore is deposited per month in Floating Post Office by communities living in and around the Dal Lake. The lake has several islets that are home to more than 50,000 people.

The greatest fear is the recurrence of 2014 like floods in which the houseboat had gone for a toss uncontrollably pushed by the flood. Rescue teams had to anchor it using special mechanism in a nearby highland. Then it was brought back on the Dal after the water receded. The biggest boon is that at no time of the year do you need a fan in this post-office!

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 1

Question 1. 
What is built on the western edge of the Dal Lake ? 
(a) maroon hotel
(b) maroon houseboat 
(c) Floating Post Office
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(c) Floating Post Office

Question 2. 
What is not needed in the Floating Post Office ? 
(a) a boat 
(b) an oar 
(c) lights
(d) a fan 
Answer:
(d) a fan 

Question 3. 
The special feature of the letters posted from the floating Post Office is the :
(a) picturesque scenery of Dal Lake 
(b) picturesque scenery of Srinagar city 
(c) scenery of Jammu
(d) picturesque scenery of Dal Lake and Srinagar city 
Answer:
(d) picturesque scenery of Dal Lake and Srinagar city 

Question 4. 
The special Post Office, which has no parallel in the world, is situated :
(a) in Jammu 
(b) in Srinagar 
(c) in Poona 
(d) in Udaipur 
Answer:
(b) in Srinagar 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘happening at times that you cannot predict’: 
(a) irregular 
(b) irrelevant 
(c) regular
(d) repayable 
Answer:
(c) regular

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘encourage’: 
(a) promise 
(b) promote
(c) promotion 
(d) proceed
Answer:
(b) promote

Passage-12.
 
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Hyderabad – The City of Nizams 

Golconda Fort

In the 16th century, when Golconda was the capital of Qutb Shahi Kingdom, it is believed that a shepherd boy came across an idol on the hill. It was then that the Kakatiya dynasty’s ruler built the fort, which is 120 m high. After it was captured by Aurangzeb, the Mughal emperor, the fort fell into ruins. The beautiful ruins of the fort have a story to tell.

They make you wonder how the fort may have looked in its days of glory and grandeur. The fort also organises a sound and light show every day and the history of this fort is narrated in such an interesting manner that even a child can understand and enjoy it.

The climb to the fort is a difficult one and, unless you are physically fit, you should avoid the climb and relax in the gardens below. The view from the top is breathtaking

Charminar

The next place is Charminar. The literal meaning of the monument is ‘four minarets’. There is a mosque on the second floor. It is said that when the state was hit by severe plague, Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, prayed to end the plague and promised to build a mosque in the very place where he was praying. Thus, Charminar came into being !

The walk from the bottom to the top of the monument is a little frightening, owing to the narrowness of the pathway and the steepness of the steps. Once you reach the top, the view of the crowds moving below will surely lift your spirits. Make sure you visit the nearby Laad Bazaar, where there are rows of shops selling the famous Hyderabadi glass bangles and lac bangles.

Salar Jung Museum

The Salar Jung Museum is the third largest museum in the country and boasts of owning the biggest one-man collection of antiques in the world. A visit to the Salar Jung Museum is a must even if you are not a fan of antique stuff. You can view the Nizam’s collection of textiles, arms, metalware, ivory carvings, Indian bronzes and.carpets.

The main attraction is definitely the Musical Clock, made by Cook and Kelvy of England. Inside the clock is a timekeeper. Every hour, he comes out and beats a gong as many times as the time indicates. Another attraction of the museum is the Veiled Rebecca, an amazing sculpture made by the Italian sculptor, Giovanni Maria Benzoni.

