Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources
What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, or on an entire planet. There are millions of living organisms on planet earth. All these living organisms, including man, are interdependent on each other.
How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.
Cutting down of forests for agricultural expansion, large scale developmental projects, grazing and fuel wood collection and for urbanization has led to the depletion of flora and fauna.
Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?
In India many traditional communities still live in the forests and depend on their livelihood for forest produce. These communities are working hand in hand with the government to conserve forests.
In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers fought against mining activities. In Alwar district of Rajasthan, local communities belonging to five villages have set their own rules and regulations in 1,200 hectares of forest land. They have named it as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. Hunting is not allowed in these lands and outside encroachments are prohibited.
The famous Chipko movement was started in the Himalayan region to stop deforestation. People belonging to the local community took to afforestation in a big way. Indigenous species were cultivated and protected.
Involving local communities in protecting the environment, and stopping degradation of forests has reaped many benefits.
Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.
In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented. It made protecting specific habitats a law. A list of wildlife species that had to be protected was published and hunting these animals was against the law.
National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries were set up in many states to protect endangered species.
Under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several insects have also been included in the list of protected species. Butterflies, moths, beetles, dragonflies and even certain plants are included in the protected list.
“Project Tiger” was initiated in 1973 by the government of India to protect tigers. It is one of the most well publicized wildlife campaigns in the world.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which one of the following .s not considered a sacred tree in India [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
2. What was the aim of Chipko movement ? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Human rights
(b) Political rights
(c) Agricultural expansion
(d) Forest conservation
3. Which one of the following is an example of endemic species ? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Nicobar Pigeon
(b) Asiatic Buffalo
(c) Horn Bill
(d) Black buck
4. Which of these statements is not a valid reason for depletion of flora and fauna ?
(a) Agricultural expansion.
(b) Large scale developmental projects.
(c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.
(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.
5. Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation.
(a) Joint Forest Management
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Chipko Movement
(d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries
6. The total forest cover in the country is about …………….
7. Most of the forests in the North eastern states belong to the category of …………..
(b) Protected forests
(c) Unclassed forests
8. Endemic species refers to
(a) Species which are extinct.
(b) Species which are declining.
(c) Species which are confined to specific areas only.
(d) Species which are normal.
9. Periyar Tiger reserve is located in
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Tamil Nadu
10. ‘Chipko movement’ is a programme started towards conservation of …………….
11. IUCN refers to
(a) International Understanding and Convention of Nature
(b) International Unity and Conservation of Nature
(c) International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
(d) Indian Union for Conservation of Natural Beauty
12. Forests play a key role in the ecological system because
(a) it supports a large number of animals
(b) they are important for tourism.
(c) they are the primary producers on which all other living things depend.
(d) they provide us with many useful things.
13. The area of forest converted into agricultural land between 1951 to 1980 is about
(a) 25,000 sq. km.
(b) 20,000 sq. km.
(c) 23,000 sq. km.
(d) 26,200 sq. km.
14. The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal has been threatened about the loss of habitat of many species due to
(a) Industrial development
(b) Agricultural expansion
(c) Port activities
15. Which group of people in India are responsible for maximum ecological destruction ?
(a) richest 5 percent
(b) poorest 25 percent
(c) tribal communities
(d) slum dwellers
16. Indian Wildlife Protection Act was implemented mainly to
(a) protect certain animals.
(b) protect the remaining population of certain endangered species.
(c) protect the tigers.
(d) protect aquatic animals.
17. The hunting and trade of which animals have been given full or partial legal protection in India ?
(a) Indian lion
(b) Indian elephant
(c) Black buck (Chinkara)
(d) Great Indian bustard (Godawan)
18. In India, forest and wildlife resources are owned and managed by
(a) Private individuals
(c) The Government
19. Reserved forests refers to
(a) Forests protected from further depletion
(b) Forests meant for their valuable timber and other forest produce
(c) Conservation of some species
(d) Conservation of animals
20. The forests belonging to both government and private individuals and communities are called …………..
(a) Protected Forests
(b) Open Forests
(c) Unclassed Forests
(d) Reserved Forests
21. The Mundas and Santhals of Chhota Nagpur region worship which one of the following trees ?
22. Which one of the following is a farmers movement initiated in Tehri ?
(a) Tehri Andolan
(b) Beej Bachao Andolan
(c) Appease Movement
(d) Green Revolution
23. The main objective of Joint Forest Management programme is
(a) involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
(b) involving rich people in conservation of forests.
(c) involving backward communities to conserve wildlife.
(d) involving the farmers to plant trees.
24. What is the name given to the forests of God and Goddesses?
(a) Sacred Garden
(b) Sacred Groves
(c) Sacred Park
(d) Sacred Orchards
25. Which one of the following statements is not true with regard to depletion of flora and fauna ?
(a) Land required for housing
(b) Agricultural expansion
(c) Mining activities
(d) Shifting agriculture
26. Which one of the following is not a reason for environmental destruction ?
(a) Global warming
(b) Unequal access
(c) Over population
(d) Inequitable consumption of resources
27. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity because
(a) it has impoverished many indigenous and forest dependent communities.
(b) it has caused serious health problems for women.
(c) it has aggravated many natural hazards that affected the poor.
(d) All of the above
28. Which Wildlife Protection Act has included for the first time the list of protected species of plants ?
(a) Wildlife Protection Act of 1980
(b) Wildlife Protection Act of 1986
(c) Wildlife Protection Act of 1991
(d) Wildlife Protection Act of 1995
29. What is the position of India in the world in terms of bio-diversity ?
30. The present forest cover of India in terms of the total geographical area is
(a) 18 per cent
(b) 19.39 per cent
(c) 22 per cent
(d) 15 per cent
31. In which of the following states has the Joint Forests Management started ?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Arunachal Pradesh
32. Flora refers to
(a) Animal kingdom
(b) Plant kingdom
33. Immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function but closely integrated in a system is called
34. The total number of plant species in India is
35. The total number of animal species in India is
36. Species which are in danger of extinction are called ……………..
(a) Endemic Species
(b) Extinct Species
(c) Vulnerable Species
(d) Endangered Species
37. Species which are no longer found on the earth are called
(a) Normal Species
(b) Vulnerable Species
(c) Rare Species
(d) Extinct Species
38. Which one of the river valley projects has significantly contributed to the loss of forests ?
(a) Nagarjuna Sagar
(b) Narmada Sagar
(c) Nizam Sagar
(d) Rana Pratap Sagar
39. Which state of India has the maximum area under reserved forests ?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Himachal Pradesh
40. The state having highest percentage of protected forests is
(b) Tamil Nadu
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Jammu and Kashmir
41. Project Tiger was launched in the year
42. In which of the following states is the Corbett National Park
(a) West Bengal
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh