Chapter 4 Agriculture
(a) Describe any two features of Intensive Subsistence Farming.
(b) Which are rabi crops? Mention any two.
(c) What do you understand by leguminous crops?
(d) What is the Minimum Support Price of a crop?
- It is labour intensive farming.
- High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
(b) Crops sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June are Rabi crops,
(c) A crop that helps in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
(d) Minimum Support Price is the price at which FCI procures food grains from the farmers.
Answer the following questions in 30 words :
(1) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
(2) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
(3) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
(4) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
1. Important Beverage Crop and Conditions for its Growth: Tea is an important beverage crop. It is also a classic example of plantation agriculture.
2.The geographical conditions required for the growth of tea are as mentioned below :
- The tea plants grow well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter,
- The ideal temperature for its growth is 20 °C to 30 °C and an annual rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm.
- Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year,
- Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves,
- Tea is a labour-intensive crop. It requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
- Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness,
- Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Ketala are the leading tea-producing states,
- India is the leading producer as well as exporter of the tea in the world.
- Rice is one of the main staple food crops in India,
- It is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions i.e., West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu,
- In Punjab, Haryana, parts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh, it is grown with the help of irrigation with canals and tubewells.
Institutional reform programmes : India is an agriculture-based country. Agriculture provides livelihood for more than 60 per cent of its population. However lack of techno- institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development.
Thus collectivisation, consolidation of small holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari were given priority to bring about institutional reforms as mentioned below :
(1) Land reforms’ was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan. But these laws were not implemented properly. Thus, the Govt, of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s.
(2) The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution
(Operation Flood) were the strategies initiated to improve the agriculture. But this led to the concentration of development in few selected areas.
(3) Thus in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms as mentioned below :
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease was introduced.
- Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were established.
- Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) were introduced for the benefit of the farmers.
- Special weather bulletins for farmers were introduced on radio and television. Agricultural programmes were also introduced.
- The government announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen. It ensures minimum price for the crop grown by the farmers.
- Land under cultivation has got reduced day by day.
- The competition of land between non-agricultural uses such as industry, housing etc. and agriculture has resulted in reduction in the net sown area.
- The productivity of land has started showing a declining trend. Fertilisers etc. which were responsible for green revolution are not responsible for degrading the soils.
- Periodic scarcity of water has led to reduction in the area under irrigation.
- Inefficient water management has led to water logging and salinity.
- There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops and cultivation of fruits vegetables, oil seeds and industrial crops.
Consequences : It has the following consequences :
- This has led to the reduction in net sown area under cereals and pulses.
- With the growing population of India, the declining food production may create a problem over country’s future food security.
Answer the following questions in about 120 words :
(1) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
(2) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
(3) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
(1) The government took the following steps to ensure increase in agricultural production :
- The strategies of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were initiated to increase agricultural production,
- Provision for crop insurance, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest,
- In addition to above the Government ofUndia made efforts to modernise agriculture. Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centers, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast were given priority for improving agriculture,
- The rural infrastructure was also improved.
(2) The impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture. (Deleted)
(3) Geographical conditions for the growth of rice :
- It is a Kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25 °C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
- In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. For example, the development of dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers :
1. The two staple food crops of India.
2. This is the summer cropping season of India.
3. Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain………………..
4. It is a coarse grain.
5. The two important beverages in India are …………………..
6. One of the four major fibres grown on black soils.
- Rice and wheat
- Tea and coffee