Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization
What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?
The following developments helped in the modernization of Japan before the Meiji restoration:
- Peasants were not allowed to carry arms, only Samurai could carry swords now.
- Growth of population led to the growth of commercial economy.
- Efforts were made to develop silk industry.
- People developed reading habits.
- The export of precious metals restricted.
- Theater and arts were patronized in towns.
- Land surveys were made.
Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed?
Earlier in Japan, the patriarchal household system prevailed. In it, many generations lived together under the control of the head of the family. New ideas of the family spread. People became more affluent. Homu, the new home was a nuclear family where husband and wife lived together. The new concept of domesticity generated demands for new types of domestic goods and new forms of farming.
How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?
The Qing dynasty could not meet the challenges posed by the Western powers. They utterly failed. The Qing dynasty also demanded change in the country. But they also failed in this endeavour.
What were the Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles?
The Three Principles were :
Answer In A Short Essay
Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialization lead to wars with its neighbors and destruction of the environment?
The rapid industrialization of Japan led to wars and destruction of the environment due to the following reasons:
- The development of industries affected the environment in many ways.
- It led to the exploitation of natural resources.
- To obtain raw material and for the consumption of furnished products the need of colonies was felt.
Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success?
It is true that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying basis for its current success. In 1925, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang-Kai- shek. Previously, the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. He tried his best to strengthen the rule of the Guomindang. But no initiatives were taken to achieve the three revolutionary principles of Sun Yat-sen, i.e. nationalism, democracy and socialism. He also made an attempt to raise a new class of landlords. They always exploited the peasantry. Mao Zedong, a Communist leader formed the Red Army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. He became its chairperson in 1930. He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. He defeated Chiang’s army four times. But for the fifth time, he left the idea of war and started the Long March.
Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan in 1935. It was his opinion that his struggle against Japan would make his mass movement more effective. He suggested that a United Front be formed in collaboration with Red Army. But Chiang completely denied his proposal and he was imprisoned by his own soldiers. The increasing power of Mao Zedong worried Chiang-Kai-shek. He was not interested in working with him. Even then he came with Mao in the war against Japan. After the end of war, Mao put the proposal of coalition govt before Chiang but he declined. Mao continued his struggle and was elected the chairman of the Chinese govt.
Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. After many persuasions he became ready to stand by Mao against Japan. In 1949, Chiang fled to Farmosa to seek asylum. Mao was elected the Chairman of the Chinese government. He held his office till his death.
More Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Why did Britain sign the Anglo-Japanese treaty of 1902 ? What was the importance of this treaty for Japan ? (HOTS)
Britain signed the Anglo-Japanese treaty of 1902 to check Russian influence in China. By signing this treaty, Japan was also recognized as an imperialist power.
Who was the President of Chinese Revolutionary League ? What were its principles?
Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the President of Chinese Revolutionary League. The three guiding principles of this league were-nationalism, democracy and socialism.
What do you know about Shoguns?
Shoguns were rulers in the name of the emperors. They enjoyed the right of the kings and had the power to control over cities.
What do you know about Comintern?
Comintern stands for Communist International. Its main aim was to carry out socialist revolution and to end exploitation.
How long the Tukugawa rule lasted in Japan?
They ruled from 1603-1807.
When was Olympic Games organised in Japan?
In 1964, Olympic Games were organised in Tokyo.
What is the meaning of Dim sum?
Dim sum is the best known Cantonese cuisine, which literally means ‘touch your heart’.
What do you know about commodore Matthew Perry?
Matthew Perry was an American naval officer, who was sent to Japan in 1853 by American government. He was sent their to sign a treaty that would permit open trade and diplomatic relations.
What do you know about Meiji Restoration?
After abolishing Tokugawa rule in Japan in 1868, Mutsuhito was given the title of Meiji which means enlightened ruler. This event is known as Meiji restoration in the history of Japan.
Write any two military reforms of Meiji era.
- Army was more powerful.
- All the youths above 20 had to serve for a certain period in the army.
Which two famous commercial companies were set up in Japan during Meiji period?
The two famous commercial companies set up in Japan during Meiji period were- (.i) Mitsubishi (ii) Sumitomo
When was First Opium War fought? With which treaty did it ends?
First Cpium War was fought between China and England in 1842. England won ihir, war. This war came to an end with the treaty of Nanking.
What do you know about Confucianism?
Confucianism was mainly concerned with the teachings of Confucius and his disciples. It laid emphasis on good conduct, wisdom and social relationships. It also influenced the Chinese attitude towards life.
