Chapter 9 Peace

Textbook Questions Solved

Question 1.
Do you think that a change towards a peaceful world, needs a change in the way people think? Can mind promote peace and is it enough to focus only on the human mind?
Answer:
A thought process of persons requires a positive attitude to promote peace because mind controls the way of thinking and behaviour of human beings.

  • Mind promotes peace but a wrong mind or attitude can create war.
  • Gautam Buddha also stated that all wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?
  • The UNESCO also observed since wars begin in the minds of humans, it is also in the mind of men to make an approach in a peaceful manner.
  • To facilitate such an endeavour various spiritual principles like compassion and practices like meditation perform peaceful approaches.
  • Though violence does not originate only in individual psyche but deeprooted also in certain social structures.
  • Peace is process involving an active pursuit of the moral and material resources needed to establish human welfare.

Question 2.
A State must protect the lives and rights of its citizens. However, at times its own actions are a source of violence against some of-its citizens. Comment with the help of some examples.
Answer:

  • Human beings created state for one’s own protection of honour and property.
  • State maintains law and order.
  • State protects the rights of its citizens by providing them a constitution, laws, police, judiciary and armed forces.
  • State make efforts to end any type of violence created by social injustice and inequality based discrimination’s like untouchability, etc.
  • A state should avoid those actions which may be a source of violence against some particular groups.

Some examples are:

  • In 1984, a huge massacre of nearly 4,000 Sikhs took place in Delhi and the government could do nothing and even today, the victims feel that the guilty were not punished.
  • Khalistan movement also forced Hindus to leave Punjab, Haryana and Delhi and Sikhs were forced to move to punjab and Hindu Kashmiri Pandits. Sikhs were also forced to leave Kashmir Valley. And they could not return their home.
  • Several Hindus and Muslims were massacred in Gujarat in 2002 and still today these members could not go back to the villages in which they lived.
  • During the communist rule in USSR, peoples faced violence not to like the authoritarian policies of state.

Question 3.
Peace can be best realized when there is freedom, equality and justice. Do you agree? Ans. Yes, I agree with the statement because:

  • Peace has occupied a central place in the original teachings of religions which has been advocated by various philosophers like Mahatma Gandhi, etc.
  • Peace is an essential ingredient to establish democracy with two basic principles freedom and equality and justice and human rights.

Social inequalities and wrong practices of caste, religion, language may produce large scale evil consequences:

  • Sometimes, traditional caste system treats some peoples ‘untouchables’, hence ‘peace’ is meaningless for these people.
  • Discrimination against women also given birth to female foeticides, inadequate nourishment and education to girl child, child-marriage, dowry, sexual harassment at the workplace, rape and honour killing.
  • Racial discrimination also continues in the west and directed against immigrants from Asia, Africa and Latin America.
  • The labour class which face the conditions to be paid low wages and ill-working conditions also no meaning for peace.

Question 4.
Use of violence does not achieve just ends in the long run. What do you think about this
statement?
Answer:

  • Sometimes violence is justified to be used as liberation struggles to bring a peace.
  • But once violence is resorted it tends to spin out of control, leaving behind a trail of death and destruction.
  • The pacifists advocate mobilization of love and truth to win the hearts and minds of the oppressors.
  • Sometimes people consider non-violence to be the methods of weak which has been rejected by Mahatma Gandhi who articulated different philosophy of non-violence.
  • Gandhiji gave idea of non-violence in a positive way which required an element of conscious compassion.
  • Violence should not be used to counter violence because peace can only be brought with the stress on peaceful means.
  • Non-violence does not refer just referring from causing physical harm, mental harm or loss of livelihood and it also meant giving up even thought of harming someone.

Question 5.
Differentiate between the major approaches, discussed in the chapter, to the establishment of peace in the world.
Answer:
The first approach:

  • It accords centrally to states, respects their sovereignty and treats competition among them as a fact of life.
  • Its chief concern is with the proper management of this competition and with the containment of possible conflict though inter-state arrangements like ‘balance of power’,
  • Such a balance is said to have prevailed in the 19th country when the major European countries fine-turned their struggle for power by forming alliances that deferred potential aggressors and checked the outbreak of a great war.

The second approach:

  • It grants the deeprooted nature of inter-state rivalry with positive presence and possibilities of interdependence.
  • This approach underscores the increasing social and economic cooperation among nations to temper state sovereignty and promote international understanding.
  • Its example may be given the post-World War II Europe secured durable peace by graduating from economic integration to political unification.

The third approach:

  • It considers the state to be passing phase of human history to envisage an emergence of a supra-national order and sees the fostering of a global community as the surest guarantee of peace.
  • The seeds of such a community are found in the expanding interactions and coditions across state boundaries to involve diverse non-government actors like multinational corporations and people’s movements.
  • The ongoing process of globalization is further eroding the already diminished primary and sovereignty of the state, thereby creating conditions conducive to the establishment of world peace.

