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Chapter 5 Working of Institutions

Question 1.
If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take on your own?
(a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
(b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
(d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

Question 2.
Who among the following is a part of the political executive?
(a) District Collector
(b) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
(c) Home Minister
(d) Director General of Police
Answer:
(c) Home Minister

Question 3.
Which of the following statements about the judiciary is false?
(a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court
(b) Judiciary can strike down a law if it goes against the spirit of the Constitution
(c) Judiciary is independent of the Executive
(d) Any citizen can approach the courts if her rights are violated
Answer:
(a) Every law passed by the Parliament needs approval of the Supreme Court

Question 4.
Which of the following institutions can make changes to an existing law of the country?
(a) The Supreme Court
(b) The President
(c) The Prime Minister
(d) The Parliament
Answer:
(d) The Parliament

Question 5.
Match the ministry with the news that the ministry may have released:

(a) A new policy is being made to increase the jute exports from the country.

(i) Ministry of Defence

(b) Telephone services will be made more accessible to rural areas.

(ii) Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Public Distribution

(c) The price of rice and wheat sold under the Public Distribution System will go down.

(iii) Ministry of Health

(d) A pulse polio campaign will be launched.

(iv) Ministry of Commerce and Industry

(e) The allowances of the soldiers posted on high altitudes will be increased.

(v) Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

Answer:
(a)—(iv), (b)—(v), (c)—(ii), (d)—(iii), (e)—(i)

Question 6.
Of all the institutions we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises the powers on each of the following matters.
(a) Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation etc. and different welfare activities for the citizens
(b) Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange
(c) Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments
(d) Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake
Answer:
(a) The prime minister and the Council of Minister
(b) The Parliament
(c) Supreme Court of India
(d) The Civil Servants working together.

Question 7.
Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice.
(a) In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.
(b) Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers even before the expiry of their term.
(c) Since the Prime Minister is appointed by the President there is no need for it.
(d) Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve a lot of expenditure on elections.
Answer:
(a) Elections are not fought for the post of the Prime Minister. Only parties fight elections and the majority party’s leader becomes the Prime Minister. In a Parliamentary democracy, only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.

Question 8.
A teacher was making preparations for a mock Parliament. She called two students to act as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice was given to you, which one would you choose and why?
Answer:
Such films are only for entertainment purposes as real life is strikingly different. Governance in a democracy means taking everyone along with you. In addition, in a vast and diverse country like India, it is very difficult to consider only an individual’s decision. Moreover, decision implementation needs to be coordinated among various organs of the government.

Question 9.
After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions about the role of the judiciary, which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the role of the judiciary?
(a) Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not independent.
(b) Anjaiah says that the judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.
(c) Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance between those who supported and those who opposed the order.
Answer:
Anjaiah’s view on the role of judiciary is correct because judiciary is independent and impartial. It is not under the control of the legislature or the executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power.

Chapter 5 Working of Institutions eng