What do you know about Zaibastu?
Large business organisations controlled by individual families in Japan were known as Zaibastu.
What do you know about Miyake Setsurei?
Miyake Setsurei was a famous Japanese philosopher, who argued that each nation must develop its talent in the interest of world civilisation.
Why did America want to colonise Japan? Give two reasons.
- America wanted to colonise Japan because the USA saw the route to China as a world market.
- America wanted to provide station for the refueling of their ships while in Pacific Ocean.
Write any two reforms initiated by America in China.
- Heavy industries were encouraged.
- Modem education was introduced in China.
Who was Chiang Kai-shek? What did he tell about women?
Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the Guomindang. He told women to cultivate the virtues of chastity, appearance, speech and work.
Narrate any two changes that came in the daily life of the people of Meiji period.
- The concept of nuclear family became popular.
- Japanese used to wear western style of clothing.
What is meant by the slogan ‘Fukoku Kyohei’?
The slogan ‘Fukoku Kyohei’ meant ‘rich country, strong army\ It was given in Japan under the Meiji rule.
What do you mean by “The Great Leap Forward Movement”?
“The Great Leap Forward Movement” was launched in 1958. It was a policy to galvanise the country for rapid
How did Japan escape colonisation, according to Nishitam Keiji?
‘Moral energy’ helped Japan to escape colonisation.
Write any two ways to depict how China was influenced by Japan.
- To train its citizens in modem subjects and ideas. Students now went to England, Japan and France to acquire modem education.
- Many Chinese became republicans under the Japanese influence.
When was Hong Kong returned to China by Britain?
Hong Kong was returned to China to Britain in 1997.
Who is unanimously regarded as the founder of modem China?
Sun Yat-sen is unanimously regarded as the founder of modem China.
What do you know about Naito Konan?
He was a Japanese scholar. He established Department of Oriental Studies in Kyoto University in 1907.
Who spoke these words, “Freedom is more precious than order.”
These words were spoken by Ueki Emori, the leader of Popular Rights Movement .
Mention the names of two Qing reformers. What sort of contribution did they make to strengthen the Chinese system?
- Kang Youwei
- Liang Qichao
They played an important role in establishing a modern administrative system, new army and an educational system. They also established local assemblies to establish constitutional government.
The movement of May 4 is significant for China. Why?
On May 4, 1919, a movement was launched in China. It was instrumental in the formation of Communist Party in China. Students played a significant role in it.
Short Answer Type Questions
When was Guomindang Party formed? What were its objectives?
The Guomindang Party of China was established in 1912 by a nationalist leader. Dr. Sun Yat-sen. It had three objectives:
- To liberate China from the foreign domination.
- To establish modem democratic institutions in China.
- To liberate the peasants from the clutches of the feudal lords by introducing reforms.
Guomindang became popular under Dr. Sun Yat-sen. The objectives of this party had almost the same to that of Communist Party established in 1921. But soon there emerged differences between the two parties. Sun Yat-sen died in 1925 and the leadership of the Guomindang Party passed into the hands of Chiang-Kai-shek. He committed atrocities on the Communists. The Communist leader Mao Tse-tung was compelled to undertake his 6000 miles Long March to increase his influence in North China. In October 1949, he drove away Chiang-Kai-shek to the Island of Formasa (Taiwan) and established Communist rale in China.
Discuss the reasons for the failure of Mao’s Great Leap Forward.
The reasons for the failure of Mao’s Great Leap Forward were as follows:
- To enhance the production of crops new agricultural techniques were adopted. The technique was quite faulty. Seeds were sown into the soil beyond their capacity.
- Wheat and maize were grown on the same field. This approach proved futile.
- The officials installed irrigation projects at the wrong places which caused massive erosion.
- The cultivation of other essential crops and vegetables was nil.
Did Deng raise Chinese people’s expectations?
Undoubtedly, Deng raised the Chinese people’s expectations. The people of Beijing and other cities organized demonstrations on a wide scale in the November of 1978. These prompted the government to ban marches. To counter this, the people built ‘Democracy Walls’ all over China. On the walls, people pasted anonymous posters and thus demanding a wide range of human rights. Deng did not approve of this. He said “Without the party China will retrogress into division and confusion”. Its leaders were treated as dissidents. Main leaders were arrested and put behind the bar.
What do you understand by ‘Open Door Policy’?
The United Stated of America adopted the open door policy in China. European powers made preparations for the partition of China in the 1890’s. The USA felt that it would be left out. So the US proposed the “Open Door Policy” or “Me too policy”. It meant that no country should be discriminated against China by other countries. All countries would have equal trade rights in China. Britain also supported “Open Door Policy”.
Discuss the essential features before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly.
The essential features before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly are as follows:
- The Meiji government made a new administrative structure by altering old villages and domain boundaries.
- The administrative unit had to have revenue adequate to maintain the local schools and health facilities, as well as serve as a recruitment centre for the military.
- It was mandatory for the age group above twenty to do the military service. Modem military force was developed.
- The military and the bureaucracy were also put under the direct control of the emperor.
- A legal system was also regulated. In all these measures, the government had to face stiff opposition.
Write in brief about Tiananmen Square Massacre.
The struggle for power broke out in China after the death of Mao Tse-tung. In this struggle, Deng Xioping emerged victorious. His liberal policies were fully opposed by the hardliners in the Communist Party. They were always putting pressure upon Deng to follow the rigid Communist policies. In 1988-89, Deng’s economic reforms proved a failure. The prices of the things went up. In May 1989, the students of Beijing assembled peacefully at the famous Tiananmen Square. They demanded more political reforms and democratic institutions to curb corruption in the party. They organised demonstrations to get their demands accepted. The students organised demonstrations on a large scale. But the government took it as a challenge and crushed the movement ruthlessly. Approximately, 3000 students were gunned down. This massacre was condemned all over the world, but the Communist Government in China did not pay attention to it.
The daily life of Japanese was transformed with the development of Japan. How?
The transformation of Japan into a modern society is reflected with changes in day- to-day life. Previously, the patriarchy system was prevalent. It comprised many generations living together under the same roof and under the control of the head of the family. But as the people became more affluent the new ideas of family also spread. In nuclear families the husband and wife lived together. They earned their livelihood and made home. The new concept of domesticity came into being. The demand for new types of domestic goods, family entertainments and new forms of housing also grew. The construction companies provided homes at cheap rates to the people.
Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialisation lead to wars with its neighbours and destruction of the environment?
With the rapid industrialisation, a number of industries were set up. The size of factories also began to increase. Numerous workers were employed in the factories. In 1909, only 1000 workers were employed in the factories. By 1930s, it increased upto 4000. There were numerous factories that employed less than 5 people. With the increase in number of factories the demand for natural resources like timber grew. It led to environmental destruction. Tanaka Shozo launched the first agitation against industrial pollution in 1897 with 800 villagers in a mass protest forcing the government to take action.
What do you know about Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles?
The Manchu empire was overthrown. Republic was established under Sun Yat-sen in 1911. SunYat-sen (1866-1925) is unanimously regarded as the founder of modem China. He belonged to a very poor family and studied in missionary schools. He was introduced to democracy and Christianity. He studied medicine. But he was greatly concerned about the fate of China. His programme was called the Three Principles (San min chui). These were:
- Nationalism. It meant overthrowing the Manchu who were seen as a foreign dynasty, as well as other foreign imperialists.
- Democracy: It meant the establishment of democratic government.
- Socialism: It meant regulating capital and equalizing landholdings.
How did the Japanese cities become bigger? Discuss its significance.
With the increase in population, cities became bigger. Edo (now known as modem Tokyo) became the most populated city in the world. Osaka and Kyoto also emerged as larger cities. There were six costly towns whose population was more than 50,000. Its significance may be enumerated in the following ways:
- With the emergence of big cities commercial economy grew. It created financial system.
- Vibrant culture bloomed in cities.
- Theatre and arts were patronised.
- People were interested in reading and writing.
Japan was considered rich. Why?
Japan was considered rich because of the following:
- Japan imported luxury goods like silk from China and textiles from India.
- Imports of gold and silver strained the economy. It led Tokugawa to impose restrictions on the export of precious metals.
- Japanese also took steps to develop the silk industry in Nishijin in Kyoto. It was done to reduce imports. The silk of Nishijin is considered to be the best in the world.
- Increased use of money and the creation of a stock market show that the economy was developing at fast pace.
Mention a few features of the new constitution of Japan of 1889.
A few features of the new constitution of Japan of 1889 are as follows:
- The emperor occupied an important place in Japan. He was considered to be the representative of God. All the ministers were appointed by him and they were accountable to the emperor.
- The Parliament of Japan was known as Diet. It had limited powers. Military had immense power. In due course of time, Diet came under the influence of military.
- Police had enough power. They had the power to control press, to put ban on public meetings and demonstrations.
- Only 3% people had the right to use their franchise.
What do you understand by the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution?
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution of 1965 was the result of the conflict between the Maoists and those who objected his ideology. Students and the army started a campaign against old culture and customs. Students and professionals were sent to distant areas to learn from the common people. It was more important to be a communist. With cultural revolution, there was a complete turmoil in the country. Economic and educational system were disrupted.
The rebuilding of the Japanese economy after its defeat was considered to be a post¬war ‘miracle’. Why?
The rebuilding of the Japanese economy after its defeat was considered to be a post-war ‘miracle’ due to the following reasons:
- The Japanese had a historic tradition of popular struggles and intellectual engagement how to broaden political participation.
- The social cohesion of the previous years was strengthened. It allowed for a close working of the government, bureaucracy and industry.
- US support, as well as the demand created by the Korean and the Vietnamese wars also helped the Japanese economy.
Today, as a developed country, Japan faces the challenge of using its political and technological capabilities to maintain its position as a leading world power. Elaborate this statement.
1960’s saw the growth of civil society movements as industrialization had been pushed with utter disregard to its effect on health and the environment. Cadmium poisoning, which led to a painful disease, was an early indicator. It was followed by mercury poisoning in Minamata in the 1960’s and problems caused by air pollution in the early 1970’s. Grassroots pressure groups began to demand recognition of these problems as well as compensation for the victims. Government action and new legal regulations helped to improve conditions. From the mid 1980s there had been an increasing decline in environmental issues as Japan enacted some of the strictest environmental controls in the world.
What were the achievements of People’s Republic of China?
In 1949, the govt, of People’s Republic of China was established. It was based on the principles of New Democracy which was an alliance of all social classes. The govt, had complete control over the economy. Land holdings were also removed. Private industries were also removed. In the meanwhile, the Great Leap Forward movement was launched in 1958. It was launched to make industrialization in the country at a fast pace. People were encouraged to set up steel furnaces at the backyard of their homes. In the rural areas of China, People’s communes were established which included people with land holdings.
What was the importance of Chinese Revolution of 1911?
The Chinese Revolution of 1911 brought the end of Manchu empire and establishment of Republic. The important thing about this revolution was that it was without any bloodshed. After this Chinese people got a constitution and declaration of sovereignty of people was made. This revolution also spread a sense of nationalism among the masses. The revolutionaries accepted Chiang Kai-shek as the president of Republic of China. So, we can say that the Chinese Revolution of 1911 was important in many ways.
What was ‘One Hundred Flowers Movement.’? Why did it fail ?
An important development in China was the ‘One Hundred Flowers Movement’. It started with a slogan of Mao, “Let a hundred flowers bloom”, as he wanted to be seen as a leader who was open to new ideas. Some people were unhappy with the ways of communist dictatorship though it being a genuine attempt at dialogue or reconciliation. When they started criticizing Mao did not tolerate this. Thus, the high sounding movement failed.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the important part of Meiji reform of the economy.
The important part of the Meiji reform was the modernisation of the economy. Following steps were taken for this:
- Japan’s first railway line, between Tokyo and the Port of Yokohama was built in 1870-72.
- Funds were raised by levying an agricultural tax.
- Textile machinery was imported from Europe and foreign technicians were also employed to train workers and also to teach in universities and schools. Japanese students were also sent to abroad.
- In 1872, modem banking institutions were also launched.
- Companies like Mitsubishi and Sumitomo were also helped through subsidies and tax benefits to become major shipbuilders so that Japanese trade was carried through Japanese ships.
- The number of industrial labourer in Japan was 700,000 in 1870 CE which reached upto four million in 1913. Most of the labourers worked in units having less than 5 people.
- By 1925, 21 per cent of the population lived in cities. By 1935, this figure had gone upto 32 per cent.
Japan’s transformation into a modem society can also be seen in the changes in everyday life. Comment.
Japan’s transformation into a modem society can also be seen as the changes in everyday life. Patriarchal system was in practice. The patriarchal household system comprised many generations living together under the control of the head of the house. More people became affluent. New ideas of the family spread. The new home (Homu as the Japanese say) was that of the nuclear family, where husband and wife lived as breadwinner and homemaker. This new concept of domesticity in turn generated demands for new types of domestic goods, new types of family entertainments, and new forms of housing. In the 1920’s, construction companies made cheap housing available for a down payment of200 yen and a monthly installment of 12 yen for ten years. It was at that time when the salary of a bank employee (a person with higher education) was 40 yen per month.
When was CCP founded? What was Russian influence in its formation? Discuss the role of Mao Zedong in it?
The CCP was founded in 1921 scon after the Russian Revolution. The Russian success exercised a powerful influence around the world and leaders such as Lenin and Trotsky went on to establish the Comintern or the Third International in March 1918. It was done to bring about a world government that would end exploitation. The Comintern and the Soviet Union supported Communist parties around the world. They worked within the traditional Marxist understanding that revolution would be brought about by the working class in cities. Its initial appeal across national boundaries was immense. It soon became a tool for Soviet interests and was dissolved in 1943. Mao Zedong (1893-1976), emerged as a major CCP leader. He took a different path by basing his revolutionary programme on the peasantry. His success made the CCP, a powerful political force that ultimately won against the Guomindang.
Mao Zedong’s radical approach can be seen in Jiangxi, in the mountains, where they camped from 1928 to 1934, secure from Guomindang attacks. A strong Peasants Council (Soviet) was organised, united through confiscation and redistribution of land. Mao, unlike other leaders, stressed the need for an independent government and army. He was quite aware of women’s problems and supported the emergence of rural women’s associations. He also promulgated a new marriage law that forbade arranged marriage, stopped purchase or sale of marriage contracts and simplified divorce.
How did Japan re-emerge as an economic power of world after the defeat in Second World War?
After its defeat in Second World War, the Japanese efforts of making a colonial empire ended. The nuclear bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It resulted in huge destruction of masses. Many people thought that it was done just to shorten the war. Japan was totally demilitarised during American occupation. The new constitution also came into being. Agricultural reforms were also done. Re-organisation of trade unions were also done. Political parties were also revived and the first post-war elections held in 1946 where women voted for the first time.
After the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, Japanese economy also revived. It grew at a fast pace. Constitution was also democratised. There was close relation between the government, bureaucracy and industry. American support to Japan strengthened its economy. Olympic Games were also held at Tokyo in 1964. It was the symbol of maturity of Japanese economy. Bullet trains were also started in 1964. It ran at the speed of200 miles per hour. The introduction of bullet train added a new feather in its cap. It also introduced better goods at cheaper rates in the market.
Discuss the achievements of Deng Xiaoping.
After the death of Mao in China, the struggle for power broke out in which Deng Xiaoping emerged victorious. During the cultural revolution, he was dismissed from the office of the Secretary General of the party for having too liberal views. His achievements may be summed up in the following ways:
- All the changes made during the cultural revolution were reversed.
- The democratically elected parties took the place of revolutionary committees.
- Confiscated property was restored to the descendants of the actual owners.
- The people were granted religious freedom and intellectuals were free to express their views.
- In the economic sector, Deng and his follower Hu Yaobang took various steps to encourage investment by the western entrepreneurs for the modernization of industries, agriculture, science and technology in China.
- In 1980, China also became the member of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
- Many agricultural reforms were also introduced.
- The state owned collective forms were given more powers in the matters of administration and planning.
- The practice of giving bonus and dividend was encouraged.
- Taxes were reduced to encourage production. As a result of these reforms, there was a gradual increase in food production and the per capita income.
Discuss the features of the nationalist movement in China during the post-First World War.
There were two governments in China after the end of the First World War. One of the government was controlled by Guomindang, at its headquarter in Canton. The president of this government was Dr. Sun Yat-sen. The other government was led by a military general. It had its headquarter at Beijing. Paris Peace Conference’s decision to hand over Shantung to Japan led to an anti-imperialist upsurge in 1919. A great demonstration was held in China on 4th May, 1919. It spread into various parts of China. It took the form of a movement. It’s main aim was to save China through modem science, democracy and nationalism. They wanted to remove inequality and reduce poverty. Their aim was also to bring economic development. The Russian Revolution had also a great impact on the nationalist movement of China. Communist Party was formed in 1921. Dr. Sun Yat-sen could not gamer the support of western countries. Therefore, he took the help of Soviet Union. The Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party came together in 1924. Military academy was also set up with the help of Soviet military and political advisers. The Chinese national revolutionary army launched its operations against the warlords.
Discuss the causes of the failure of nationalists against the communists.
Causes of the failure of nationalists:
- There was lack of unity among the members of Guomindang. They continued to quarrel among themselves and were corrupt too. On the contrary, the Communists were very disciplined.
