9 Grammar Indirect Speech/Reported Speech
जब हम किसी के द्वारा कही गई बात को अन्य किसी से कहते हैं तो इसे दो प्रकार से कह सकते हैं।
1. Direct Speech – जब वक्ता के कथन को उसी के शब्दों में व्यक्त किया जाता है तो इस प्रकार के कथन को Direct Speech कहते हैं । जैसे Sita said, “I shall not go to market today.” उपर्युक्त वाक्य में Sita (वक्ता) के शब्दों को ही दोहराया गया है, अतः यह Direct Speech अथवा Direct Narration है।
Direct Speech के भाग – Direct Speech के दो भाग होते हैं
A. Reporting Verb
B. Reported Clause/Actual Words of the Speaker
A. Reporting Verb – यह भाग सदैव inverted commas के बाहर का भाग होता है। इस भाग का भी महत्त्व है और इस भाग से बात के कहने वाले तथा सुनने वाले का पता चलता है।
Reporting Verb (बाहर के भाग) की क्रिया आवश्यकतानुसार परिवर्तित होती रहती है। प्रमुख Reporting Verbs ये हैं-said, told, asked आदि।
B. Reported Clause – वाक्य का वह भाग है जिसमें वक्ता के शब्दों में कही हुई बात होती है। यह भाग सदा inverted commas में होता है और इसका पहला अक्षर Capital letter से लिखा जाता है। जैसे Sita said to me, “I cannot cook food today.”
2. Indirect Speech – जब वक्ता के मूल शब्दों को अपने शब्दों में कहा जाए तो इसे
Indirect Speech कहते हैं। जैसे —
Sita told me that she could not cook food that day.
Rules of Changing the Direct Speech into Indirect Speech
A. Reporting Verb
1. Reporting Verb (अर्थात् inverted commas के बाहर का भाग) का Tense कभी भी नहीं बदला जाता है।
2. साधारण वाक्य में Reporting Verb में यदि Object है तो said (अथवा say आदि) के स्थान पर आवश्यकतानुसार tell, told रखा जाता है और to को हटा दिया जाता है। जैसे
He said to me …………. (Direct) He told me ………. (Indirect)
यदि Reporting Verb में Object नहीं है तो told नहीं कर सकते, said ही रखना पड़ता है। जैसे
She said………. (Direct), She said……… (Indirect)
3. comma व inverted commas हटा दिए जाते हैं और आवश्यकतानुसार उसी स्थान पर Connective रख दिया जाता है। साधारण वाक्यों में Connective -that आता है।
Note : Reporting Verb (अर्थात् बाहर के भाग में) में Tense व Pronoun कभी नहीं बदलते हैं।
B. Reported Clause
Reported Clause के अंदर ही मुख्य परिवर्तन होते हैं। Reported Clause में 3 (तीन) मुख्य परिवर्तन होते हैं
I. Pronoun संबंधी परिवर्तन;
II. Verb संबंधी परिवर्तन;
III. समय व दूरी संबंधी परिवर्तन।
I. Pronoun संबंधी परिवर्तन
Forms of Pronouns
Rule 1. Reported Clause (inverted commas के अन्दर का भाग) के First Person के Pronoun (I तथा We तथा इनके रूप को) को Reporting Verb (बाहर का भाग) के Subject के अनुसार बदलो। जैसे
1. Direct : He says to you, “My brother is playing football”.
Indirect : He tells you that his brother is playing football.
2. Direct : They say to me, “We were cooking food.”
Indirect : They tell me that they were cooking food.
Rule 2. Reported Clause a Second Person (You तथा इसके रूप) को Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार बदलो। जैसे —
1. Direct : I say to him, “She came to you.”
Indirect : I tell him that she came to him.
2. Direct : You say to Sita, “I gave a book to your mother.”
Indirect : You tell Sita that you gave a book to her mother.
Rule : 3 Reported Clause as Third Person
(he, she, they, it व इनके रूप) में कोई Change नहीं होते हैं, अर्थात् वे यथावत् रहते हैं। जैसे
1. Direct : You say to me, “He went to his house.”
Indirect : You tell me that he went to his house.
2. Direct : Vimla says, “They beat her son.”
Indirect : Vimla says that they beat her son.
II. Verb संबंधी परिवर्तन
III. समय व दूरी संबंधी परिवर्तन
Direct में तो — Indirect में
this — that
now — then
these — those
just — then
here — there
ago — before
today — that day
thus — so
tonight — that night
hence — thence
tomorrow — the next day
hither — thither
yesterday — the previous day
come — go
last night/week — the previous night week
next week/month — the following week/ month
Interrogative Sentences दो प्रकार के हो सकते
Interrogative Sentences Interrogative Sentences दो प्रकार के हो सकते हैं- ।
I. Yes/No Type : the area fonit Helping Verb (जैसे-is, are, am, was, were, can, will, has, have….. आदि) से आरम्भ होते हैं।
II. Wh- Type : ऐसे वाक्य Wh- शब्द से आरम्भ होते हैं। इन वाक्यों में परिवर्तन निम्न प्रकार होता है
Rule : 1 : बाहर ‘said’ के स्थान पर asked कर दो। asked के बाद ‘to’ नहीं आता है।
Rule : 2 : यदि प्रश्न Yes/No Type हो अर्थात्
यदि अन्दर वाक्य किसी H.V. से आरम्भ हो तो connective if अथवा whether आयेगा किन्तु spelling की कठिनाई के कारण if का ही प्रयोग करो।
Rule : 3: यदि प्रश्न-Wh- (जैसे-who, when, where, why, what….. आदि) से आरम्भ हो तो कोई भी connective नहीं आयेगा।
Rule : 4 : सबसे पहले अन्दर Pronoun change करो, यदि होता हो तो।
Rule : 5 : उस Pronoun के पहले जो Helping Verb है, उसे Change करके उसी शब्द के बाद रख दो।
Rule: 6: यदि अन्दर प्रश्न Do से आरम्भ हो तो
Do हटा दो और Verb की II Form लगाओ।
Rule:7: यदि अन्दर प्रश्न Do…..not से आरम्भ हो तो not नहीं हटेगा किन्तु जिस शब्द के पहले Do है, उसी शब्द. के बाद Tense के अनुसार did not हो जायेगा।
Rule : 8 : किसी भी प्रकार का प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य
(चाहे Wh- वाला, चाहे Yes/No वाला) हो, Ans. के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न (?) नहीं लगेगा, Full-stop लगेगा।