Word-Meanings : came across = met, मिल into ruins = destroyed, बर्वाद होकर गिर गया| wonder= think, सोचने को (विवश करते हैं) । breathtaking = very impressive, बहुत प्रभावशाली । frightening= making somebody afraid, भयभीत करनं वाला | antique stuff= old and valuable thing, प्राचीन व मूल्यवान वस्तु | gong= a round and flat metal disc that gives sound, घंटा । 

Question 1. 
The biggest one-man collection of antiques in the world is : 
(a) Musical Clock
(b) Charminar 
(c) The Salar Jung Museum
(d) Golconda Fort 
Answer:
(c) The Salar Jung Museum

Question 2. 
What can be found in the museum apart from the Nizam’s collection of textiles, arms, metalware, Indian bronzes and carpets ? 
(a) ivory carvings
(b) antiques 
(c) nothing more
(d) Both (a) & (b) 
Answer:
(d) Both (a) & (b) 

Question 3. 
What are the a attractions of the Salar Jung Museum ? 
(a) biggest building in the world
(b) big collection of antiques 
(c) Musical Clock
(d) Both (b) & (c) 
Answer:
(d) Both (b) & (c) 

Question 4. 
The narrowness of pathway is found in the monument of:
(a) Red Fort 
(b) Mehrangarh Fort 
(c) Taj Mahal 
(d) Charminar 
Answer:
(d) Charminar 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘unpleasant to look’: 
(a) ugly 
(b) beautiful
(c) dangerous 
(d) beautician
Answer:
(b) beautiful

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘very impressive’: 
(a) breathless
(b) breathing 
(c) breath taking 
(d) breather
Answer:
(c) breath taking 

Passage-13 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Body fat, blood pressure and fasting insulin levels (a marker of diabetes risk) all increased within a decade of moving to a city, and for decades blood pressure and insulin continued to rise above the levels of their rural counterparts. The findings raise public health concerns as the global population progressively becomes more urban. 

According to the United Nations, the growth change in India’s urban population is 1.1 percent every year, while the change in the proportion of people in rural areas is declining by 0.37 percent.The proportion of Indians who live in cities is still much smaller than in the United States. Just 30 percent of Indians live in urban areas, while 82 percent of Americans live in urban areas. That number is expected to rise as the proportion of people who live in rural areas in the United States declines by 1.6 percent each year.

The researchers, led by Dr Sanjay Kinra of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, compared rural Indians to their siblings who moved to one of four cities in India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Siblings who lived in a city the longest had the highest average blood pressure. For instance, men who lived in a city for more than 30 years had an average systolic blood pressure  the top number in a reading of 126. Men who lived in a city 10-20 years had an average of 124, and those who stayed in rural areas had an average of 123. A systolic blood pressure above 140 is considered high.

The change in body fat was most evident in the first 10 years after moving to a city, and then it levelled off. Men who stayed in rural areas had 21 percent body fat on average, while those who moved within the past ten years had 24 percent, on average.

The recommended body fat percentage from the National Institutes of Health is 13 to 17 percent. The study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, did not pinpoint the cause of these differences between the siblings who moved and those who stayed behind.

Word-Meanings : counterpart = person or thing that has the same position or function, प्रतिरूप |proportion = in proportion, आनुपातिक रूप से | decline = to decrease, कमी होना, siblings = sisters & brothers, बातना pinpoint = to explain exactly, किसी बात को सही सही  systolic = connected with the action of the heart when it contracts to force blood out, हृदय की सिकुड़न से सम्बन्धिन (रक्त छोड़ने के लिए)

Question 1. 
What health hazards are on the increase within a decade? 
(a) body fat
(b) blood pressure 
(c) fasting insulin levels
(d) all of these
Answer:
(d) all of these

Question 2. 
The average body fat of the men in rural areas is :
(a) 20 percent 
(b) 21 percent 
(c) 22 percent 
(d) 25 percent 
Answer:
(b) 21 percent 

Question 3. 
The percentage of the growth change in India’s urban population every year is :
(a) 1.3 percent 
(b) 1.2 percent 
(c) 1.1 percent 
(d) 2 percent 
Answer:
(c) 1.1 percent 

Question 4. 
Blood pressure above …………. is considered high. 
(a) 124 
(b) 123 
(c) 140
(d) 135 
Answer:
(c) 140

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘became less’: 
(a) decreased 
(b) dedicated
(c) increased 
(d) increment
Answer:
(c) increased 

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘to say or show that you don’t want to do,give or accept’ :
(a) decline 
(b) regard
(c) agree
(d) accept
Answer:
(a) decline 

Passage-14.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

Prince Siddhartha, the son of king Suddhodan, lived a very happy life in the pleasure palace. He was married to a beautiful princess, Yashodhara. There was music, dancing and pleasure all around him. He knew nothing of want, pain, disease, old age or death.

