Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following river is highly polluted?
(a) Brahmaputra
(b) Satluj
(c) Yamuna
(d) Godavari
Answer:
(c) Yamuna

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following diseases is caused by water pollution?
(a) Conjunctivitis
(b) Diarrhorea
(c) Respiratory infections
(d) Bronchitis
Answer:
(b) Diarrhorea

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following is the cause of acid rain?
(a) Water pollution
(b) Land pollution
(c) Noise pollution
(d) Air pollution
Answer:
(d) Air pollution

Question 1.(iv)
Push and pull factors are responsible for-
(a) Migration
(b) Land degradation
(c) Slums
(d) Air pollution
Answer:
(a) Migration

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
What is the difference between pollution and pollutants?
Answer:

Pollution

Pollutant

(i) Pollution is the addition of unwanted, harmful substances in the atmosphere in substantial amount over a considerable period of time.

(i) Pollutants are the substances which are unwanted, and harmful. They make the environment polluted.

(ii) It is the degradation of the quality of environment.

(ii) They degrade the quality of the environment.

(iii)Pollution is caused by pollutants.

(iii) Addition of pollutants is the cause of pollution.

Question 2.(ii)
Describe the major source of air pollution.
Answer:
Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel, industrial processes, solid waste disposal, sewage disposal, etc. are the major sources of air pollution because they add oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydro-carbons, ammonia, lead aldehydes, asbestos and helium in the atmosphere.

Question 2.(iii)
Mention major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India.
Answer:
Solid waste refers to a variety of old and used articles, For example stained small pieces of metals, broken glasswares, plastic containers, polythene bags, ashes, floppies, CD’s, etc. dumped at different places. Environmental pollution by solid wastes has now got significance because of enormous growth in the quantity of wastes generated from various sources. The huge turn out of ashes and debris from industries, thermal power houses and building constructions or demolitions have posed problems of serious consequences. Solid wastes cause health hazard through creation of obnoxious smell, and harbouring of flies and rodents, which act as carriers of diseases like typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria and cholera, etc.

These wastes cause frequent nuisance as and when these are carelessly handled, spread by wind and splittered through rain water. Concentration of industrial units in and around urban centres gives rise to disposal of industrial wastes. The dumping of industrial waste into rivers leads to water pollution. River pollution from city-based industries and untreated sewage leads to serious health problems downstream. 50 per cent of the waste generated are left uncollected which accumulate on streets, in open spaces between houses and in wastelands leading to serious health hazards. Untreated wastes ferment slowly and release toxic biogas to the atmosphere, including methane. Land is limited in urban centres so looking for landfill to dump the waste generated in urban centres is a major problem.

Question 2.(iv)
What are the effects of air pollution on human health?
Answer:
Air pollution is taken as addition of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be.harmful to flora and fauna and to property. It causes various diseases related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems. Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves very harmful to human health. It can also cause acid rain.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Describe the nature of water pollution in India.
Answer:
Water pollution is addition of unwanted and harmful material in the water which renders it harmful for the use of human and degrades the flora and fauna around it. Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led degradation of the quality of water considerably. Surface water available from rivers, canals, lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small quantities of suspended particles, organic and inorganic substances. When concentration of these substances increases, the water becomes polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of water is unable to purify the water.

Although water pollutants are also created from natural sources (erosion, landslides, decay and decomposition of plants and animals, etc.). Pollutants from human sources are the real causes of concern. Human beings pollute the water through industrial, agricultural and cultural activities. Among these activities, industry is the most significant contributor. Industries produce several undesirable products including industrial wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or lakes. Consequently, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which destroy the bio-system of these waters. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.

Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides are also pollution generating components. These chemicals are washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the ground water. Fertiliser induces an increase in the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs, tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In India, almost all surface water sources are contaminated and unfit for human consumption. Also the overutilization of groundwater resources in India has led to groundwater depletion and also increased concentration of Arsenic in many parts of West Bengal and Bihar.

Domestic waste which includes sewage and other household waste also adds on to the pollution of water. Water pollution is a source of various water borne diseases. The diseases commonly caused due to contaminated water are diarrhea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc. World Health Organisation shows that about one-fourth of the communicable diseases in India are water-borne.

Question 3.(ii)
Describe the problem of slums in India.
Answer:
Urban centers in India are more differentiated in terms of the .social-economic, politico-cultural and other indicators of development than any other areas. They represent social-economic disparities of highest order. On one hand are the highly posh areas with huge farm houses, wide roads, entertainment center and all amenities required for leading a luxurious life, on the other hand are the slum clusters, generally referred to as “jhuggi- jhopris-clusters and colonies of shanty structures. Those people who were forced to migrate from the rural areas to these urban centers in search of livelihood but could not afford proper housing due to high rent and high costs of land inhabit these slums. They occupy environmentally incompatible and degraded areas.

Slums are residential areas of the least choice, dilapidated houses, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, lack of basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities, etc. These areas are overcrowded having narrow street pattern prone to serious hazards from fire. Moreover, most of the slum population works in low paid, high risk-prone, unorganised sectors of the urban economy. Consequently, they are the undernourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness and can ill afford to give proper education to their children. The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and ultimately social exclusion.

Dharavi, which is the second largest slum of Asia, shows the extreme miserable and unhygienic conditions of existence. The area is devoid of sanitation and is infested by pests such as rats, causing miserable health conditions of the residents. The lanes of the slum are not wide enough to let a bicycle pass through them. People inhabiting the slum face chronic diseases- both communicable and the ones caused by deficiencies.
The lack of employment opportunities in the rural as well as urban areas of developing nations consistently push the population to urban areas.

The enormous migrant population generates a pool of unskilled and semi skilled labour force, which is already saturated in urban areas. People coming to the slums are affected by the several ills which cities of developing countries face. The available social and economic infrastructure is unable to absorb the additional population. Lack of education, employment and male selective migration tends to increase the crime rates. Due to failing infrastructure, people living in slums are devoid of minimum required quantity of potable water. An improper sewage system creates unhealthy conditions.Massive use of traditional fuel severely pollutes the air.

Question 3.(iii)
Suggest measures for reduction of land degradation.
Answer:
The pressure on agricultural land increases not only due to the limited availability but also by deterioration of quality of agricultural land. Soil erosion, water¬logging, salinisation and alkalinisation of land lead to land degradation. Though all degraded land may not be wasteland, but unchecked process of degradation may lead to the conversion to wasteland. There are two processes that induce land degradation. These are natural and created by human beings. National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) has classified wastelands by using remote sensing techniques and it is possible to categorizes these wastelands according to the processes that have created them. Some degradation which is caused by natural agents cannot be stopped altogether, but the degraded land can be revived through reclamation processes.

Land degradation like gullied/ ravenous land, desertic or coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping land, and glacial areas are primarily caused by natural agents. There are other type of degraded land such as waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity and land with or without scrub, which have largely been caused by natural as well as human factors. There are some other types of wastelands such as degraded shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands, are caused by human actions.

Land degradation caused by human activities can be controlled by regulating and improving land use practices. Shifting agriculture and open grazing causes a large area of land to be degraded, therefore shifting cultivation and open grazing should be strictly banned. Regulations on use of fertilizers and other chemicals on the agricultural land should be strengthened. Mining activities, deforestation all leads to land degradation, therefore government needs to put strict checks on these practices. The best way to put a check on the land degradation and land revival is by educating the inhabitants of the area and having community based programmes aimed at checking land degradation and reviving the degraded land. Under the various schemes of governments, and aid of NGOs the community is organized in such a way to use sustainable and organic agricultural practices.

Common property resource is revitalized, and its use is promoted. Planting patches of fodder grass so as to limit open grazing is a crucial step to curtail land degradation. Social fencing of the land leads to feeling of responsibility among the people and therefore protection of land. Therefore community participation with public- government participation is. the best method to contain land degradation. The best example from India for.revival of degraded land is of the Jhabua district in the westernmost agro-climatic zone of Madhya Pradesh.

Extra Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by environmental pollution?
Answer:
Environmental pollution results from ‘the release of substances and energy from waste products of human activities.

Question 2.
In how many categories is pollution divided on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported?
Answer:
There are many types of pollution on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused:

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Land pollution
  • Noise pollution

Question 3.
What do you mean by water pollution?
Answer:
Deterioration in quality of water due to presence of waste, toxic chemicals, etc. water becomes unfit for use. They are difficult to remove by standard purification measures. Flourides, e-coli from wastes are examples of water pollution.