Examples: Yes/No Type
1. Direct : He said to me, “Is your father a doctor ?”
Indirect : He asked me if my father was a doctor.
2. Direct : She said to Hari, “Will you help me ?”
Indirect : She asked Hari if he would help her.
3. Direct: Rekha said to her brother, “Where are you going?”
Indirect: Rekha asked her brother where he was going.
अथवा से आरम्भ
‘Do’ अथवा ‘Do…..not’ से आरम्भ
होने वाला वाक्य
4. Direct : Babli said to Hari, “Do you go to school daily?”
Indirect : Babli asked Hari if he went to school daily.
5. Direct : Vimla said to her son, “Do you not play football in the evening”?
Indirect : Vimla asked her son if he did not play football in the evening.
Exercise – 1.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech —
1. The king said to the hermit, “You are tired”.
2. The king said to the hermit, “I have come to you to ask you to answer three quesitons”
3. The king said to the bearded man, “I donot know you and have nothing to forgive you for”.
4. The man said to the king, “You donot know me but I know you”.
5. The hermit said to the king, “You have already been answered”.
6. Meena said to Mridu, “We found him outside the gate this morning”.
7. Ravi said to Meena, “People are always telling us to be kind to animals”.
8. Ravi said to Meena, “I am very hungry”.
9. Ravi said to Mridu, “She will never learn a thing”.
10. Meena said to Ravi, “He needs something on his feet”.
1. The king told hermit that he was tired.
2. The king told hermit that he had gone to him to ask him to answer three questions.
3. The king told the bearded man that he did not know him and had nothing to forgive him for.
4. The man told the king that he did not know him but he knew him.
5. The hermit told the king that he had already been answered.
6. Meena told Mridu that they had found him outside the gate that morning.
7. Ravi told Meena that people were always telling them to be kind to animals.
8. Ravi told Meena that he was very hungry.
9. Ravi told Mridu that she would never learn a thing.
10. Meena told Ravi that he needed something on his feet.
Exercise – 2.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. The watchman said to Gopal, “What do you want?”
2. He said Mr. Gessler, “Could you make me a pair of Russian leather boots?
3. He said to me, “Do you want any boots?”
4. Nishad said to Maya, “Do you really think he’s a criminal?”
5. I said to Seven, “Did you get a chance to peek into the trunk?”
6. Nishad said, “How can a crook have friends?”
7. I said to Nishad, “What is idea of bothering about him?”
8. Mr. Wonka said to me, “What is the oldest living thing in the world?”
9. Charlie said, “What happened?”
10. Teacher said to me, “What newspapers or magazines does the person read?”
1. The watchman asked Gopal what he wanted.
2. He asked Mr. Gessler whether/ if he could make him a pair of Russian leather boots.
3. He asked me if/whether I wanted any boots.
4. Nishad asked Maya if/whether she really thought he’s a criminal.
5. I asked seven if/whether he had got a chance to peek into the trunk.
6. Nishad asked how a crook can have friends.
7. I asked Nishad what was the idea of bothering about him.
8. Mr. Wonka asked me what was the oldest thing in the world.
9. Charlie asked what had happened.
10. Teacher asked me what newspapers or magazines the person read.
Exercise – 3.
Change the following sentences intoIndirect Speech
1. The woodcutter said, “I have found a gold box.”
2. Vijay Singh said to the villagers, “The giant was very weak.”
3. The serpent said to the dove, “Do you want to save your children?”
4. The Principal said to me, “Did you attend the school yesterday?”
5. The stranger said to me, “What is your name?”
6. The policeman said, “Children, don’t play on the road.”
7. I said to Sita, “Am I late ?
8. He said to me, “Are you going to Jaipur ?”
9. The teacher said to the students, “Are the cows running?”
10. She said to him, “Will you go to school’?”
11. He said, “Can I sleep?”
1. The woodcutter said that he had found a gold box.
2. Vijay Singh told the villagers that the giant had been very weak.
3. The serpent asked the dove if she wanted to save her children.
4. The Principal asked me if I had attended the school the previous day.
5. The stranger asked me what my name was.
6. The policeman forbade the children to play on the road.
7. I asked Sita if I was late.
8. He asked me if I was going to Jaipur.
9. The teacher asked the students if the cows were running,
10. She asked him if he would go to school.
11. He asked if he could sleep.