Chapter 8 India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a)Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important?
(b)Name the different seasons in India.
(c)What is natural vegetation?
(d)Name the different types of vegetation found in
(e)What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest?
(f)Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest?
(a) Monsoon winds bring rainfall in India. Agriculture in India depends on rains. Good monsoons mean sufficient rain and a good crop. Hence, monsoon winds Eire very importantly. Our prosperity depends on these winds.
(b) The different seasons in India are:
- Cold Weather Season (Winter)
- Hot Weather Season (Summer)
- Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
- Season of retreating Monsoon (Autumn).
(c) Natural Vegetation
Grasses, shrubs, and trees which grow of their own without any interference or help from mankind constitute natural vegetation.
(d) Different types of vegetation found in India
- Tropical Rain Forests
- Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Thorny Forests
- Mountain Vegetation
- Mangrove Forests
(f) Tropical rainforest is also called evergreen forest because they (the trees) do not shed their leaves in a particular season.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(a) The world’s highest rainfall occurs in …………
(i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsyuram.
(b) Mangrove forests can thrive in………
(i) saline water (ii) freshwater (iii)polluted water.
(c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in………..
(i) mangrove forests
(ii) tropical deciduous forests
(iii) tropical evergreen forests
(d) Wild goats and snow leopards are found in…………
(i) Himalayan region (ii)Peninsular region (iii) Gir forests.
(e) During the South-west monsoon period, the moisture-laden winds blow from
(i) land to sea (ii) sea to land (iii) plateau to plains.
(a)—(iii), (b)—(i), (c)—(iii), (d)—(i), (e)—(ii).
3. Fill in the blanks.
- Hot and dry winds are known as………… blow during the day in summers.
- The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of…………..
- ……. forest in Gujarat is the home of……………
- …………… is a well-known species of mangrove forests.
- …………. are also called monsoon forests.
- retreating monsoon
- Gir, Asiatic lions
- Tropical deciduous forests.
I. Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct option to complete the statements given below:
(i) Sundarbans is in ………..
(a) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(b) West Bengal
(d) Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Which one forms the group of migratory birds?
(a) Siberian Crane, Flamingo and Crow
(b) Sparrow, Crow, and Stork
(c) Stork, Siberian Crane, and Flamingo
(d)Duck, Bulbul and geese.
(iii) These places experience moderate climate ………………
(a) Mumbai and Kolkata
(b) Patna and Lucknow
(c) Bikaner and Jaisalmer
(d) Ranchi and Asansol.
(iv) Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of……………………
(v) Wildlife week is observed every year in the first week of _________
(i)—(b), (ii)—(c), (iii)—(a), (iv)—(a), (v)—(d).
II. Fill in the Blanks
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words to complete each sentence:
- Camels and wild asses are found in the ……….. and the ……….
- ……… in Rajasthan receives the least rainfall.
- Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive ………….. rainfall.
- Cold weather season remains from………… to ………..
- The climate of India has been described as ………….. type.
- The roots of the plants kind the………….., thus, they control soil erosion.
- Parrots, pigeons, geese, etc. are examples of ……….. birds.
- Great Indian Desert, Rann of Kuchchh
- December, February
State whether these sentences are true (I) or false (F).
- During the winter season, the sun rays fall directly in the region.
- Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.
- Tropical rainforests are not very dense.
- Tropical rainforests are also called monsoon forests.
- Thorny bushes are found in dry areas of the country.
- Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, etc. migrate to our country in the winter season every year.
Match the items in column A correctly with those given in column B.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What happens in the season of the retreating monsoons? [Imp.]
Answer: Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. ,
2. What is climate?
Climate is the average weather condition, which has been measured over many years.
3. Name the factors that affect the climate of a place. [Imp.]
The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief.
4. Name the two regions of Rajasthan which are very hot.
Jaisalmer and Bikaner.
5. Name the two regions of Jammu and Kashmir which are very cold or freezing cold.
Drass and Kargil.
6. What do you mean by moderate climate? [V. Imp.]
Moderate climate refers to the climate which is neither very hot nor very cold.
7. What are called bushes?
Small plants are called bushes.
8. Where are thorny bushes found?
Thorny bushes are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.
9. What is the special feature of mountain vegetation?
The trees are conical in shape.
10. Why is Van Mahotsav arranged? [V. Imp.]
Van Mahotsav is arranged to awaken people to plant more and more trees.
11. Why are several species of wildlife of India declining? [V. Imp.]
Due to the cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining.
12. Name the project started by the government to protect tigers? [Imp.]
13. Name some migratory birds.
Pelican, Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, Pintail, Duck and Curlew.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. Explain the cold weather season and hot weather season.
During the cold-weather season (winter), the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result, the temperatures are quite low in northern India. In the hot weather season (summer), the sun rays fall directly in the region. Hence, the temperature becomes very high. Hot and dry winds called loo blow during the day time.
2. Why do we experience regional differences in the climate of India? Explain with examples. [V. Imp.]
We experience regional differences in the climate of India due to these factors— location of a place, altitude, distance from the sea and relief. For examples, Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan are very hot while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are very cold. Coastal places like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. It means these places are neither very hot nor very cold. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while Jaisalmer receives least rainfall.
3. Mention the periods of various seasons of India.[Imp.]
- Cold weather season, i.e. winter remains from December to February.
- Hot weather season, summer ranges from March to May.
- Southwest monsoon season, i.e. the rainy season remains from June to September.
- Season of retreating monsoon, Le. autumn occurs in the month of October and lasts upto the month of November.
4. Mention the main features of thorny bushes.
- Thorny bushes are found in dry areas of the country.
- The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water.
- Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important thorny bushes.
- They are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.
5. Write a note on mountain vegetation.
Mountains are homes of various species of trees. They are found according to the variation in height. With an increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres most of the trees are conical in shape. Such trees are called coniferous trees. Mountain vegetation includes trees such as chir, pine and deodar.
6. How are forests important for us? [V. Imp.]
Forests play a vital role in the life of human beings and in their absence, we can’t imagine a life. Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the soil and in this way check soil erosion. We get several things from the forests, such as wood for furniture, fuel, fodder, medicinal herbs, honey, lac, gum, fruits etc. Forests provide natural habitat to wildlife, such as lions, tigers, elephants, monkeys, etc. As forests are so beneficial for us, we must make efforts to conserve it.
7. What should we do to conserve wildlife? [V. Imp.]
We must not involve in the hunting and poaching of wild animals. We can refuse to buy things made from parts of the bodies of animals such as their bones, horns, fur, skins, and feathers. It will be an effective way to conserve wildlife. We should participate in the wildlife week which falls in the first week of October and try to create awareness of conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Explain different types of seasons found in India
Four major seasons are found in India:
(i) Cold Weather Season (Winter). This season occurs in the month of December and lasts upto the month of February. During this season temperature remains cold in northern India because the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. ,
(ii) Hot weather season (Summer). This season starts in the month of March and ends in the month of May. During this season temperature becomes very hot because the sun rays fall directly in the region. Hot and dry winds called loo blow during the day time.
(iii) Southwest monsoon season (Rainy season). This season is marked by the advent and advance of the monsoon. The winds blow from the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers it begins raining.
(iv) Season of retreating monsoon (Autumn). This is the season of retreating monsoons. During this season winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. The southern parts of India receive rainfall in this season.
2. Mention different types of vegetation found in India. [V. Imp.)
Five different types of vegetation are found in India:
(i) Tropical rain forests. These forests are found in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. They are very dense and sunlight never reach the ground. The trees of these forests shed their leaves at different times of the year. Therefore, they always appear green are called evergreen forests. Important trees of these forests are mahogany, ebony, and rosewood. They are found in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states, and a narrow strip of the western slope of the Western Ghats.
(ii) Tropical deciduous forests. These forests are also known as monsoon forests and are found in a large part of the country. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Sal, teak, neem, peepal and shisha are important trees found in these forests. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, etc. are home of these forests.
(iii) Thorny bushes. They are found in the dry areas. Cactus, khair, babool, and Keekar are important thorny bushes. They are found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, etc.
(iv) Mountain Vegetation. A variety of trees are found in the mountains. They are conical in shape. Hence trees are called conical trees. Chir, pine, and deodar are important trees of these forests.
(v) Mangrove Forests. These forests grow in saline water. They are found in Sundarbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove-forests.
3. Describe the wildlife of India [V. Imp.]
Answer: Forests are home to wildlife, which include several species of animals and a variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects, and worms.
The tiger, our national animal, is found ip various parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-homed rhinoceroses are found in the forests of Assam. Elephants are found in Kerala and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides these, monkeys, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetah, etc. are other animals found in our country.
Our country is rich in birdlife too. Peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul, and ducks. Several bird sanctuaries have been established to protect different species of birds.,
There are hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and Kraits are important among them.