Hence, united nations may be said to embody elements of all above mentioned approaches. The security council also reflect the prevalent international hierarchy. The economic and social council promotes interstate cooperation in many areas. The commission on Human Rights seeks  to shape and apply transnational norms.

Extra Questions Solved

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define peace.
Answer:
Peace is a situation of non-violence as well as to live in a society and to work smoothly is called peace.

Question 2.
What is non-alignment?
Answer:
India has adopted non-alignment as its foreign policy not belonging to any block and it can take independent position on international issues.

Question 3.
Why do terrorist create terror?
Answer:

  • To make democracy ineffective
  • To force the government to fulfill their political, social and economic demands.

Question 4.
What is Naxalite terrorism?
Answer:
Naxalite violence created a serious law and order problem before the nation though killings, blasts, extortions and kidnapping in West Bengal in 1967 under the leadership of Mao and also spread to Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tripura, Odisha, etc.

Question 5.
What is armed race?
Answer:
After Second World War, a competition emerged among the nations to develop a stock of weapons including nuclear weapons to become more and more powerful.

Question 6.
What is pacifism?
Answer:
Pacifism preaches opposition to war or violence as a means of setting disputes. Its principles spring from belief that war, or violence in any form of coercion is morally wrong.

Question 7.
Mention some examples from 20th century to experience large scale violence.
Answer:

  • First world war 1914-1918
  • Rise of fascism in Italy (1920-1944)
  • Rise of Nazism in Germany (1930-1945).
  • Partition of India in August 1947.

Question 8.
What is disarmament?
Answer:
Disarmament refers to stop the manufacturing and storage of deadly war weapons because an increase in the weapons will endanger the whole humanity and civilization as well as it increases the possibility of third world war.

Question 9.
What is Panchsheel?
Answer:
Panchsheel refers to the five principles that form, the basis of India’s foreign policy. If these principles are practicised, the third world war can be avoided. These are five and proponuded by Pt. J.L. Nehru on April 29, 1954.

Question 10.
Mention the five principles of Panchsheel.
Answer:

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Mutual non-aggression
  • Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Equality and mutual benefits
  • Peaceful co-existence.

Question 11.
Which factors make the terrorism a global phenomenon?
Answer:

  • Development and acquisition of weapons of mass destruction.
  • Development of means of transportation and communication.
  • The interdependence of different economies on each other.
  • The advancement in technology.

Question 12.
“The post-Second World War decades were marked by intense rivalry between the two super power blocs”. Justify the statement.
Answer:

  • The Second World War ended in 1945 with the presumption to establish peace permanently but it gave birth to intense rivalry between the two superpowers, i.e. capitalist USA and communist USSR.
  • Both the countries started to make nuclear weapons on a large scale as a symbol of power.
  • In 1962, the Cuban Missile crisis took place on the discovery of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • USA responded in the form of military action against USSR if missiles had not been removed.
  • This eye-to-eye confrontation ended when the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles but it brought humanity perilously close to the brink of total destruction.

Question 13.
Does peace always require ‘Ahimsa’?
Answer:

  • Dotrine of Ahimsa or non-violence was propounded by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Non-violence refers to non-injury to anything on earth in thought, words or deeds.
  • But tolerance towards injustice was considered to be cowardness and this situation should be faced by pressurising the authorities.
  • Hence, sometimes force is necessary to maintain peace.
  • But, war should be the last effort to use power.

Question 14.
Has non-alignment played an important role in the maintenance of world peace?
Answer:

  • Non-alignment refers not to belong to any power blocs and to maintain friendly relations with other countries.
  • Non-alignment refers to peaceful co-existence in the international affairs.
  • Non-alignment has created new international economic order on the principle of equality and ended colonialism.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
“The war is justified to some extent”. Justify the statement.
Answer:

  • Sometimes, to great extent war is avoided to maintain peace in international arena.
  • At international level, the friendly and harmonious relations are a mandate to maintain peace.
  • If any country does not work under the international norms, the UNO has a right to cheek its activities.
  • Sometimes, the UNO also has to interfere forcible to settle down the disputes between nations.

Hence, war is justified to some extent to settle down peace at the international level.

Question 2.
Why is disarmament necessary? Explain.
Answer:
Because:

  • If the tendency of manufacturing aid and strong deadly weapons is not checked on time, it may result in the third world war to endanger the humanity and civilization.
  • The expenditure on military is extremely costly which is unproductive, hence, this amount may be utilized for some constructive usages to reduce unemployment, poverty, hunger and sickness into the society.

