Chapter 6 Population

Question 1.
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) none of the above
Ans:
(c) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of:
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples
Ans:
(a) high birth rates

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
Ans:
(b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) According to the Census, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)
Ans:
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding.

Question 2.
Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?
Answer:
(i) Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually due to a reduction in the birth rates. This has been due to the efforts at birth control.
(ii) The major components of population growth are:

  • Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been larger than death rates.
  • Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the population has been the rapid decline in death rates.
  • Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international.

(iii) Age Structure refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. The population of a nation is divided into three categories:

  • Children (below 15 years)
  • Adults/working population (15-59 years)
  • Aged (above 60 years)

Death rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
Birth rate: It is the number of births per thousand persons in a year.

(iv) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. It not only changes the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition. In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns. Thus, migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.

Question 3.
Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Answer:

Population Growth

Population Change

(i) Growth of population refers to change in the number of people of a country during a specific period of time.

(ii) It tells the increase or decline of population in numbers.

(i) It refers to the change in population due to birth rate, death rate and migration.

(ii) It tells the changes in the population in terms of age and sex composition and distribution.

Question 4.
What is the relation between occupational structure and development?
Answer:
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure which are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary activities include building and constructional work and tertiary activities cover transport, communication, commerce, administration, etc. The proportion of people engage in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries have a higher proportion of the workforce engaged in primary activities. In India there has been a shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation.

Question 5.
What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer:
The advantages of having a healthy population are as follows.

  • A healthy population can provide welfare and well being of a society.
  • A healthy population can boost up development process of a nation.
  • A healthy population bear healthy mind to be responsible and contribute to develop resources.

Question 6.
What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?
Answer:
The main features of India’s National Population Policy are:

  • To improve the quality of the life of the people. The Family Planning Programme and the family welfare programmes have been introduced to improve individual’s health and welfare.
  • This policy provides free and compulsory school education upto the age of 14 years and reducing drop-outs at the primary and secondary levels.
  • Preventing child marriages.
  • Preventing and controlling diseases and immunising all children against all vaccine preventable diseases.