Chapter 7 Congruence of Triangles
Very Short Answer Type
In the given figure, name
(a) the side opposite to vertex A
(b) the vertex opposite A to side AB
(c) the angle opposite to side AC
(d) the angle made by the sides CB and CA.
(a) The side opposite to vertex A is BC.
(b) The vertex opposite to side AB is C.
(c) The angle opposite to side AB is ∠ACB.
(d) The angle made by the sides CB and CA is ∠ACB.
Examine whether the given triangles are congruent or not.
AB = DE = 3 cm
BC = DF = 3.5 cm
AC = EF = 4.5 cm
ΔABC = ΔEDF (By SSS rule)
So, ΔABC and ΔEDF are congruent.
In the given congruent triangles under ASA, find the value of x and y, ΔPQR = ΔSTU.
Given: ΔPQR = ΔSTU (By ASA rule)
∠Q = ∠T = 60° (given)
∠x = 30° (for ASA rule)
Now in ΔSTU,
∠S + ∠T + ∠U = 180° (Angle sum property)
∠y + 60° + ∠x = 180°
∠y + 60° + 30° = 180°
∠y + 90° = 180°
∠y = 180° – 90° = 90°
Hence, x = 30° and y = 90°.
In the following figure, show that ΔPSQ = ΔPSR.
In ΔPSQ and ΔPSR
∠PSQ = ∠PSR = 90° (Given)
ΔPSQ = ΔPSR (By RHS rule)
Can two equilateral triangles always be congruent? Give reasons.
No, any two equilateral triangles are not always congruent.
Reason: Each angle of an equilateral triangle is 60° but their corresponding sides cannot always be the same.
In the given figure, AP = BQ, PR = QS. Show that ΔAPS = ΔBQR
In ΔAPS and ΔBQR
AP = BQ (Given)
PR = QS (Given)
PR + RS = QS + RS (Adding RS to both sides)
PS = QR
∠APS = ∠BQR = 90° (Given)
ΔAPS = ΔBQR (by SAS rule)
Without drawing the figures of the triangles, write all six pairs of equal measures in each of the following pairs of congruent triangles.
(i) ΔABC = ADEF
(ii) ΔXYZ = ΔMLN
(i) Given: ΔABC = ΔDEF
Here AB = DE
BC = EF
AC = DF
∠A = ∠D, ∠B = ∠E and ∠C = ∠F
(ii) Given ΔXYZ = ΔMLN
Here XY = ML
YZ = LN
XZ = MN
∠X = ∠M, ∠Y = ∠L and ∠Z = ∠N
Lengths of two sides of an isosceles triangle are 5 cm and 8 cm, find the perimeter of the triangle.
Since the lengths of any two sides of an isosceles triangle are equal, then
Case I: The three sides of the triangle are 5 cm, 5 cm and 8 cm.
Perimeter of the triangle = 5 cm + 5 cm + 8 cm = 18 cm
Case II: The three sides of the triangle are 5 cm, 8 cm and 8 cm.
Perimeter of the triangle = 5 cm + 8 cm + 8 cm = 21 cm
Hence, the required perimeter is 18 cm or 21 cm.
Write the rule of congruence in the following pairs of congruent triangles.
(i) Here, AB = ST = 3 cm
BC = TU = 4.5 cm
∠ABC = ∠STU = 110°
ΔABC = ΔSTU (By SAS rule)
(ii) Here ∠PQR = ∠MNL = 90°
hypt. PR = hypt. ML
QR = NL = 3 cm
ΔPQR = ΔMNL (By RHS rule)
In the given figure, state the rule of congruence followed by congruent triangles LMN and ONM.
In ΔLMN and ΔONM
LM = ON
LN = OM
MN = NM
ΔLMN = ΔONM
Short Answer Type
In the given figure, PQR is a triangle in which PQ = PR. QM and RN are the medians of the triangle. Prove that
(i) ΔNQR = ΔMRQ
(ii) QM = RN
(iii) ΔPMQ = ΔPNR
In the given figure, PQ = CB, PA = CR, ∠P = ∠C. Is ΔQPR = ΔBCA? If yes, state the criterion of congruence.
PQ = CB, PA = CR
and ∠P = ∠C
In ΔQPR and ΔBCA,
PQ = CB (Given)
∠QPR = ∠BCA (Given)
PA = CR (Given)
PA + AR = CR + AR (Adding AR to both sides)
or PR = CA
ΔQPR = ΔBCA (By SAS rule)
In the given figure, state whether ΔABC = ΔEOD or not. If yes, state the criterion of congruence.
In ΔABC and ΔEOD
AB = OE
∠ABC = ∠EOD = 90°
AC = ED
ΔABC = ΔEOD
Hence, ΔABC = ΔEOD
RHS is the criterion of congruence.
In the given figure, PQ || RS and PQ = RS. Prove that ΔPUQ = ΔSUR.
In ΔPUQ and ΔSUR
PQ = SR = 4 cm
∠UPQ = ∠USR (Alternate interior angles)
∠PQU = ∠SRU (Alternate interior angles)
ΔPUQ = ΔSUR (By ASA rule)
Long Answer Type
In the given figure ΔBAC = ΔQRP by SAS criterion of congruence. Find the value of x and y.
Given: ΔBAC = ΔQRP (By SAS rule)
So, BA = QR
⇒ 3x + 10 = 5y + 15 ……(i)
∠BAC = ∠QRP
⇒ 2x + 15° = 5x – 60° ……(ii)
From eq. (ii), we have
2x + 15 = 5x – 60
⇒ 2x – 5x = -15 – 60
⇒ -3x = -7 5
⇒ x = 25
From eq. (i), we have
3x + 10 = 5y + 15
⇒ 3 × 25 + 10 = 5y + 15
⇒ 75 + 10 = 5y + 15
⇒ 85 = 5y + 15
⇒ 85 – 15 = 5y
⇒ 70 = 5y
⇒ y = 14
Hence, the required values of x andy are 25 and 14 respectively.
Observe the figure and state the three pairs of equal parts in triangles ABC and DCB.
(i) Is ΔABC = ΔDCB? Why?
(ii) Is AB = DC? Why?
(iii) Is AC = DB? Why? (NCERT Exemplar)
(i) In ΔABC and ΔDCB
∠ABC = ∠DCB = 70° (40° + 30° = 70°) (Given)
∠ACB = ∠DCB = 30° (Given)
BC = CB (Common)
ΔABC = ΔDCB (By ASA rule)
AB = DC (Congruent parts of congruent triangles)
AC = DB (Congruent parts of congruent triangles)
In the given figure, ΔQPS = ΔSRQ. Find each value.
(a) ΔQPS = ΔSRQ
∠QPS = ∠SRQ (Congruent part of congruent triangles)
106 = 2x + 12
⇒ 106 – 12 = 2x
⇒ 94 = 2x
⇒ x = 47
∠QRS = 2 × 47 + 12 = 94 + 12 = 106°
So, PQRS is a parallelogram.
∠QSR = 180° – (42° + 106°) = 180° – 148° = 32°
(b) ∠PQS = 32° (alternate interior angles)
(c) ∠PSQ = 180° – (∠QPS + ∠PQS) = 180° – (106° + 32°) = 180° – 138° = 42°
∠PSR = 32° + 42° = 74°
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Type
Prove that the lengths of altitudes drawn to equal sides of an isosceles triangle are also equal.
(i) ∠TRQ = ∠SQR?
(ii) If ∠TRQ = 30°, find the base angles of the ΔPQR.
(iii) Is ΔPQR an equilateral triangle?
In ΔQTR and ΔRSQ
∠QTR = ∠RSQ = 90° (Given)
∠TQR = ∠SRQ (Base angle of an isosceles triangle)
∠QRT = ∠RQS (Remaining third angles)
QR = QR (Common)
ΔQTR = ΔRSQ (By ASA rule)
QS = RT (Congruent parts of congruent triangles)
(i) ∠TRQ = ∠SQR (Congruent parts of congruent triangles)
(ii) In ΔQTR,
∠TRQ = 30° (Given)
∠QTR + ∠TQR + ∠QRT = 180° (Angle sum property)
⇒ 90° + ∠TQR + 30° = 180°
⇒ 120° + ∠TQR = 180°
⇒ ∠TQR = 180° – 120° = 60°
⇒ ∠TQR = ∠SRQ = 60°
Each base angle = 60°
(iii) In ΔPQR,
∠P + ∠Q + ∠R = 180° (Angle sum property)
⇒ ∠P + 60° + 60° = 180° (From ii)
⇒ ∠P + 120° = 180°
⇒ ∠P = 180° – 120° = 60°
Hence, ΔPQR is an equilateral triangle.