Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 1.
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Thndra
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen
(d) Tropical Evergreen

(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm
(a) 100 cm

(iii) In which of the following states is the Simlipal’ bio-reserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal
(c) Odisha

(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserves?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda devi
(a) Manas

Question 2.
Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Define an ecosystem.
An ecosystem refers to all the plants, animals and human beings interdependent and interrelated to

(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
The factors that are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India are:

(a) Land: The nature of land influences the type of vegetation. Land which is flat is devoted to agriculture, undulating land encourages the growth of grass and woodlands where animals live.
(b) Soil: Different types of soils support different types of vegetation. Cactus and thorny bushes grow well in the desert, marshy deltaic soils and conical trees in the hill slopes.

(a) Temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth. Trees growth differ depending on where they are located in the mountains.
(b) The variation in the duration of sunlight affects the growth of trees. In summer trees grow faster as the sun shines for a longer time.
(c) Precipitation: Areas of heavy rainfall have denser vegetation than areas of less rain. There is a dense growth of trees in regions where the South West Summer Monsoons cause heavy rain e.g., windward slopes of the Western Ghats.

(iii) What is a bio reserve? Give two examples.
A bio reserve is an ecosystem having plants and animals of unusual scientific and natural instincts. These are preserved in their natural environment.

(iv) Name two animals having their habitat in montane and tropical types of vegetation.
The Tibetan antelope and the Kashmir stag have their habitat in the Montane vegetation. In the Tropical Evergreen Forests bats and sloths are found and in the Tropical Deciduous Forests, snakes and tortoises exist.

Question 3.
Distinguish between:

(i) Flora and Fauna
The word ‘flora’ is used to denote plants of a particular region or period and the species of animals are referred to as ‘fauna’.

(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forests.

Tropical Evergreen Forests are found in regions

  • where rainfall is very heavy, over 200 cm of rain.
  • forests appear green all the year round as the trees shed their leaves at different times of the year.
  • vegetation is luxuriant, multilayered and of great variety.
  • commercially important trees are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.
  • trees are tall and have straight trunks.

Deciduous Forests are also known as Monsoon Forests.

  • These are found where the rainfall is between 70 cm-200 cm.
  • Trees shed their leaves for about 6-8 weeks in the dry summer.
  • These forests are divided between Dry and Wet Deciduous Forests.
  • Wet Deciduous Forests are found in the northeast states, foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Odisha,
  • Chhattisgarh and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Important trees are bamboo, sal, shisham, Khair, Arjun, etc.
  • Dry Deciduous Forests are found in the plains of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and the rainier parts of the Deccan plateau.
  • Important trees are teak, sal, peepal, and neem. Trees have been cleared in some parts for cultivation and for grazing.

Question 4.
Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
The different types of vegetation found in India are

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests
  • Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
  • Montane Forests
  • Mangrove Forests

Vegetation of high regions: The vegetation changes according to the changes in temperature and rainfall in the mountainous regions.

  • At heights of 1000 – 2000 metres wet temperate types of forests is found. Trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
  • Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests with coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found. (Northeast India etc)
  • At high altitudes, Alpine vegetation is found. Important trees are silver fir, pines, and birches.
  • Shrubs and scrubs are merged into the Alpine grasslands and are used for grazing.

Question 5.
Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Many plants and animals are endangered in India due to a number of reasons:

  • Hunting of animals for commercial purposes.
  • Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits.
  • Introduction of alien species.
  • Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation.

As a result of these activities about 1300 plant species are endangered and 20 plants species have become extinct. Quite a few animal species are also endangered.

Question 6.
Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna due to a large variety in relief features, soil, temperature, rainfall and the length of the day which determines the hours of sunlight. Moreover, India is a very vast country

Map Skills

Question 7.
On an outline map of India, label the following.
(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife img-1

Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife