Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World

Question 1.
Which of the following does not lead to the spread of democracy?
(a) Struggle by the people.
(b) Invasion by foreign countries,
(c) End of Colonialism.
(d) People’s desire for freedom.
Answer:
(b) Invasion by foreign countries

Question 2.
Which of the following statements is true about today’s world?
(a) Monarchy as a form of government has vanished.
(b) The relationship between different countries has become more democratic than ever before.
(c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people.
(d) There are no more military dictators in the world.
Answer:
(c) In more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people.

Question 3.
Use one of the following statements to complete the sentence:
Democracy in the international organisations requires that
(a) The rich countries should have a greater say.
(b) Countries should have a say according to their military power.
(c) Countries should be treated with respect in proportion to their population.
(d) All countries in the world should be treated equally.
Answer:
(d) All countries in the world should be treated equally.

Question 4.
Based on the information given in this chapter, match the following countries and the path democracy has taken in that country.

Country

Path to Democracy

(a) Chile

(i) Freedom from British colonial rule

(b) Nepal

(ii) End of military dictatorship

(c) Poland

(iii) End of one party rule

(d) Ghana

(iv) King agreed to give up his power

Answer:
(a)
 (ii)
(b) (iv)
(c) (iii)
(d) (i)

Question 5.
What are the difficulties people face in a non-democratic country? Give answers drawing from the examples given in this chapter.
Answer:
Citizens of non-democratic countries face a lot of difficulties. These are listed below:

  1. They are not allowed to choose their leader or raise a voice against changing their leader.
  2. They aren’t entitled to form political parties without the consent of the one in power. They do not have the rights to form independent trade unions or are allowed to strike.
  3. They do not enjoy the right to freedom of speech and expression because there is a possibility that people can be arrested for any trivial matter.
  4. For example, the military coup of 1973 in Chile and the Communist government in Poland, which ruled till 1990, are examples of oppressive undemocratic rule.

Question 6.
Which freedoms are usually taken away when a democracy is overthrown by the military?
Answer:
When democracy is overthrown by the military, freedom is curbed and the following incidents are usually witnessed:

  1. The military does whatever it wishes to do and no one has the authority to question them.
  2. The military government tortures harass, imprisons, and also kills people who had gone against them during their takeover. Moreover, citizens are not allowed to show displeasure against any of their policies.
  3. People are barred from expressing their opinions freely, from forming any trade unions or even having the right to vote.

Question 7.
Which of the following positions can contribute to democracy at the global level? Give reasons for your answer in each case.
(a) My country gives more money to international institutions. Therefore, I want to be treated with
more respect and exercise more power. .
(b) My country may be small or poor. But my voice must be heard with equal respect because these decisions will affect my country.
(c) Wealthy nations will have a greater say in international affairs. They cannot let their interests suffer just because they are outnumbered by poor nations.
(d) Big countries like India must have a greater say in international organisations.
Answer:
(b)
 Because in a democracy all nations must have equal powers while the rest of the statements support the rich and the developed nations. They cannot contribute to democracy on a global level.