One day, a veena was put on the window sill. The wind touched the strings and it produced a music. The voices of the wind told the prince that he was born to save mankind. The world was waiting for him. He should leave worldly love to save humanity from miseries of life. He felt a great desire to see the vast world outside the pleasure-palace.

When the king came to know of the prince’s desire, he ordered that the whole city should be decorated beautifully. The prince should not see any ugly and painful sight. No blind, sick, old person or a leper should come out. So the city of Kapilvastu was decorated in a very fine way. It looked quite clean and attractive – ‘a capital of some enchanted land’. The people welcomed the prince joyfully. The prince also felt happy to see people’s joy.

Then the prince saw an old man. He was wearing dirty and torn clothes. He was very lean and thin. He looked very tired and weak. He had no teeth. The prince asked his charioteer, Channa, who that man was. Channa told him that he was an old man. The prince asked if old age would come to all. Channa told him that it would. This made the prince very sad. He ordered Channa to return to the palace. He did not take food. The entire night he was sleepless, uncomforted.

Due to the restlessness of the prince, the king became very sad. For the prince’s second trip, he doubled the number of guards at all the doors of the palace. He tried his best to divert the mind of the prince, but his efforts were of no use. The prince desired to see the city once more. The king gave permission for it. The next day, the prince dressed like a merchant and Channa in the dress of his clerk went out to see the city once more. The prince saw all kinds of people and all the common things.

The prince saw a sick man. He was painfully crying for help. He asked Channa why the man was crying. Channa told him that he (the sick man) was suffering from a fatal disease. The disease would destroy all his powers. Then he would die. Channa further told the prince that all grow old, fall sick and die.

Then the prince saw a dead body. The sight of the dead man and his cremation moved the prince deeply. The prince was greatly troubled in mind. He said that he would try to remove suffering from the world. He then asked Channa to return home as he had seen enough. 

Word Meanings : sill = a shelf at the bottom of a window, either inside or outside, चौखट I strings = thin ropes, (विना के) तार | miseries = troubles, कष्ट | enchanted = magical, जादुई charioteer = one who drives chariot, रय हाँकने वाला, cremation = last funeral service, अंतिम संस्कार।

Question 1. 
Princess Yashodhara was married to :
(a) Siddhartha 
(b) Suddhodan 
(c) Channa 
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) Siddhartha 

Question 2. 
What thing of the prince made the king very sad ?
(a) his restlessness 
(b) his calibre 
(c) his strength
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) his restlessness 

Question 3.
Who was painfully crying for help? 
(a) prince 
(b) sick man
(c) old man
(d) Channa 
Answer:
(b) sick man

Question 4. 
The prince thought that he would remove the suffering from the world :
(a) after seeing the poor 
(b) after seeing the rich 
(c) after seeing the people who welcomed him joyfull
(d) none of these ! 
Answer:
(d) none of these ! 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘that pleases you’: 
(a) attractive 
(b) attraction 
(c) unattractive 
(d) unshamed 
Answer:
(c) unattractive 

Question 6.
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘somethings that take a lot of energy’: 
(a) efforts
(b) effigies 
(c) effects. 
(d) none of these
Answer:
(a) efforts

Passage-15 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Galileo Galilee, often known as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronoiner, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include improvements in the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the “father of modern observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, the “father of science” and the “father of modern science”.

His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked on applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

In the Catholic world prior to Galileo’s conflict with the Church, the majority of educated people subscribed to the Aristotelian geocentric view that the Earth was the center of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the Earth.

Indeed, to the casual observer, it seemed common sense that since the sun ‘rose’ in the morning and ‘set’ at night, it must have circled around the earth. Ancient authorities like Aristotle and the Roman astronomer Ptolemy had championed this viewpoint, and the notion was also supported by the Catholic Church, which placed mankind, God’s principal creation, at the center of the cosmos. Yet, the Ptolemaic theory was soon under attack.

Nicholas Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, openly questioned the Ptolemaic system and proposed a heliocentric system in which the planets including earth orbited the sun (Helios). This more mathematically satisfying way of arranging the solar system did not attract many supporters at first, since the available data did not yet support a wholesale abandonment of Ptolemy’s system. By the end of the 16th century, however, astronomers like Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) had also begun to embrace Copernicus’s theory.

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 2 RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 3

Question 1. 
Who was Copernicus ? 
(a) An Indian astronomer
(b) A Polish astronomer 
(c) A French astronomer
(d) An American astronomer 
Answer:
(b) A Polish astronomer 

Question 2. 
When did Johannes Kepler accept the Copernicus’ theory? 
(a) at the end of 16th century
(b) at the end of 15th century 
(c) at the end of 17th century
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) at the end of 16th century

Question 3. 
Who was Galileo ? 
(a) Italian engineer
(b) Italian mathematician 
(c) Italian astronomer
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 4. 
Galileo is called :
(a) the father of modern observational astronomy 
(b) the father of ancient observational astronomy 
(c) the father of natural science
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(a) the father of modern observational astronomy 

Question 5.
Choose from the following the opposite of ‘minor’: 
(a) not very big 
(b) major
(c) minority 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(b) major

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘giving up’: 
(a) catch
(b) abandonment 
(c) taking up 
(d) punishment
Answer:
(b) abandonment 

Passage-16 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Today, there is a lot of talk about the environment. All nations are coming to an agreement to save planet earth. We pollute the earth, we pollute the water; we also pollute the subtle environment through our negative feelings and emotions. We have become a victim of our greed and needs. We are not in control of our mind. 

We hear a lot about other things in life but we spend very little time to hear about ourselves. How to handle our mind ? How to be in the present moment ? How to be happy and grateful ? This we have not learnt. This is the most unfortunate thing. Then what is the solution ? This is where we are reminded of a very fundamental principle that governs our environment, our mind, our emotions and our life in general.

Our body has the capactiy to sustain much longer the vibration of bliss and peace than it does negative emotions because positivity is in the centre of our existence. As with the structure of atom, protons and neutrons are in the centre of the atom and electrons constitute only the periphery; the same is with our lives; the centre core of our existence is bliss, positivity and joy but it is surrounded by a cloud of negative ions. Through the help of the breath, we can easily get over our negative emotions in a short period of time. Through meditation and certain breathing techniques, we can clear this negative cloud.

Everyone wants to be successful in life. But without knowing what is success, you want to be successful. What is the sign of success ? Just having a lot of money, is that success? Why do you think money means success ? Because money gives you freedom so that you can do whatever you want. 

You may have a big bank balance, but, you have stomach aches, ulcers, you may have to go for bypass surgery; can’t eat this, can’t do this, can’t do that. We expend half our health to gain wealth and then expend half our wealth to gain back the lost health. Is this success ? In fact, it is very bad mathematics.

Look at the those who claim to be successful – are they successful ? No, they are miserable. Then, what is the sign of success ? It is confidence, compassion, generosity and a smile that none can snatch away, being really happy and being able to be more free. These are the signs of a successful person.

Take some time off to look a little deeper into yourself and calm the mind down. Thus erasing all the impressions that we are carrying in our minds and experience, the presence of the divine that is the very core of our existence. 

