(a) Read the following sentences :
1. Apporva is an intelligent boy. (What kind of boy?)
2. I don’t like that house. (Which house?)
3. I have five books. (How many books?)
4. There is little time left. (How much time?)
In sentence 1, ‘intelligent’ shows what kind of boy Apporva is.
In sentence 2, ‘that’ points out which house is meant.
In sentence 3, ‘five’ shows how many books I have.
In sentence 4, ‘little’ shows how much time is left.
Definition. A word used with a noun to describe it (kind, place, number,
The word ‘adjective’ means ‘added to’.
(b) Look at the following sentences :
1. The boy is hardworking.
2. The hardworking boy stood first.
In both these sentences, hardworking describes the boy. Hence it is ad¬jective in both the sentences.
In the first sentence ‘hardworking is used along with the verb ‘is’ and is a part of the predicate. It is therefore said to be used predicatively.
In the second sentence, ‘hardworking’ is used along with the noun ‘boy’ le., as an attribute of the boy. It is therefore said to be used attributively.
Kinds of Adjective
(c) Adjectives are of three kinds :
- Adjective of Quality
- Adjective of Quantity
- Adjective of Number (also known as Numeral Adjective).
(d) Adjective of Quality :
It shows the quality of a person or thing.
Kolkata is a big city.
Dr. Singh is an honest man.
The foolish man died of his folly.
This book is of English language.
Adjectives of Quality answer the question : of what kind ?
(e) Adjective of Quantity :
It shows the quantity of the noun it describes.
He has some sense.
Ram had much patience.
He has little intelligence.
He has enough money.
He has no wisdom.
Adjective of Quantity answers the question : How much ?
(f) Adjective of Number :
It gives the number of persons or things.
There are Jive rooms in this house.
Few people can remain hungry.
There are no books in this room.
All men must die.
Most of these mangoes are ripe.
Adjective of Number answers the question : How many ?
There are ten words given in the box and there are ten sentences. Place these words in those sentences (one each). The words should be used as adjectives.
1. There are boys in the field.
2. I like a pen.
3. It’s a tree.
4. The ship sustained damage.
5. It is the book you gave me.
6. He is a man of few.
7. This is a wire.
8. She has hair.
9. I have read book.
10. She is Mohini nor Sheela.
1. several boys
2. a fine pen
3. a tall tree
4. heavy damage
5. book that you
6. of few words
7. a live wire
8. long hair
9. every book
10. neither Mohini
Comparison Of Adjectives
Degrees Of Adjectives
(a) Read these sentences :
1. My dress is good.
2. Your dress is better than mine.
3. Ram’s dress is the best of all.
In sentence 1, the adjective ‘good’ merely tells us that my dress has the quality of goodness without telling how much of this quality it has.
In sentence 2, the adjective ‘better’ tells us that ‘your dress’ compared to ‘mine’ has more of that quality of goodness.
In sentence 3, the adjective ‘best tells us that Ram’s dress has the great¬est amount of that quality of goodness.
Thus it is clear that an Adjective undergoes a change of form to show comparison.
The Adjective ‘good’ is said to be in Positive Degree.
The Adjective ‘better’ is said to be in Comparative Degree.
The Adjective ‘best’ is said to be in Superlative Degree.
Note. ‘Superlative Degree’ generally has the definite article ‘the’ before it. However, the Superlative with most is sometimes used without any idea of comparison. In that sense the speaker wants to indicate the possession of a quality in a very high degree. In such case ‘the’ is not used.
It is most unfortunate.
He made a most eloquent speech.
His style is most original.
This usage is called ‘Superlative of Eminence or the ‘Absolute Superlative’.
Formation if Comparative and Superlative
(a) Most adjectives of one syllable and some of more than one, form the comparative by adding ‘er’ and the superlative by adding est to the positive.
(b) When the Positive ends in ‘e’ only V and ‘sf are added.
(c) When the Positive ends in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant, ‘y’is changed into ‘f before adding ‘er’ or ‘est’.
(d) When the positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant preceded by a ing er and est. short vowel this consonant is doubled before add-
(e) Adjectives of more than two syllables form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive.
(f) The following Adjectives can take either er and est or more and most
He is the most cruel person
He is the cruellest person.
Question no. 2 is simpler than question no. 1.
Question no. 2 is more simple than question no. 1.
(g) The comparative is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person or thing.
He is more kind than rich.
He is kinder than rich.
In the case of some adjectives, the Comparative and Superlative Eire not formed from the positive.
Bad, evil, ill
Supply the correct form of the Adjectives given in brackets.
(a) Use later or latter in the following :
1. I prefer the ………….. proposal to the former.
2. They passed the ………….. proposal.
3. The ………….. part of the book is interesting.
4. Is there no ………….. news than yesterday’s.
(b) Use ‘older’ or ‘elder’.
1. He is my ………….. brother.
2. Ram is ………….. than Krishna.
3. The nephew is ………….. than his uncle.
4. He is ………….. than any other person present here.
(c) Use ‘nearest’ or ‘next’.
1. This is the ………….. shop to my house.
2. He sits ………….. to me in the class.
3. What are you going to do ………….. ?
4. The ………….. school is five kilometres from this village.
Supply the proper form (Comparative or Superlative) of the adjectives given in the brackets.
1. Is your father ………….. now. (well)
2. There is no animal ………….. than the dog. (faithful)
3. June is ………….. than April or May. (hot)
4. Her condition is now ………….. than what it was ? (bad)
5. She is ………….. than her sister. (pretty)
6. Sita is the ………….. of the two. (tall)
2. more faithful
Supply the correct form of the adjectives given in Comparative or Superlative) the brackets (Only the Comparative or Superlative)
1. He is the ………….. man of our city. (rich)
2. Who is the ………….. man of the 20th century ? (great)
3. Sheela is two years ………….. than Radha. (old)
4. Name the ………….. state of India. (large)
5. This patient needs a ………….. diet. (nutritious)
6. He is the ………….. friend I have. (good)
Supply suitable adjectives to fill in the blanks.
1. It was an …………….. question.
2. The …………….. woman lives in a hut.
3. This is a very …………….. matter.
4. It is a …………….. lie.
5. The injured man needs …………….. advice.
6. You cannot have it …………….. ways.
Multiple Choice Questions
Read the statements given below and tick the correct option :
I. Identify the degree of comparison :
This is the tallest building
(iv) None of the above
Her dress is as good as mine
(iv) Both (i) and (iii)
His brother is taller than he is
(iv) None of the above
II. Fill in the blanks :
The weather is …………. today
(iv) none of the above
This shop is the ………….. to my house
III. Choose the correct option :
(i) It is a lively tree
(ii) It is a tall tree
(iii) It is a studious tree
(iv) It is a standard tree
(i) Intelligent men must die
(ii) Big men must die
(iii) All men must die
(iv) Short men must die
(i) He has black wisdom
(ii) He has no wisdom
(iii) He has good wisdom
(iv) He has small wisdom
(i) The injured man needs much advice
(ii) The injured man needs few advice
(iii) The injured man needs least advices
(iv) The injured man needs many advice
(i) I wish to wear stout pants
(ii) 1 wish to wear thin pants
(iii) I wish to wear sweet pants
(iv) I wish to wear loose pants