Question 4.
What are the main sources of water pollution? .
Answer:
Water pollutants are created by natural sources like soil erosion, landslides, decay and decomposition of plants and animals,
etc. But the main pollutants come from human sources which includes polluting the water through industrial, agricultural and cultural activities. Human causes are the real causes of concern.

Question 5.
What is meant by air pollution?
Answer:
Air pollution is taken as addition of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to the air in substantial proportion and duration that may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.

Question 6.
Name the diseases caused by air pollution.
Answer:
It causes various respiratory diseases like asthma, sore throat, sneezing, allergic rhinitis, smoky fog over the cities commonly known as smog prevails which may lead to accidents.

Question 7.
What do you mean by noise pollution?
Answer:
Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable and uncomfortable to human beings which is caused by noise from different sources. The level of steady noise is measured by sound level expressed in terms of decibel (dB).

Question 8.
Which physical disorders take place due to noise pollution?
Answer:
Hearing problems, headache, anxiety, irritation, depression, digestive disorder, etc.

Question 9.
What health problems are caused by solid waste?
Answer:
Solid wastes cause health hazard through creation of obnoxious smell, and harbouring of flies and rodents, which act as carriers of diseases like typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria and cholera, etc.

Question 10.
What are the main causes of migration from rural area to urban area?
Answer:
Population flow from rural to urban areas is caused by many factors:

  • High demand for labour in urban areas.
  • Low job opportunities in rural areas.
  • Imbalanced pattern of development between urban and rural areas.

Question 11.
What do you mean by slums?
Answer:
“Slums”, jhuggi-jhopari” are clusters and colonies of shanty structures. These are inhabited by those people who were forced to migrate from the rural areas to these urban centers in search of livelihood but could not afford proper housing due to high rent and high costs of land. They occupy environmentally unfriendly areas.

Question 12.
What do you mean by land degradation?
Answer:
Land degradation is generally understood either as a temporary or a permanent decline in productive capacity of the land.

Question 13.
Which human action brings reduction in land productivity?
Answer:
Shifting cultivation area, degraded land under plantation crops, degraded forests, degraded pastures, and mining and industrial wastelands, are causes of land degradation by human action.

Question 14.
What per cent of agricultural land in India is barren and uncultivable waste and degraded land?
Answer:
17.98% of total geographical area of land in India is barren and un¬cultivable waste and degraded land for which natural and human actions are responsible.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the effects and remedies for air pollution.
Answer:
Effects of Air Pollution:

  • It causes various respiratory diseases like asthma, sore throat, sneezing, allergic rhinitis, smoky fog over the cities commonly known as smog prevails which may lead to accidents.
  • Air pollution also causes acid rain.
  • It leads to global warming which creates variation in the rhythmic cycle of seasons.
  • Depletion of the ozone layer is the result of excessive chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • It is also responsible for the various skin diseases like, itching of eyes, pimples, etc.

Measures to curb Air Pollution:

  • Promote afforestation
  • Use electrical appliances with four star or five star ratings.
  • Use CNG for automobiles.
  • Proper chimney should be installed.

Question 2.
Describe the sources of air pollution in India.
Answer:
Air Pollution: Increased concentration of contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, odour and smoke in the air causes pollution. This concentration may be harmful to flora, fauna and to property.
Sources of Air Pollution:

  • Increased use of variety of fuels such as coal, petrol and diesel.
  • Increased emission of toxic gases from industrial activities into the atmosphere.
  • Mining activities release the dusts which pollute the air.
  • Important pollutants are oxide of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead andasbestos

Question 3.
What are the sources of pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna? Also give its polluted stretch.
Answer:
Sources of pollution in Ganga and Yamuna:

  • Domestic and industrial effluents.
  • Dumping and carcasses in the river.
  • Domestic waste from urban centres.
  • Agricultural run-off.
  • Extraction of water for irrigation purpose.
  • Industrial pollution in the cities like Kanpur, Agra, Mathura, Varanasi and Delhi. The polluted stretch of the river Ganga: Downstream of Kanpur, Varanasi, Farakka barrage. The polluted stretch of the riVer Yamuna: Delhi, Mathura and Agra.

Question 4.
Which problems have arisen due to increasing urban population?
Answer:
Some problems have arisen due to increasing urban population:

  • Congestion
  • Overcrowding
  • Inadequate facilities to support the fast growing population and consequent poor sanitary conditions and foul air.
  • Environmental pollution by solid wastes has now got significance because of enormous growth in the quantity of wastes generated from various sources,
  • Urban waste disposal.
  • Increasing number of slums.

Question 5.
Urban waste disposal is a serious problem in India. Why?
Answer:
In metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, etc. about 90 per cent of the solid waste is collected and disposed. But in most of other cities and towns in the country, about 30 to 50 per cent of the waste generated are left uncollected which accumulate on streets, in open spaces between houses and in wastelands leading to serious health hazards. These wastes should be treated as resource and utilized for generating energy and compost. Untreated wastes ferment slowly and release toxic biogas to the atmosphere, including methane.

Question 6.
Write a note on the life of people living in slums.
Answer:
Slums are residential areas of the least choice, dilapidated houses, poor hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, lack of basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities, etc. Most of the slum population works in low paid, high risk- prone, unorganized sectors of the urban economy. Consequently, they are the undernourished, prone to different types of diseases and illness and can ill afford to give proper education to their children. The poverty makes them vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and ultimately social exclusion.

Question 7.
What are the main sources of noise pollution?
Answer:
The main sources of noise pollution are various factories, mechanized construction and demolition works, automobiles and aircraft’s, etc. There may be added periodical but polluting noise from sirens, loudspeakers used in various festivals, programmes associated with community activities.

In sea traffic, the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading activities being carried. Industries cause noise pollution but with varying intensity depending upon the type of industry.

Question 8.
Why are rural areas important for urban centers?
Answer:
Rural areas are important for urban areas because they provide labour for industrial development and for tertiary activities. At present, 47 per cent of the world’s six billion population lives in cities and more will join them in near future. This proportion is estimated to go up to 50 per cent by 2008. By 2050, an estimated two-thirds of the world’s population will live in urban areas, imposing even more pressure on the space infrastructure and resources of cities, which are manifested in terms of sanitary, health, crime problems and urban poverty.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
The largest slum Dharavi exhibits many contradictory elements. What are these? Explain.
Answer:
Dharavi is Asia’s largest slum. There are many contradictory elements.
Negative versus positive aspect of the slum:

  • Only one main road traverses the slum, the miscalled ‘ninety-foot road’, which has been reduced to less than half of that for most of its length.
  • Some of the side alleys and lanes are so narrow that not even a bicycle can pass. The whole neighborhood consists of temporary buildings, two or three storeyed high with rusty iron stairways to the upper part, where a single room is rented by a whole family, sometimes accommodating twelve or more people.
  • On the one hand, in this place of shadowless, treeless sunlight, uncollected garbage, stagnant pools of foul water, where the only non-human creatures are the shining black crows and long grey rats, on the other hand, some of the most beautiful, valuable and useful articles in India are made. From Dharavi come delicate ceramics and pottery, exquisite embroidery and zari work, sophisticated leather goods, high-fashion garments, finely-wrought metalwork, delicate jewellery settings, wood carvings and furniture that would find its way into the richest houses, both in India and abroad.

Question 2.
State any four pressing environmental concerns of India.
Answer:
Four pressing environmental concerns in India are:

  • Water Contamination: In India drinking water is getting contaminated due to industrial waste. It is leading to water¬borne diseases.
  • Air Pollution: Due to urbanisation, the number of vehicles on Indian roads is increasing continously. Number of motor vehicles has increased from 3 lakh in 1951 to 67 crores in 2003. India is one of the ten most industrialised nations of the world but it has happened at the cost of environment which is irreversible.
  • Deforestation: India’s forest cover is dwindling continuously due to increasing demand by increasing population. It is increasing air pollution and the problems associated with it. Per capita forest land in India is only 0.08 hectare against a requirement of 0.47 hectare.
  • Land Degradation: Land degradation is happening because of loss of vegetation occurring due to deforestation, unsustainable fuel wood and fodder extraction, encroachment into forest lands, non adoption of adequate soil conservation measures, indiscriminate use of chemicals, improper planning and management of irrigation system. Certainly, correction of environmental degradation involves an opportunity cost in the form of adverse health conditions, poor quality of life in poor environmental conditions and expenditure by government on correcting the harm done by environment.