Word-Meanings: subtle = hard to grasp, कठिन सूक्ष्मI fundamental = primary, basic, मूलभूत sustain = to maintain, बनाए रखना| periphery = the outer boundary, बाहरी सीमI expend = to consume, व्यय करना । miserable = very sad, दुखी । 

Question 1. 
Through ………….. and certain breathing techniques, we can clear the negative cloud of emotions :
(a) perspiration 
(b) dedication 
(c) meditation 
(d) worshipping 
Answer:
(c) meditation 

Question 2. 
Confidence, compassion and generosity are the …………….. of a successful person. 
(a) symbols 
(b) signatures 
(c) games
(d) talks 
Answer:
(a) symbols 

Question 3. 
We are polluting :
(a) the earth 
(b) the water 
(c) the environment 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 4. 
We spend little time to hear about : 
(a) our family 
(b) our work 
(c) our society 
(d) ourselves 
Answer:
(d) ourselves 

Question 5. 
Choose the opposite word for ‘covering a large amount in time’ : 
(a) small 
(b) short 
(c) tiny
(d) great 
Answer:
(b) short 

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘basic’ :
(a) baseless 2007 
(b) non-fundamental 
(c) fundamental 
(d) basis
Answer:
(c) fundamental 

Passage-17 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Maharana Pratap ruled over Mewar only for 25 years. However, he accomplished so much grandeur during his reign that his glory surpassed the boundaries of countries and time turning him into an immortal personality. He, along with his kingdom, became a synonym for valour, sacrifice and patriotism. 

Mewar had been a leading Rajput Kingdom even before Maharana Pratap occupied the throne. Kings of Mewar, with the cooperation of their nobles and subjects, had established such traditions in the kingdom as augmented their magnificence despite the hurdles of having a smaller area under their command and less population. There did come a few thorny occasions when the flag of the kingdom seemed sliding down. Thanks to the gallantry and brilliance of the people of Mewar, their flag once again flew high in the sky.

The destiny of Mewar was good in the sense that barring a few kings, most of the rulers were competent and patriotic. This glorious tradition of the kingdom almost continued for 1500 years since its establishment, right from the region of Bappa Rawal. In fact, only 60 years before Mharana Pratap, Rana Sanga lifted the kingdom to the pinnacle of fame. His reputation went

beyond Rajasthan and reached Delhi. Two generations before him, Rana Kumbha had given a new stature to the kingdom through victories and developmental work. During his reign, literature and art also progressed extraordinarily. 

The Rana himself was interested towards writing and his works are read with reverence even today. The ambience of his kingdom was conducive to the creation of high quality work of art and literature. These accomplishments were the outcome of a long-standing tradition sustained by several generations.

The life of the people of Meyar must have been peaceful and prosperous during the long span of time; otherwise such extraordinary accomplishment in these fields would not have been possible. This is reflected in their art and literature, as well as their loving nature. They compensate for lack of admirable phyşique by their firm but pleasant nature. The ambience of Mewar remains lovely thanks to the cheerful and liberal character of its people.

Ruins of many structures which are still standing tall in their grandeur are testimony to the fact that Mewar was not only the land of the brave but also a seat of art and culture. Imagine, how glorious the period must have been when the Vijaya Stambha which is a glorious example of our great ancient architecture even today, was constructed.

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 4

Question 1. 
Maharana Pratap was the best example of :
(a) sacrifice 
(b) patriotism 
(c) braveness 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 2.
Among the rulers of Mewar, the reputation of ………….. reached Delhi.
(a) Rana Pratap 
(b) Rana Sanga 
(c) Bappa Rawal 
(d) Rana Kumbha 
Answer:
(b) Rana Sanga 

Question 3. 
For a long time, the life of the residents of Mewar remained :
(a) peaceful 
(b) unpeaceful 
(c) prosperous 
(d) Both (a) and (c) 
Answer:
(d) Both (a) and (c) 

Question 4. 
The ambienee of Mewar is lovely even today due to …………….. of its people.
(a) aggresive nature 
(b) pleasant nature 
(c) unpleasant nature 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(b) pleasant nature 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the word opposite to ‘normal/not different from others’ :
(a) ordinary 
(b) orderly. 
(c) extraordinary 
(d) organic 
Answer:
(c) extraordinary 

Question 6.
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘result of effect of an action or an event’ : 
(a) outcome 
(b) outclass 
(c) outdated 
(d) outdo
Answer:
(a) outcome 