Question 3.
Mention the efforts of India in maintaining peace in the sub-continent during clashes with Pakistan.
Answer:
India always concentrated to maintain peace and understanding between the two countries:

  • In 1966, Tashkent Declaration was signed between Late Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s the then President General Ayub Khan.
  • In 1972, Shimla Agreement was signed between the then Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi and Pakistan’s the then Prime Minister Mr Julfikar Ali Bhutto.
  • In 2000, India’s the then Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Pakistan with a goodwill mission to develop relations.
  • In 2001, Pakistan’s President and his delegations also visited India to meet with delegation of India headed by Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee in Agra to be known as ‘Agra Summit’.

Still, the everlasting peace between two countries has been only a dream for both the countries.

Question 4.
Why India has not signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)?
Answer:

  • In 1968, NPT was formulated and signed by U.K., USA, USSR alongwith other so countries but India refused to sign on it on the ground to be discriminatory in nature.
  • In 1996, CTBT emerged to be controversial on the ground of discrimination between nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states and India had been actively advocating for Comprehensive Test Ban since 1954, hence India refused.

Question 5.
What is globalization? And how did India respond to it?
Answer:
Globalization considers the whole world as a single unit on the basis of inter-dependence and social and economic interactions. India responded to the process from early 1980’s to welcome the technological developments:

  • It abolished industrial licensing except for a few specific industries.
  • Capital market reform was undertaken by setting up the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
  • The rupee was devalued in 1991.
  • Private sector banks including foreign joint venture banks expanded their operations.
  • A large number of items were left from tariff according to World Trade Organisation (WTO).

Question 6.
When was the UNO founded and what were its main objectives?
Answer:
The United Nations Organisation was founded on 24 October, 1945, after the end of Second World War to avoid another world war and to avoid such a large scale destruction again with the following objectives:

  • To establish international peace and security.
  • To take immediate steps to avert wars.
  • To promote goodwill and cooperation among nations.
  • To promote economic, social and cultural relationship among nations at the international level.

Question 7.
Are the Human rights, Disarmament and New International Economic Order interrelated? Explain.
Answer:
Human Rights: are mandatory to live a respectful life by the human beings.
Disarmament: stops the manufacturing and storage deadly war weapons to be mandate for the welfare of human civilization. New International Economic Order: maintain relationship between the different economies of the world.

All the above three are interrelated because human rights are mandatory for the establishment of peace and peace can come through disarmament and money saved by disarmament can be spent for the welfare of nations through New International Economic Order.

Passage-Based Questions

Passage 1.
Read carefully the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 133) given below and answer the questions that follow

Which of the following views do you agree with and why?
1. “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”
– Gautam Buddha
2. “I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent”
– Mahatma Gandhi
3. “Ye shall be those whose eyes ever seek for an enemy…ye shall love peace as a means to new wars— and the short peace more than the long. You I advise not to work, but to victory. Let your work be a fight, let your peace be a victory”
– Friedrich Nietzsche

Questions:
1. What were the ideas of Gautam Buddha to transform the mind?
2. What was the thought of Mahatma Gandhi about violence?
3. What were the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche?
Answers:
1. (a) Gautam Buddha founded Buddhism with the belief that all wrong things arise from
mind.
(b) If mind is transformed to right position, the human being is always remain calm and peaceful to think and perform only right things.

2. (a) Mahatma Gandhi always objected violence to be favorable for human beings.
(b) Though violence may bring some good to society which would be temporary but the evil may be permanent.

3. (a) He glorified war, not to give value to peace.
(b) He wrongfully believed that only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilization.
(c) Everyone’s work should be like a fight to achieve victory in war.

Passage 2.
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 133) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Racism and communalism involve the stigmatization and oppression of an entire racial group or community. Though the notion that humanity can be divided into distinct races is scientifically spurious, it has been used to justify insidious practices such as Negro slavery in the United States of America (until 1865), the slaughter of Jews in Hitler’s Germany, and Apartheid—a policy followed until 1992 by the White-controlled government in South Africa, which treated the majority Black people of the country as second-class citizens. Racial discrimination still continues covertly in the West and is now often directed against immigrants from countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Communalism may be seen as the South Asian counterpart of racism where the victims tend to be minority religious groups.

Questions
1. What involves the stigmatization and oppression of an entire racial group?
2. Give some examples to justify insidious practices.
3. Who were treated as the second class citizens in South Africa?
Answers
1. Racism and communalism.

2. (a) Negro slavery in the USA
(b) Slaughter of Jews during Nazism
(c) Policy of Apartheid in South Africa.

3. Black people of the country.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
List the names of few Nobel Peace Prize winners and write a note on any one of them.
Answer:

  • Mrs. Aung Saan Suu Kuyi (Myanmar)-1991
  • Miss Riyoberta Manchu (Guatemala)-1992
  • Nelson Mandela and F.W.D. Clark (South Africa)-1993
  • Yasser Arafal (PLO) and Yitzhok Robin (Israel)-1994
  • Joseph Rotblat anti-nuclear campaigner (UK) and the Purgwash Conference on Science and World Affairs which he chairs-1995
  • Jose Romos Horta and Bishop Carlos Felipe (East Timor)-1996
  • Jody Williams (USA)-International Campaign to Ban Landmines and Its Coordinator-1997.
  • John Home and David Trimble (Northern Ireland)-1998
  • Medicine Sans Frantiers (Doctors without Borders)-1999
  • Kim Dae Jung (South Korea)-2000
  • Kofi Annan (UN Secretary-General)-2001

Aung Saan Suu Kuyi:

  • Inspired much from the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Remained under house arrest in Myanmar for restoration of democracy and the freedom of her people.
  • She says “for me, real freedom is freedom from fear to live a dignified human life”. id) Her words suggest not to be afraid of the opinions of others or of the attitude of authority, or of the reactions of the members of out community.
    Her book of essays also bears the title “Freedom from Fear”.

Question 2.
Mention different types of structural violence?
Answer:
Caste as a cause of structural violence:

  • In India, traditional caste system has been existed.
  • This system considers the lower caste people as ‘untouchables’.
  • This ‘untouchability’ resulted in social exclusion and deprivation of the worst sort. id) Though a social order based on class appears to be more flexible, still it generates a great deal of inequality and oppression.

Class-based structural violence capitalist vs. Labour class:

  • A sizeable unclass exists even in the developed countries.
  • In the developing countries, the majority of labour classes faces the conditions of wages underpaid and ill-conditions of working.

Based on ill-treatment with women:

  • To treat women with discrimination.
  • Its examples are abortion of female foeticides, inadequate nourishment to women, child marriage, education to girl-child, wife battering, etc.
  • The low sex-ratio in India (933 females per 1000 males).

Political based structure violence:

  • Though imperialism and colonialism has been a rare phenomenon.
  • Still Palestinian struggle against Israeli domination shows not be rooted out this phenomenon.
  • Even European Imperialist countries also have to recover completely from manifold exploitation during colonial era.

Racism and communalism based structure violence:

  • It involve stigmatization and oppression of entire racial group.
  • It has been used to justify insidious practices like Negro slavery in USA, slaughter of Jews during Nazism and Apartheid policy in South Africa.
  • Racial discrimination is still in practice in the west and directed against immigrants from countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
  • Communalism may be seen in South Asian counterpart of racism where the victims tend to be minority religious groups.

Question 3.
How India has implemented Human Rights?
Answer:

  • India has granted and guaranteed all the human rights to its citizens which soever have been included in the UN declaration of human rights.
  • India is the largest democracy in the world to grant fundamental rights to its citizens constitutionally as well as opposed the violation of human rights by any country to raise voice against it.
  • India has established National Humans Rights Commission at the central level and state Human Rights Commissions at the state level to look into the complaints and to take their own initiatives to stop violation of human rights.
  • As far as, human rights are concerned, various laws have been passed by the government of India to point out the case of torture by police, state managed encounters, and custodial death in violation of human rights.

Question 4.
What is the role of the UNO in maintaining world peace?
Answer:
The UNO has adopted various methods for the realisation of its objectives:

  • To unite the nations in maintaining international peace and security.
  • To ensure that armed forces will not be used except in common interest.
  • To employ international machinery for the promotions of social and economic development of peoples.
  • To practicise tolerance.

The UNO has played following crucial role in the maintenance of world peace:

  • In 1950, North Korea attacked on South Korea, the UNO intervened and sent the armies of 16 nations to control the war and it was stopped successfully.
  • In 1956, Egypt declared nationalization of Suez Canal, hence England and France attacked on Egypt through Israel. The UNO made best efforts to end this war.
  • In 1965, Pakistan attacked on India and the UNO intervened to end this war with the treaty of Tashkent in 1966.
  • In 1991, the Gulf war took place between the USA and other European countries against Iraq. The UNO passed a resolution to end the war.
  • The UNO has made many efforts for disarmament by passing many resolutions to maintain international peace and order.

Picture-Based Questions

1. Read the cartoon (NCERT Textbook, page 131) given below and answer the questions that follow:
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Peace Picture Based Questions Q1
Questions:
1. Which countries are being represented in the cartoon?
2. What is the worry of these countries?
3. About what, they are not talking and why?
Answer:
1. All backward countries

2. They are worried about the development in the field of education, urbanization and construction, unemployment, etc.

3. They do not like to utter even a single word about atom bomb because they know peace is essential for the development of country.

Chapter 9 Peace