- Chiang Kai-shek also failed to provide good leadership to the nationalists.
- The government set up by the nationalists failed to control the prices.
- Chiang Kai-shek followed the traditional method of rule. Therefore, his government could not gain popularity.
- Communists organised themselves into trained army. Therefore, they succeeded in defeating nationalists.
Discuss the causes of the decline of the Shoguns.
Causes of the decline of the Shoguns were the following:
- Shoguns followed the policy of favoritism.
- Only the members of the Tokugawa family were appointed to the post which spread the feelings of ill-will among other feudal lords, who resolved to bring an end to the Shogun’s rule.
- Japan’s economy received a severe blow due to the wrong economic policies of the Shoguns.
- The condition of the peasant was very miserable during their rule. Taxes were collected forcibly.
- A new class of merchant came into prominence. Feudal fraternity grew jealous of them. To put an end to their humiliation, the merchants wanted to do away with Shogun rule.
Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901):
Bom in an impoverished samurai family, he studied in Nagasaki and Osaka learning Dutch and Western sciences and, later, English. In I860, he went as a translator for the first Japanese embassy to the USA. This provided material for a book on the West, written not in the classical but in the spoken style that became extremely popular. He established a school that is today the Keio University. He was one of the core members of the Meirokusha, a society to promote Western learning.
In The Encouragement to Learning (Gakumon no susume, 1872-76) he was very critical of Japanese knowledge: ‘All that Japan has to be proud of is its scenery’. He advocated not just modem factories and institutions but the cultural essence of the West-the spirit of civilisation. With this spirit it would be possible to build a new citizen. His principle was: ‘Heaven did not create men above men, nor set men below men.’
(i) What do you know about Fukuzawa Yukichi?
(ii) What did he advocate?
(iii) Mention the name of the book in which he was critical of Japanese knowledge.
(i) Fukuzawa was a leading Meiji intellectual. He was one of the leading members of the Meirokusha, a society to promote western learning.
(ii) He advocated the adoption of the spirit of western civilization. It would help Japan to build a new citizen. He also advocated that God has not created superior or inferior mrui. All are equal before Him.
(iii) In ‘The Encouragement to Learning’ Fukuzawa Yukichi was critical of the Japanse language.
Tale of the Genji:
A fictionalised diary of the Heian court written by Murasaki Shikibu, the Tale of the Genji became the central work of fiction in Japanese literature. That period saw the emergence of many women writers, like Murasaki, who wrote in the Japanese script, while men wrote in the Chinese script, used for education and government. The novel depicts the romantic life of Prince Genji and is a striking picture of the aristocratic atmosphere of the Heian court. It shows the independence that women had in choosing their husbands and living their lives.
(i) What were the different scripts used by various writers?
(ii) What depicts the freedom of women?
(iii) Who wrote a fictionalised diary of the Heian court?
(i) Women writers wrote in Japanese script while male writers wrote in Chinese script. Chinese script was also used for education and administration work.
(ii) The right to choose their husbands and living their lives depict the freedom of women.
(iii) Murasaki Shikibu.
The Examination System:
Entry to the elite ruling class (about 1.1 million till 1850) had been largely through an examination. This required writing an eight-legged essay [pa-ku wen] in classical Chinese in a prescribed form. The examination was held twice every three years, at different levels and of those allowed to sit only 1-2 per cent passed the first level, usually by the age of 24, to become what was called ‘beautiful talent’. At any given time before 1850 there were about 526,869 civil and 212,330 military provincial (sheng-yuan) degree holders in the whole country. Since there were only 27,000 official positions, many lower-level degree holders did not have jobs. The examination acted as a barrier to the development of science and technology as it demanded only literary skills. In 1905, it was abolished as it was based on skills in classical Chinese learning that had, it was felt, no relevance for the modem world.
1. Write any two key features of Chinese examination system.
2. Why was this examination system abolished? Give two reasons.
3. How many civil and military provincial degree holders were in the whole country before 1850?
(i) Features of Chinese examination system were:
- It opened the entries to work as elite or ruling class.
- t was held twice every three years at different levels.
(ii) The system of examination was abolished in 1905 because of the following reasons:
- It was based on skills in classical Chinese learning, which was not relevant in the modem world.
- This system acted as a barrier to the development of scientific knowledge and technology.
(iii) Before 1850, there were about 526, 869 civil and 212, 330 military provincial degree holders in the whole country
On the map of China, mark and locate the main route of Long March.