Higher Order Thinking Skills

Question 1.
What are the impacts of rural – urban migration in India?
Answer:
Positive Impacts:

  • Availability of cheap labour
  • Widening of outlook
  • Improvement in standard of living
  • Improved level of consumption
  • Development in their working skill Negative Impacts:
  • Rapid population growth in Mega cities,
  • Excessive pressure on land, housing and other amenities
  • Deterioration in civic amenities
  • Increase in anti-social activities
  • Environmental degradation

Question 2.
Why has the oceanic noise increased in the last forty years? Give reasons.
Answer:
A study by Scripps Institute of Oceanography has revealed that oceanic noise has increased tenfold since the 1960’s. The reasons are as:

  • It is due to the vast increase in the volume of global shipping trade.
  • The higher speed of vessels.
  • The population has increased around the globe in recent decades.
  • Increase in marine activity (exploration of petroleum and natural gas etc.; collection of marine food).
  • Increase in naval activities.

Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Mention any two cultural activities responsible for water pollution in India. (Delhi 2009)
Answer:
Pilgrimage and religious fairs.

Question 2.
Which is the main source of water¬borne diseases in India? Name any one water-borne disease. (A.I. 2009) (CBSE 2011)
Answer:
Water pollution is the main source of water-borne diseases in India. Diarrhoea is the main disease caused by polluted water.

Question 3.
Which is the main source of environmental pollution in India? (CBSE 2010)
Answer:
Human activities is the main source of environmental pollution in India.

Question 4.
Which city is the main polluter of River Yamuna? (Delhi 2010)
Answer:
Delhi.

Question 5.
Which source of pollution is responsible for acid rain? (CBSE 2011)
OR
What is the main cause of acid rain? (Delhi 2014)
Answer:
Air pollution is responsible for acid rain.

Question 6.
Name the two metropolitan cities which are the main polluters of river Ganga before it reaches Varanasi. (Delhi 2011)
Answer:
Kanpur, Allahabad.

Question 7.
Which is the most significant contributor of water pollution in India? (Foreign 2011)
OR
Mention any two sources of land pollution in India. (A.I. 2013)
Answer:
Industrial waste.

Question 8.
Which are the two major sources of land pollution in India? (Foreign 2011)
Answer:
Large scale use of chemicals in agriculture and industries as well as industrial wastes.

Question 9.
Name two diseases caused by use of contaminated water. (A.I. 2014)
OR
Which diseases may take place due to contaminated water? (CBSE 2005)
Answer:
Diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, cholera, jaundice, malaria, etc.

Question 10.
Mention the root cause of ‘acid rains’.
(Delhi 2014)
Answer:
Urban smog/Air pollution/Atmospheric pollution cause acid rain.

Question 11.
What is criterion for the classification of pollution? (Delhi 2015)
Answer:
Different types of pollution are classified on the basis of medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused.

Question 12.
Mention any two sources of water pollutants created by humans. (Delhi 2015)
Answer:

  • Sewage disposal.
  • Urban run-off.
  • Toxic effluents from industries.
  • Run-off over cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Examine any three causes for the deterioration of quality of water in India. (Al CBSE 2013)
Answer:
Causes:

  • Water gets polluted by foreign matters like chemicals, industrial waste etc.
  • Various types of chemicals used in modern agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers, pesticides, etc. are also pollution generating components.
  • Cultural activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs also cause water pollution.

Question 2.
Explain any three effects of air pollution on human life. (CBSE 2011)
OR
Explain three ill effects of air pollution on human health in India. (Delhi 2010)
OR
Explain any three consequences of air pollution. (A.1.2015)
Answer:
Effect of air Pollution on human are:

  • It causes various disease related to respiratory system, nervous and circulatory systems.
  • It causes smoky fog over cities called as urban smog which is very harmful to us.
  • It causes acid rain etc.

Question 3.
How has noise pollution become hazardous in many big cities of India? Explain with example. (CBSE 2009)
Answer:
The main source of noise pollution are:

  • Traffic noise is the biggest sources of air pollution as its intensity and nature depend upon the type of aircraft, vehicle, train and the condition of road.
  • In sea traffic, the noise pollution is confined to the harbour due to loading and unloading of goods being carried, (in) Noise pollution’s intensity declines with increase in distance from the source of pollution, i.e., industrial areas, arteries of transportation, airport, etc.