Passage-18. 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Have you ever failed at something so miserably that the thought of attempting to do it again was the last thing you wanted to do? If your answer is yes, then you are “not a robot.” Unlike robots, we human beings have feelings, emotions, and dreams. We are all meant to grow and stretch despite our circumstances and our limitations. Flourishing and trying to make our dreams come true is great when life is going our way. But what happens when it’s not What happens when you fail despite all of your

hard work ? Do you stay down and accept the defeat or do you get up again and again until you are satisfied ? If you have a tendency to persevere and keep going then you have what experts call, grit.

Falling down or failing is one of the most.agonising and embarrassing human experiences. But it is also one of the most educational, empowering, and essential parts of living a successful and fulfilling life. Did you know that perseverance (grit) is one of the seven qualities that have been described as the keys to personal success and betterment in society ? 

The other six are : curiosity, gratitude, optimism, self-control, social intelligence, and zest. Thomas Edison is a model for grit for trying 1,000 plus times to invent the light bulb. If you are reading this with the lights on in your room, you know well he succeeded. When asked why he kept going despite his hundreds of failures, he merely stated that what he had been, not failures. There were hundreds of ways not to create a light bulb. This statement not only revealed his grit but also his optimism for looking the bright side.

Grit can be learned to help you become more successful. One of the techniques that tips is mindfulness. Mindfulness is a practice that helps the individual stay in the moment by bringing awareness of his or her experience without judgement. This practice has been used to quiet the noise of their fears and doubts. Through this simple practice of mindfulness, individuals have the ability to stop the feelings of hopelessness, despair, and frustration. :

What did you do to overcome the negative feelings of failure ? Reflect on what you did, and try to use those same powerful resources to help you today.

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 2

Question 1 
Human beings have :
(a) feelings 
(b) emotions 
(c) dreams 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 2. 
If a man fails in his life, he should :
(a) stay down 
(b) accept the defeat
(c) get up again 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) get up again 

Question 3. 
It is only by the quality of …………….. that a man may get success even after his adverse circumstances. 
(a) braveness 
(b) kindness 
(c) grit
(d) generosity
Answer:
(c) grit

Question 4. 
Thomas Edison is an example of : 
(a) power
(b) braveness 
(c) cleverness 
(d) grit 
Answer:
(d) grit 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the word opposite to ‘dark’: 
(a) darkness 
(b) bright
(c) hopeless
(d) brilliant 
Answer:
(b) bright

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘desire to know more’ : 
(a) curiosity 
(b) disinterested 
(c) curious
(d) all of these
Answer:
(a) curiosity 

Passage-19.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

I rested for a moment at the door of Anand Bhawan, on Market Road, where coffee-drinkers and tiffin-eaters sat still at their tables, uttering low moans on seeing me. I wanted to assure them, “Don’t mind me, you hugging the cash box — you are a coward, afraid even to breathe.

Go on, count the cash, if that is your pleasure. I just want to watch, that’s all. If my tail trails down to the street, if I am blocking your threshold, it is because, I’m told, I’m eleven feet tip to tail. I can’t help it. I’m not out to kill — I’m too full. I found a green pasture full of food on my way. I won’t attack until I feel hungry again. Tigers attack only when they feel hungry unlike human beings who slaughter one another without purpose or hunger.”

To the great delight of children, schools were being hurriedly closed. Children of all ages and sizes were running helter-skelter, screaming joyously, “No school, no school. Tiger, tiger!” They were shouting and laughing and even enjoying being scared. They seemed to welcome me. I felt like joining them. So I bounded away from the restaurant door. I walked along with them, at which they cried, “The tiger is coming to eat us; let us get back to school !”

I followed them through their school gate while they ran up and shut themselves in the school hall securely. I climbed up the steps of the school, saw an open door at the far end of a veranda, and walked in. It happened to be the headmaster’s room. I noticed a very dignified man jumping on the table and heaving himself up into an attic. I walked in and flung myself on the cool floor, having a special liking for cool stone floors.

As I drowsed, I was aware of cautious steps and hushed voices all around. I was in no mood to bother about anything. All I wanted was a little moment of sleep; the daylight was very bright. 

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 6

Question 1. 
The word ‘I’ is used in the passage for :
(a) a coffee dinker 
(b) a businessman 
(c) a school boy. 
(d) a tiger 
Answer:
(d) a tiger 

Question 2. 
A tiger attacks :
(a) when he sees human beings 
(b) when he is hungry 
(c) when he is angry
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(b) when he is hungry
 
Question 3. 
Who ran up and shut themselves in the school hall ? 
(a) hearmaster and the children
(b) tiffin eaters 
(c) coffee dinkers
(d) children 
Answer:
(d) children 

Question 4. 
When the children saw the tiger, they were :
(a) shouting 
(b) laughing 
(c) enjoying being scared 
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 5. 
Choose from the following the word opposite to ‘brave’ : 
(a) hopeless 
(b) coward
(c) hopeful 
(d) courageous 
Answer:
(b) coward

Question 6. 
Choose from the following the similar word for ‘dozed’: 
(a) dosed 
(b) drowsed 
(c) dotted
(d) slept
Answer:
(b) drowsed 

Passage-20 

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

During our growing up years, we as children were taught – both at home and school – to worship the photos and idols of the gods of our respective religions. When we grew a little older, we were to read holy books like the Bhagwad Gita, Bible and Quran; we were told that there are a lot of life lessons to be learnt from these holy books.

We were then introduced to stories from our mythologies which taught us about ethics and morality – what is good and what is bad. I also learnt to be respectful towards my parents who made my life comfortable with their hard work and love and care, and my teachers who guided me to become a good student and a responsible citizen.

Much later in life, I realised that though we learn much from our respective holy books, there is a lot to learn from our surroundings. This realisation dawned upon me when I learnt to enquire. Everything around us the sun, the moon, the stars, rain, rivers, stones, rocks, birds, plants and animals – teach us many valuable life lessons.

No wonder that besides the scriptures in many cultures, nature is also worshipped. The message that we get is to save our environment and maintain ecological balance. People are taught to live in harmony with nature and recognise that there is God in all aspects of nature.

Nature is a great teacher. A river never stops flowing. If it finds an obstacle in its way in the form of a heavy rock, the river water fights to remove it from its path or finds an alternative path to move ahead. This teaches us to be progressive in life, and keep the fighting spirit alive.

Snakes are worshippped as they eat insects in the field that can hurt our crops, thus protecting the grains for us. In fact, whatever we worship is our helper and makes our lives easy for us. There are many such examples in nature, but we are not ready to learn a lesson. Overcome with greed, we are destroying nature. As a result, we face natural disasters like droughts, floods and landslides. We don’t know that nature is angry with us.However, it is never too late to learn. If we learn to respect nature, the quality of our life will improve.

RBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Unseen Passage Type-II 7

Question 1. 
When we grow older, we often read the religious books like :
(a) the Gita 
(b) the Bible 
(c) the Quran 
(d) any one of these 
Answer:
(d) any one of these 

Question 2. 
From stories of our mythologies, we learn :
(a) what is good 
(b) what is bad 
(c) Both (a) and (b) 
(d) none of these 
Answer:
(c) Both (a) and (b) 

Question 3. 
In our life, we learn a lot from : 
(a) the sun and the moon
(b) rain and rivers 
(c) birds and animals
(d) all of these 
Answer:
(d) all of these 

Question 4. 
The quality of our life may improve, if we : 
(a) worship gods
(b) worship animals 
(c) worship nature
(d) worship our holy books 
Answer:
(c) worship nature

Question 5. 
Choose the opposite of the word ‘hate’ : 
(a) care 
(b) dislike
(c) love 
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) love 

Question 6.
Choose the synonym for ‘something that you can use instead of something else’:
(a) alternative. 
(b) alteration 
(c) alternator 
(d) altercation
Answer:
(a) alternative. 

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