Question 4.
Explain any two major sources of air pollution in India? How is the air pollution harmful to human health? Explain. (CBSE 2008)
Answer:
Two major sources of air pollution in India are: Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel, mining, solid waste disposal, sewage, vehicles etc.
Effect of air pollution on human are:

  • It causes various disease related to respiratory system, nervous and circulatory systems.
  • It causes smoky fog over cities called as urban smog which is very harmful to us.
  • It causes acid rain etc.

Question 5.
Analyse any three major problems of slum dweller in India. (Delhi 2013)
OR
Describe any three major problems of slums in India. (Delhi 2014)
OR
Describe any three major problems of slums in India. (A.I. 2014)
Answer:

  • Their houses are dillapidated and poor hygienic conditions.
  • They have lack basic amenities like drinking water, light and toilet facilities.
  • These areas are over croweded having narrow street pattern prone to serious hazard from fire.

Question 6.
Mention any two sources of land pollution in India. (A.I. 2013)
Answer:

  • Improper human activities.
  • Disposed of untreated industrial .waste.
  • Use of pesticides and fertilizers.

Question 7.
How do industries pollute India’s water bodies? Explain with examples. (Delhi 2015)
Answer:
Industrial expansion has led degradation of the quality of water considerably. Industry is the most significant contributor of pollution. Industries produce several undesirable products including industrial waste, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust smoke etc. Most of the industrial wastes are disposed off in running water or lakes. As a result, poisonous elements reach the reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals.

Question 8.
“The urban waste should be properly treated as a resource for various needs of mankind.” Explain the values that can help in changing the urban waste into resources.
Answer:
About 90% of the solid waste is collected and disposed in some metropolitan cities. But in most of their cities and towns in the country, about 30 to 50% of the waste generated are left uncollected which accumulate on streets, in open spaces between houses and in wastelands leading to serious health hazards. These waste should be treated as resource and utilised for generating energy and compost. Untreated wastes ferment slowly and release toxic biogas to the atmosphere, including methane.

Question 9.
Examine the success of watershed management programme implemented in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. (A.I. 2016)
Answer:
Jhabua is a backward district in Madhya Pradesh with high tribal population. People suffer due to poverty caused by resource degradation. The watershed management programme funded by the GOI, has helped .in preventing land degradation and improving soil quality. It emphasized on the holistic development with community participation. The WSDP has treated 20% of the area in the district. The Bhils have revitalized large parts of community resource. Each household planted at least one tree. Stall feeding of cattle has been introduced and they have developed pastures which will sustain their cattle as well. The villagers are proud and confident of their common property resources.

Question 10.
“Air pollution is very harmful to flora, fauna and property.” Explain any three values which can help in maintaining pollution free air to some extent. (Delhi 2017)
Answer:
Values which can help in maintaining pollution free air:

  • Air pollution is harmful for environment and mankind, therefore, it is our responsibility to save air from pollution.
  • People should be aware of the harmful effects of air pollution.
  • People should feel duty bound to save air.
  • People must follow rules for saving air.
  • We must use eco friendly non-conventional sources of energy (Solar, Biogas and Wind energy) as conventional sources (Coal, oil and gas) are harmful.
  • People should feel duty bound to use public transport.
    (Any three points to be explained)

Question 11.
“Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led to degradation of the quality of water considerably.” Evaluate the statement. (Delhi 2018)
Answer:
Increasing population and industrial expansion are responsible for water pollution:

  • Domestic and sewage waste water remains untreated.
  • Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides in farming results in water pollution.
  • Cultural activities: fairs, tourism, pilgrimage, etc.
  • Industries produce many undesirable substances which pollutes water.
  • Chemical residues and toxins pollute water.
  • Major polluting industries are leather, pulp, paper, textiles, chemicals, etc.

Map Based Questions

Question 1.
Locate and label the following five features with appropriate symbols on the given political outline map of India. (Delhi 2017)
(i) The most urbanized state (2011).
(ii) The leading cotton producing state.
(iii) The Software Technology park located in Punjab.
(iv) The major coal field located in Chhattisgarh.
(v) The international airport located in Karnataka.
Answer:
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Map Based Questions Q1

Question 2.
Locate and label the following five features with appropriate symbols on the given political outline map of India. (A.I. 2017)
(i) The state having the highest density of population according to Census 2011
(ii) A leading rice producing state
(iii) The software technology park located in Gujarat
(iv) The major coal field located in Odisha
(v) An international airport located in Tamil Nadu
Answer:
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Map Based Questions Q2

Chapter 12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems