The Last Lesson

Textbook Questions and Answers


Question 1.
The people in this story suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. What shows you this ? Why does this happen ?
इस कहानी में लोग अचानक महसूस करते हैं कि उनकी अपनी भाषा उनके लिए कितनी मूल्यवान है । यह बात तुम्हें क्या दर्शाती है ? ऐसा क्यों होता है ?
Answer:
The teacher’s putting on his ceremonial dress to deliver his last lesson and coming even of the villagers to attend his class show that the people suddenly realise that their language is extremely precious to them. Franz regrets for not having taken his lessons seriously. Even his teacher regrets for not having taken his teaching seriously.

The teacher con demns his countrymen for not paying proper attention to the education of their children. All these facts show that they suddenly realise the importance of their language. When people come to know that their own language, French will no longer be taught in their schools and they will be forced to read German instead, they get emotional. It happens because the importance of their own language suddenly dawns upon them.

अध्यापक का अपने अन्तिम पाठ के लिए उत्सव पर पहने जाने वाले कपड़े पहनना और गाँव वालों का भी कक्षा में बैठना दर्शाता है कि लोग अचानक महसूस करते हैं कि उनकी भाषा उनके लिए अत्यन्त मूल्यवान है। अपने पाठों को गम्भीरता से न लेने पर फ्रेन्ज पश्चाताप करता है ।

यहाँ तक कि उसका अध्यापक अपने अध्यापन को गम्भीरता से न लेने पर पश्चाताप करता है । अध्यापक अपने बच्चों की शिक्षा पर उचित ध्यान न देने पर देशवासियों को कोसता है । ये सभी तथ्य दर्शाते हैं कि उन्हें अचानक अपनी भाषा का महत्व समझ में आ गया। जब लोगों को पता चलता है कि उनकी अपनी भाषा फ्रेन्च स्कूलों में अब नहीं पढ़ाई जायेगी और यह कि इसके स्थान पर उन्हें जर्मन भाषा पढ़ने के लिए मजबूर किया जाएगा तो वे भावुक हो उठते हैं । ऐसा इसलिए होता है क्योंकि उन्हें अचानक अपनी भाषा का महत्व समझ आ जाता है

Question 2.
Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons ?” What could this mean?
फ्रेन्ज सोचता है – “क्या कबूतरों से भी जर्मन भाषा में गीत गवाये जायेंगे?” इसका क्या अर्थ हो सकता है ?
Answer:
A few pigeons were cooing on the roof. When Franz heard them cooing, it occurred to him if the German soldiers would force even pigeons to speak German. It was as if they were trying to achieve the impossible. Franz was of the opinion that nobody is powerful enough to replace a language which people of a particular place speak just by imposing another language in schools. Just as pigeons cannot be made to change their language, nobody can be forced to change his language.

कुछ कबूतर छत पर गुटर गूं कर रहे थे । जब फ्रेन्ज ने उन्हें गुटर गूं करते हुए सुना तो उसके दिमाग में आया कि क्या जर्मन सैनिक कबूतरों से भी जर्मन भाषा बुलवायेंगे । यह असम्भव को प्राप्त करने जैसी बात थी । फ्रेन्ज का विचार था कोई भी इतना शक्तिशाली नहीं हो सकता कि लोगों द्वारा बोली जाने वाली भाषा को विद्यालयों में अन्य भाषा लगाकर प्रतिस्थापित कर दे । जिस तरह कबूतरों की भाषा नहीं बदलवाई जा सकती है, उसी प्रकार किसी को भी उसकी भाषा बदलने को मजबूर नहीं किया जा सकता है

Think as you read (Page 7)

Question 1.
What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day?
उस दिन फ्रेन्ज को स्कूल के लिए क्या तैयारी करनी थी ?
Answer:
Franz was expected to be prepared with the use of ‘Participles’ that day. His teacher M. Hamel had said that he would question the children on participles.

उस दिन फ्रेन्ज से Participles के प्रयोग पर तैयार होने की अपेक्षा थी। उसके अध्यापक एम. हैमल ने कहा था कि वह बच्चों से Participles पर प्रश्न पूछेगे।

Question 2.
What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day?
उस दिन फ्रेन्ज ने स्कूल में क्या कुछ असामान्य देखा ?
Or
How was the scene in the school in the morning of the last lesson different from that on other days ?
अन्तिम दिन की सुबह के स्कूल का दृश्य अन्य दिनों की अपेक्षा किस प्रकार भिन्न था ?
Or
What did Franz wonder about when he entered the class that day?
फ्रेन्ज को क्या आश्चर्य हुआ जब उस दिन उसने कक्षा में प्रवेश किया?
Answer:
There used to be a great hustle and bustle in the school on normal days but that day there was silence all about the school. No noise of the opening and closing of desks and of lessons being repeated loudly in unison could be heard.

सामान्य दिनों में स्कूल में बहुत अधिक चहल-पहल रहती थी परन्तु उस दिन पूरे स्कूल में शान्ति थी! भेनों के बन्द करने और खोलने तथा समवेत स्वर में पाठों के दोहराने की कोई आवाज सुनाई नहीं पड़ रही थी।

Question 3.
What had been put up on the bulletin-board ?
सूचना-पट्ट पर क्या लगाया गया था ? थी परन्तु उस दिन परे स्कूल में शान्ति थी। जो
Or
What sad news was written on the bulletin-board as Franz passed the town-hall ?
जब फ्रेन्ज टाउनहॉल से गुजरा तब सूचना-पटट पर क्या बुरी खबर लिखी थी?
Answer:
The news that instead of French, German would be taught in schools, was put up on the bulletin-board.
सूचना-पट्ट पर यह समाचार लगाया गया था कि स्कूलों में फ्रेन्च के स्थान पर जर्मन पढाई जायेगी।

Think as you read (Page 8)

Question 1.
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day?
उस दिन बर्लिन से प्राप्त आदेश से स्कूल में कौन-कौन से बदलाव आए ?
Answer:
The order caused several changes in school. Firstly, there was no hustle and bustle in the school . Secondly, even the villagers were sitting in the class and thirdly, all learnt very attentively.

आदेश ने स्कूल में कई परिवर्तन ला दिए सर्वप्रथम, विद्यालय में कोई चहल-पहल नहीं थी। दूसरा, कक्षा में गाँव वाले भी बैठे थे और तीसरा परिवर्तन यह था कि सभी ने बहुत ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ाई

Question 2.
How did Franz’s feelings about M. Hamel and school change ?
फ्रेन्ज की एम. हैमल और स्कूल के बारे में भावनाएँ किस तरह बदल गईं ?
Answer:
Formerly, Franz did not listen to his teacher attentively but now he listened to him quite attentively. His respect for his teacher increased. He began to love his school. He thought he should have paid more attention to his studies.

पहले फ्रेन्ज अपने अध्यापक की बातें ध्यानपूर्वक नहीं सुनता था परन्तु आज उसने उनकी बातें ध्यानपूर्वक सुनीं। उसका अपने गुरु के प्रति आदर बढ़ गया । वह अपने स्कूल को प्यार करने लगा। उसने सोचा उसे अपनी पढ़ाई पर ज्यादा ध्यान देना चाहिए था ।

Talking about the text :

Question 1.
” When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.”
“जब किसी देश के लोग गुलाम हो जाते हैं, और जब तक वे दृढ़ता से अपनी भाषा से जुड़े रहते हैं तो यह ऐसा है जैसे उनकी जेल की चाबी उनके पास है।”
Can you think of examples in history where a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them?
क्या आप इतिहास में ऐसे उदाहरण सोच सकते हैं जहाँ पराजित लोगों से उनकी भाषा दूर कर दी गई हो या उन पर कोई एक भाषा थोप दी गयी हो?
Answer:
When we Indians were overpowered by Mughal rulers, they imposed their own language Urdu on us. Fortunately for us, our own language could not be taken away. But again, it was the turn of the Britishers and they imposed English on us. It has flourished here.

But again fortunately for us, it is no longer a foreign language. We have made it our own. We have produced English poets, like Tagore and Sarojini Naidu, novelists and story writers, like R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand and so on. But our love for our mother tongue, Hindi has kept our culture intact and we are not cut off from our ancient value system.

जब हम भारतीयों के ऊपर मुगलों ने शासन किया तो उन्होंने अपनी भाषा उर्दू हमारे ऊपर लाद दी। सौभाग्य से हमारी अपनी भाषा छीनी न जा सकी । किन्तु पुनः अंग्रेजों का शासन आया और उन्होंने हम पर अंग्रेजी थोप दी । यह यहाँ पनपी है किन्तु पुनः हमारे सौभाग्य से यह अब हमारे लिए विदेशी भाषा नहीं रही है ।

हमने इसे अपना बना लिया है । हमने अंग्रेजी में टैगोर और सरोजनी नायडू जैसे कवि और आर. के. नारायण व मुल्कराज आनन्द आदि जैसे उपन्यासकार और कहानीकार पैदा किये हैं। लेकिन हमारी मातृभाषा, हिन्दी के प्रति हमारे प्रेम ने हमारी संस्कृति को सुरक्षित रखा है और हम अपनी प्राचीन मूल्य व्यवस्था से अलग नहीं हुए हैं ।

Question 2.
What happens to a linguistic minority in a state ? How do you think they can keep their language alive?
किसी राज्य में भाषायी अल्पसंख्यक लोगों के साथ क्या होता है ? आपके विचार में वे अपनी भाषा को किस प्रकार जीवित रख सकते हैं ?
For example – Punjabis in Bangalore, Tamilians in Mumbai, Kannadigas in Delhi, Gujaratis in Kolkata.
Answer:
Linguistic minorities are looked down upon where most people speak a different language. They are made fun of and frowned upon. Their accents are mimicked with a view to insult them. People should learn to respect the languages that others speak.

Linguistic minorities can keep their own language alive by using it in their homes. They can have get togethers and converse in their own language. They can arrange for special classes so that their children can learn their own language.

जहाँ अधिकांश लोग अन्य भाषा बोलते हैं वहाँ भाषा की दृष्टि से अल्पसंख्यक लोगों से घृणा की जाती है । उनकी मजाक उड़ाई जाती है और उनकी ओर मुँह बनाया जाता है। उनका अपमान करने के लिए उनके लहजे की नकल की जाती है। लोगों को दूसरे लोगों द्वारा बोली जाने वाली भाषाओं का सम्मान करना सीखना चाहिए।

भाषायी अल्पसंख्यक अपने घरों में अपनी भाषा बोलकर अपनी भाषा को सुरक्षित रख सकते हैं । वे एक जगह एकत्रित हो सकते हैं और अपनी भाषा में बात कर सकते हैं । वे विशेष कक्षाओं की व्यवस्था कर सकते हैं ताकि उनके बच्चे अपनी भाषा सीख सकें ।

Question 3.
Is it possible to carry pride in one’s language too far? Do you know what ‘linguistic chauvinism’ means ?
क्या अपनी भाषा पर अत्यधिक घमण्ड करना सम्भव है ? क्या आप ‘linguistic chauvinism’ (भाषायी उग्र राष्ट्रीयता) का अर्थ जानते हैं ?
Answer:
Yes, it is possible to carry pride in one’s language too far but it is neither desirable nor useful in any way. Linguistic chauvinism makes people consider their own language superior to those of others. They do not want to adopt words and phrases from other languages as they think it will spoil their language. Thus they deprive their language of enrichment and cause harm to it. When we love and respect our own language so much that we begin to hate and disrespect other language, it is called linguistic chauvinism.

हाँ, अपनी भाषा पर अत्यधिक घमण्ड करना सम्भव है परन्तु यह किसी तरह न तो वांछनीय है और न ही उपयोगी। भाषायी उग्र राष्ट्रीयता के कारण लोग अपनी भाषा को अन्य लोगों की भाषा से श्रेष्ठतर समझते हैं । वे दूसरी भाषाओं के शब्दों और वाक्यांशों को स्वीकार करना नहीं चाहते हैं क्योंकि वे समझते हैं कि इससे उनकी भाषा दूषित हो जाएगी । इस तरह वे अपनी भाषा को समृद्धि से वंचित कर देते हैं और उसे नुकसान पहुँचाते हैं । अपनी भाषा के प्रति प्यार और सम्मान को इस हद तक ले जाना कि दूसरों की भाषा का असम्मान और अनादर हो जाये, ‘linguistic chauvinism’ कहलाता है।

Working with words

Question 1.
English is a language that contains words from many other languages. This inclusiveness is one of the reasons it is now a world language. For example
petite – French
democracy – Greek
kindergarten – German
bazaar – Hindi
capital – Latin
Find out the origins of the following words :
tycoon, barbecue, zero, tulip, veranda, ski, logo, robot, trek, bandicoot
Answer:
1

Question 2.
Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meaning.

(a) “What a thunderclap these words were to me !” The words were :
(i) loud and clear
(ii) startling and unexpected
(iii) pleasant and welcome.
Answer:
(ii) startling and unexpected

(b) “When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.” It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they :
(i) do not lose their language.
(ii) are attached to their language.
(iii) quickly learn the conqueror’s language.
Answer:
(ii) are attached to their language.

(c) Don’t go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time. You will get to your school :
(i) very late
(ii) too early
(iii) early enough
Answer:
(iii) early enough

(d) I never saw him look so tall. M. Hamel :
(i) had grown physically taller.
(ii) seemed very confident.
(iii) stood on the chair.
Answer:
(ii) seemed very confident.

Noticing form

Read this sentence
M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles.
उक्त वाक्य के प्रथम भाग में verb का रूप “had said” पूर्वकालिक भूत (earlier past) को दर्शाने के लिए प्रयुक्त हुआ है । पूरी कहानी भूतकाल में वर्णित है । एम. हेमल का “कथन” इस कहानी की घटनाओं से पहले का है । Verb का यह रूप past perfect कहलाता है । Pick out five sentences from the story with this form of the verb and say why this form has been used. कहानी से कोई पाँच वाक्य चुनिए जिनमें क्रिया के इस रूप का प्रयोग हुआ हो और बताइये कि क्रिया के इस रूप का प्रयोग क्यों हुआ है।
Answer:
(i) I had counted on the commotion to get to my desk without being seen.
(ii) I had got a little over my fright ……..
(iii) That was what they had put up at the town hall.
(iv) He had put on his fine Sunday clothes.
(v) I had never listened so carefully. In all the above mentioned sentences, the past perfect form of verb has been used to point out something that had happened before a certain point of time in the past.
उपर्युक्त सभी वाक्यों में Past Perfect का प्रयोग भूतकाल के किसी निर्देश बिन्दु से पूर्व घटित हो रही किसी घटना को दर्शाने के लिए किया गया है ।

Writing:

Question 1.
Write a notice for your school bulletin-board. Your notice could be an announcement of a forthcoming event, or a requirement to be fulfilled or a rule to be followed.
अपने विद्यालय के सूचना-पट्ट के लिए एक सूचना लिखिए । आपकी सूचना किसी आने वाली घटना अथवा किसी अनिवार्यता के पालन करने अथवा किसी नियम के पालन से सम्बंधित हो सकती है ।
Answer:

Government Higher Secondary School, Dulchasar (Bikaner)

November 27, 20- –

NOTICE
Essay Writing Competition

The Cultural Society of Dulchasar is going to organise an essay writing competition on 25-12-20xx, on the topic ‘How to Eradicate Corruption.’ The forms are available in the school office. Interested students may get them from the office in school hours. The society will give prizes as well as citation to the winning candidates.
Principal
Govt H. Sec. School, Dulchasar


Question 2.
Write a paragraph of about 100 words arguing for or against having to study three languages at school.
स्कूल में तीन भाषाएँ पढ़ने के पक्ष अथवा विपक्ष में 100 शब्दों का एक अनुच्छेद लिखिये ।
Answer:
For : After deep deliberations, India has accepted three language formula. India is a vast country with so much diversity. Such a big nation as ours can be held together with the help of languages only. Every region of our country has a language of its own.

These are regional languages such as Marwari, Gujarati, Tamil, Telgu, Bangla etc. So a student must learn his/her regional language. Hindi is our national language so it is highly imperative to all Indians to learn Hindi. English is an international language. In this age of globalisation, it is utterly underisable not to learn English. So learning three languages at school level is very necessary.

पक्ष : गहन विचार-विमर्श के बाद, भारत ने त्रिभाषा सूत्र को स्वीकार कर लिया है। भारत बहुत अधिक विविधताओं वाला एक बहुत विशाल राष्ट्र है। हमारे जैसे एक विशाल राष्ट्र को केवल भाषा की मदद से संगठित रखा जा सकता है । हमारे देश के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र की अपनी स्वयं की एक बोली है ।

ये क्षेत्रीय भाषाएँ हैं; जैसे मारवाड़ी, गुजराती, तमिल, तेलुगु, बंगला इत्यादि । इसलिए एक विद्यार्थी को अपनी क्षेत्रीय भाषा सीखनी ही चाहिये । हिन्दी हमारी राष्ट्र भाषा है इसलिए सभी भारतीयों के लिए हिन्दी सीखना अति आवश्यक है । अंग्रेजी एक अंतर्राष्ट्रीय भाषा है । वैश्वीकरण के इस युग में अंग्रेजी नहीं सीखना अत्यधिक अवांछनीय है । इसलिए विद्यालय स्तर पर तीन भाषाएँ सीखना अति आवश्यक है। .

Question 3.
Have you ever changed your opinion about someone or something that you had earlier likad or disliked ? Narrate what led you to change your mind.
क्या आपने कभी किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु के बारे में अपने विचार बदले हैं जिसे आप पहले पसंद या नापसंद करते थे ? वर्णन कीजिये किस चीज ने आपके मन को बदल दिया ।।
Answer:
My father is a teacher and a kind man. We have a maternal uncle. He was a rich man. We respected him very much. He used to visit our house time and again. We felt very happy when he visited our house. He used to bring sweets and fruits for us. My father used to lend him money.

We didn’t know this but mother knew it. One day my father fell seriously ill and we needed money for his treatment. My mother sent me to him for the money. My maternal uncle behaved very rudely. He rebuked me badly and refused to return our money. I felt very sorry. Since then I have no respect for him. His being an opportunist changed my mind.

मेरे पिताजी एक अध्यापक व दयालु व्यक्ति हैं । हमारे एक मामा हैं । वह एक धनी व्यक्ति थे । हम उनका बहुत सम्मान करते थे । वे अक्सर हमारे घर पर आया करते थे । जब वे हमारे घर आते थे तो हम बहुत खुश होते थे । वे हमारे लिए मिठाइयाँ व फल लाया करते थे । मेरे पिताजी उन्हें रुपये उधार दिया करते थे ।

हम यह नहीं जानते थे लेकिन मेरी माताजी यह जानती थीं। एक बार मेरे पिताजी भयंकर बीमार पड़े तथा हमें उनके इलाज के लिए रुपयों की आवश्यकता हुई । मेरी माँ ने मुझे रुपयों के लिए उनके पास भेजा । मेरे मामा ने अत्यधिक अशिष्ट व्यवहार किया । उन्होंने मुझे बुरी तरह से फटकारा व हमारे रुपये लौटाने से इन्कार कर दिया । मुझे बहुत दु:ख हुआ । तब से उनके प्रति मेरे मन में कोई सम्मान नहीं है । उनकी अवसरवादिता ने मेरे मन को बदल दिया।

RBSE Class 12 English The Last Lesson Important Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions

Answer the following questions in about 20-25 words :

Question 1.
Why did Franz not want to go to school that day?
फ्रेन्ज उस दिन विद्यालय क्यों नहीं जाना चाहता था?
Answer:
Franz did not want to go to school that day because his teacher had asked to prepare a lesson on participles but he knew nothing about them.

फ्रेन्ज उस दिन विद्यालय नहीं जाना चाहता था क्योंकि उसके अध्यापक ने छात्रों को Participles पर पाठ तैयार करने के लिए कहा था परन्तु वह इसके बारे में कुछ नहीं जानता था ।

Question 2.
Why was there a large crowd in front of the bulletin-board ?
सूचना-पट्ट के सामने भीड़ क्यों थी ?
Answer:
There was a large crowd in front of the bulletin-board to read the latest news. The news was that they were to study only German in their schools.

वहाँ नवीनतम समाचार पढ़ने के लिये भीड़ एकत्रित थी । समाचार यह था कि उन्हें अपने स्कूलों में केवल जर्मन भाषा पढ़नी थी।

Question 3.
How did the people in Alsace put off learning?
अल्सास के लोग पढ़ाई को पीछे के लिए किस प्रकार टालते थे ?
Answer:
The people in Alsace thought that they had plenty of time to learn their language. That is how they put off their learning.

अल्सास के लोग सोचते थे कि उनके पास अपनी भाषा सीखने के लिए बहुत समय है। इसी तरह वे अपनी शिक्षा को पीछे के लिए टालते थे ।

Question 4.
How does M. Hamel praise the French language ?
एम. हैमल फ्रेन्च भाषा की प्रशंसा किस प्रकार करते हैं ?
How did M. Hamel display his love for the Franch language ?
एम. हैमल ने अपना प्रेम फ्रेंच भाषा के लिये किस प्रकार दिखाया?
Answer:
M. Hamel is a great lover of his language. He says that French is the most beautiful language in the world. It is the clearest and the most logical language.

एम. हैमल M. Hamel अपनी भाषा से बहुत प्यार करने वाले व्यक्ति हैं। वे कहते हैं कि फ्रेन्च संसार की सबसे सुन्दर भाषा है । यह सर्वाधिक स्पष्ट और सर्वाधिक तर्कसंगत भाषा है ।

Question 5.
When did M. Hamel finish his last lesson ?
एम. हैमल ने अपना अन्तिम पाठ कब समाप्त किया ?
Answer:
M. Hamel finished his last lesson when the Church-clock struck twelve and the trumpets of the Prussians sounded under the windows.

एम. हैमल ने अपना अन्तिम पाठ उस समय समाप्त कर दिया जब चर्च की घड़ी ने 12 बजाये और खिड़कियों के नीचे प्रशिया के सैनिकों की तुरहियाँ बजती सुनाई .. दीं।

Question 6.
Why was M. Hamel constantly looking at various things in the room ?
एम. हैमल कमरे की विभिन्न चीजों को लगातार क्यों देख रहे थे ?
Answer:
He was constantly looking at various things in the room because he liked those things and wanted to keep them in his memory.

वे कमरे की विभिन्न वस्तुओं को लगातार देख रहे थे क्योंकि वह उन्हें बहुत पसंद करते तथा उनको अपनी स्मृति में रखना चाहते थे ।

Question 7.
What did the author do when he was not learning his lessons?
जब लेखक पाठ याद नहीं कर रहा होता था तब वह क्या करता था ?
Answer:
The author was not keen at his studies. He did not pay proper attention to his lessons. When he was not learning his lessons, he would seek birds’ eggs or go sliding on the Saar.

लेखक की पढ़ने में रुचि नहीं थी। वह अपने पाठों की ओर उचित ध्यान नहीं देता था । जब वह अपने पाठ याद नहीं कर रहा होता तब वह पक्षियों के अण्डे ढूँढा करता था अथवा सार नदी पर फिसलने चला जाया करता था ।

Question 8.
How did the author come to know that it was the last lesson in French?
लेखक को कैसे पता चला कि यह फ्रांसीसी भाषा का अन्तिम पाठ था ?
Answer:
The teacher told the students that the order had come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine and that it was their last lesson in French.

अध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों को बताया कि बर्लिन से आदेश आ गया है कि अल्सास और लॉरेन के स्कूलों में केवल जर्मन भाषा पढ़ाई जायेगी और यह फ्रेन्च भाषा का उनका अन्तिम पाठ था ।

Question 9.
How will the Germans reproach the French ?
जर्मन लोग फ्रांसीसियों की किस तरह आलोचना करेंगे ?
Answer:
The Germans will reproach the French saying that they pretend to be Frenchmen and yet they can neither speak nor write their own language.

जर्मनी के लोग यह कहते हुए उनकी आलोचना करेंगे कि वे बनते तो फ्रांसीसी हैं, तथापि वे न तो अपनी भाषा बोल सकते हैं और न लिख सकते हैं ।

Question 10.
What did M. Hamel.ask Franz to do when he entered the class?
जब Franz ने कक्षा में प्रवेश किया तब एम. हैमल ने उससे क्या करने को कहा ?
Answer:
When Franz entered the class, M. Hamel asked him gently to go to his place quickly. He told that he was going to begin to teach his lesson without him.

जब फ्रेन्ज ने कक्षा में प्रवेश किया तब एम. हैमल ने उससे दयालुतापूर्वक कहा कि वह शीघ्र ही अपनी सीट पर बैठ जाये। उन्होंने कहा कि वे उसके बिना ही पाठ प्रारंभ कर करने वाले थे ।

Question 11.
Why were some villagers sitting on the back benches of the class that day?
कक्षा की पीछे की सीटों पर उस दिन कुछ ग्रामीण क्यों बैठे थे ?
Or
Why did the village elders occupy the back benches in the classroom to attain the last lesson delivered by M. Hamel ?
एम. हैमल द्वारा पढ़ाए गये अन्तिम पाठ को पढ़ने गाँव के बुजुर्ग व्यक्ति कक्षा की अन्तिम मेजों पर क्यों बैठे थे?
Answer:
Some villagers were sitting on the back benches of the class as they were sorry that they had not gone to school. They also wanted to thank M. Hamel for his sincere service.

गाँव के लोग पीछे की बेन्चों पर बैठे थे क्योंकि उन्हें दुःख था कि वे स्कूल नहीं गये थे । वे एम. हैमल को उनकी निष्ठापूर्ण सेवा के लिए धन्यवाद भी देना चाहते थे ।

Question 12.
What was the condition of Franz when his name was called in the class ?
जब फ्रेन्ज का नाम कक्षा में पुकारा गया तब उसकी कैसी दशा थी ?
Answer:
When Franz’s name was called in the class, his heart was beating and he did not dare look up as he did not know anything about the rules of participles.

जब फ्रेन्ज का नाम पुकारा गया तब उसका हृदय धक-धक कर रहा था और उससे ऊपर देखने का साहस भी नहीं हो रहा था क्योंकि वह Participles के नियमों के बारे में कुछ भी नहीं जानता था ।

Question 13.
How did M. Hamel blame himself for Franz’s not learning French?
एम. हैमल ने फ्रेन्ज के फ्रान्सीसी भाषा न सीखने के लिए अपने आपको दोषी किस प्रकार माना ?
Answer:
M. Hamel blamed himself for Franz’s not learning French as he often sent him to water his flowers instead of learning his lesson. M. Hamel also gave the children a holiday when he (M. Hamel) wanted to go fishing.

एम. हैमल ने फ्रेन्ज के फ्रांसीसी भाषा न सीखने के लिए अपने आपको दोषी बताया क्योंकि वह अक्सर उसे पाठ याद करने के स्थान पर अपने फूलों में पानी देने के लिए भेज देते थे । एम. हैमल जब मछली के शिकार पर जाना चाहते थे तब वे बच्चों को छुट्टी भी दे देते थे ।

Question 14.
What looked like little flags floating everywhere in the school room?
क्या चीज़ स्कूल के कमरे में सब जगह छोटे झण्डों की भाँति लहराती हुई लग रही थी ?
Answer:
For a lesson in writing, M. Hamel had new copies for the students, written in a beautiful round hand-France, Alsace, France, Alsace. They looked like little flags floating everywhere in the school room.

लेखन के पाठ के लिए एम. हैमल के पास विद्यार्थियों के लिए नई कापियाँ थीं जिन पर सुन्दर वक्राकार शैली के हस्तलेख में लिखा गया था- फ्रान्स, अल्सास, फ्रान्स, अल्सास । वे (कापियाँ) स्कूल कक्ष में उनकी मेजों के ऊपर लहराती हुई झंडियों जैसी लग रही थीं।

Question 15.
Why did Franz praise the courage of M. Hamel?
फ्रेन्ज ने एम. हैमल के साहस की प्रशंसा क्यों की ?
Answer:
Franz praised the courage of M. Hamel because although he and his family had to leave the country the next day, yet he was teaching everything according to the time-table with great patience.

फ्रेन्ज ने एम. हैमल के साहस की इसलिए प्रशंसा की क्योंकि उनको और उनके परिवार को अगले दिन देश से बाहर जाना था फिर भी वे धैर्यपूर्वक प्रत्येक बात को समय-सारणी के अनुसार पढ़ा रहे थे।

Question 16.
Who was Wachter ? Why did he call after Franz ?
वॉक्टर कौन था ? उसने फ्रेन्ज को क्यों पुकारा ?
Answer:
Wachter was a blacksmith. As Franz was hurrying to school, he called after him not to run so fast as he had plenty of time to get to school.

वॉक्टर एक लुहार था । जब फ्रेन्ज जल्दी-जल्दी स्कूल की ओर जा रहा था, उसने फ्रेन्ज को यह कहने के लिये पुकारा कि वह इतना तेज न दौड़े, वह समय पर अपने स्कूल पहुँच जायेगा ।

Question 17.
How did M. Hamel wish his country before the close of the school that day ?
उस दिन स्कूल समाप्ति से पहले एम. हैमल ने अपने देश के प्रति अभिवादन किस प्रकार प्रकट किया ?
Answer:
M. Hamel appealed to his class to learn their language. He turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk, and bearing on with all his might, he wrote as large as he could : “Vive La France !”

एम. हैमल ने अपनी कक्षा से अपनी भाषा सीखने का आग्रह किया। वह श्यामपट्ट की तरफ मुड़े, चॉक का एक टुकड़ा लिया, और अपनी पूरी शक्ति बटोरकर, उन्होंने इतना बड़ा जितना बड़ा वह लिख सकते थे, लिखा : “फ्रांस जिन्दाबाद ।”

Question 18.
What was M. Hamel doing when Franz saw through the window of his classroom ?
जब फ्रेन्ज ने अपनी कक्षा की खिड़की से अन्दर झाँका तब एम. हैमल क्या कर रहे थे ?
Answer:
When Franz saw through the window of his classroom, M. Hamel was walking up and down with his terrible iron ruler under his arm.
जब फ्रेन्ज ने अपनी कक्षा की खिड़की से अन्दर झाँका तब एम. हैमल अपनी बाजू के नीचे अपने लोहे के भयानक पैमाने के साथ इधर-उधर टहल रहे थे ।

Question 19.
What did M. Hamel say to the students at the time of dismissing the class ?
कक्षा को समाप्त करते समय एम. हैमल ने विद्यार्थियों से क्या कहा ?
Answer:
At the time of dismissing the class, M. Hamel did not say anything and made a gesture with his hand, “school is dismissed — you may go.”

कक्षा को समाप्त करते समय एम. हैमल ने विद्यार्थियों से कुछ भी नहीं कहा और केवल अपने हाथ से एक इशारा किया, “विद्यालय समाप्त हुआ-आप जा सकते हैं ।”

Question 20.
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!” — Which were the words that shocked and surprised Franz ?
“ये शब्द मेरे लिये बिजली की कड़कड़ाहट के समान थे ।’ वे कौन से शब्द थे जिन्होंने फ्रेन्ज को स्तब्ध व आश्चर्यचकित कर दिया था ?
Answer:
The words of M. Hamel which shocked and surprised Franz were — “My children, this is the last lesson I shall give you. The order has come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This is your last French lesson”.

एम. हैमल के वे शब्द जिन्होंने फ्रेन्ज को स्तब्ध और आश्चर्यचकित कर दिया था वे थे “मेरे बच्चों, यह अन्तिम पाठ होगा जो मैं आपको दूँगा । बर्लिन से आदेश आया है कि अल्सास और लॉरेन के विद्यालयों में केवल जर्मन भाषा पढ़ाई जायेगी । यह आपका फ्रेन्च भाषा का अन्तिम पाठ है ।”

Question 21.
How can you say that the students exhibited full attention on the day the last lesson was taught?
आप कैसे कह सकते हो कि अन्तिम पाठ पढ़ाये जाने के दिन छात्रों ने पूरा ध्यान दिया?
Answer:
On the day when the last lesson was taught, all the students set to work very quietly. Even the little children worked attentively. There was a pin drop silence in the classroom.
जिस दिन अन्तिम पाठ पढ़ाया गया, सभी विद्यार्थी चुपचाप काम में जुट गये । छोटे बच्चे भी बहुत ध्यानपूर्वक काम कर रहे थे । कक्षा कक्ष में पूरी शान्ति थी ।

Question 22.
“But the thing that surprised me the most was to see ……”. What surprised Franz most in the class?
“लेकिन जिस चीज को देखकर मैं सर्वाधिक चकित हुआ …….”। कक्षा में किस चीज को देखकर फ्रेन्ज सर्वाधिक आश्चर्यचकित हुआ?
Answer:
The thing that surprised Franz the most was to see the elderly villagers seated on the back benches of the class which were usually empty.
जिस चीज को देखकर फ्रेन्ज सर्वाधिक आश्चर्यचकित हुआ वह थी कि गाँव के बुजुर्ग लोग पीछे की मेजों पर बैठे हुए थे जो अधिकतर खाली रहती थीं।

Long Answer Type Questions

Answer the following questions in about 80 words :

Question 1.
What was more fascinating to Franz than the rules of Participles?
फ्रेन्ज के लिए Participles के नियमों से ज्यादा मनमोहक क्या था?
Answer:
Franz was a small school-going boy. His teacher had asked the students to prepare themselves on Participles. Franz was apprehensive of being scolded in his school as he had not prepared his lesson on Participles. Also he was late for his school. So he thought of running away and spending the day outdoors. He enjoyed collecting birds’ eggs and sliding on the Saar. The weather and the sight of the drilling soldiers were more fascinating to him than the rules of Participles.

फ्रेन्ज स्कूल जाने वाला एक छोटा लड़का था । उसके अध्यापक ने छात्रों को Participles तैयार करने के लिए कहा था । फ्रेन्ज को स्कूल में फटकार पड़ने की आशंका थी क्योंकि उसने Participles पर अपना पाठ तैयार नहीं किया था। उसे स्कूल के लिए पहले ही देर हो गई थी। इसलिए उसने भागने और घर से बाहर दिन बिताने की सोची । उसे पक्षियों के अण्डे एकत्र करने और सार नदी पर फिसलने में आनन्द आता था। मौसम और ड्रिल करते सैनिकों का दृश्य फ्रेन्ज के लिए Participles के नियमों की अपेक्षा ज्यादा आकर्षक थे ।।

Question 2.
What was the order from Berlin ? How did it affect Frenz and the people of Alsace ?
बलिन का क्या ऑर्डर था? फ्रेन्ज और अल्सेस के लोगों पर इसका क्या प्रभाव हुआ?
Answer:
Prussia had taken over two districts of France, Alsace and Lorraine in the war. There came an order from Berlin, the capital of Germany that from then only German language would be taught in the schools of these two French districts.

When Franz and other people came to know the news, they grew emotional. Even the villagers attended the last lesson in French given by the school teacher, M. Hamel. They all felt sorry to think that they had not paid proper attention to learn their language.

प्रशिया ने युद्ध में फ्रांस के दो जिलों अल्सास और लॉरेन पर अधिकार कर लिया था। जर्मनी की राजधानी बर्लिन से आदेश आया कि अब से फ्रांस के इन दोनों जिलों के विद्यालयों में केवल जर्मन भाषा ही पढ़ाई जाएगी । जब फ्रेन्ज व अन्य लोगों को यह समाचार मिला, वे भावुक हो उठे । यहाँ तक कि ग्रामीण भी विद्यालय के शिक्षक द्वारा फ्रेंच भाषा में दिये जा रहे अन्तिम पाठ को सीखने के लिए कक्षा में उपस्थित हो गए । वे यह सोचकर दुखी थे कि उन्होंने अपनी भाषा सीखने पर पर्याप्त ध्यान नहीं दिया था ।

Question 3.
Why does the teacher feel that they all have a great deal to reproach themselves with ?
अध्यापक को ऐसा क्यों महसूस होता है कि वे सभी काफी हद तक दोषी हैं ?
Answer:
The teacher is teaching his last lesson. In his opinion, nobody was serious enough to study French. Children did not take their lesson seriously. Their parents preferred to put them to work on a farm or at the mills, so as to get a little more money.

The teacher feels that he was equally guilty. He had often sent the students to water his flowers instead of learning their lessons. Also he often gave them holidays when he wanted to go fishing. Now he wants whole of his nation to keep their language alive.

रहा है। उसके विचार में कोई भी फ्रेन्च भाषा के अध्ययन के प्रति पर्याप्त गम्भीर नहीं था । बच्चे अपने पाठों को गम्भीरता से नहीं पढते थे । उनके माता-पिता उनसे खेतों में या मिलों में काम करवाना ज्यादा पसन्द करते थे ताकि उन्हें थोड़ा और धन मिल जाये। अध्यापक महसूस करता है कि वह भी उतना ही दोषी था । उसने पाठ याद करने की बजाय अपने छात्रों को अक्सर फूलों में पानी देने भेजा था । इसके अलावा उसने अक्सर उनकी छुट्टी की थी जब वह मछली पकड़ने जाता था । अब वह चाहता है कि उसका पूरा देश अपनी भाषा को जीवित रखे।

Question 4.
What message does the teacher want to convey in his last lesson ?
अपने अन्तिम पाठ में अध्यापक क्या सन्देश देना चाहता है ?
Answer:
Prussia has taken over Alsace and Lorraine districts of France in the war. They have sent an order that French will no longer be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. They will learn only German now. M. Hamel is teaching his last lesson in French.

He wants all of them to take their education seriously and to learn their own language i.e. French properly. He says when people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language, it is as if they had the key to their prison.

प्रशिया ने युद्ध में फ्रांस के दो जिलों अल्सास और लॉरेन पर अधिकार कर लिया है । उन्होंने एक आदेश भेजा है कि Alsace तथा Lorraine के स्कूलों में अब फ्रेन्च नहीं पढ़ाई जाएगी । वे अब सिर्फ जर्मन पढ़ेंगे । M. Hamel फ्रेन्च में अपना अन्तिम पाठ पढ़ा रहे हैं । वह चाहते हैं कि वे सब अपनी शिक्षा को गम्भीरता से लें और अपनी भाषा फ्रेन्च को भली भाँति सीखें । वह कहते हैं कि जब किसी देश के लोग गुलाम होते हैं, तो जब तक वे अपनी भाषा से मजबूती से जुड़े रहते हैं वह ऐसा ही है मानो उनकी जेल की चाबी उनके पास |

Question 5.
How did Franz begin to like the school he hated earlier ?
फ्रेन्ज उस स्कूल को क्यों पसन्द करने लगा जिससे वह पहले घृणा करता था ?
Answer:
Franz had always been careless about his studies. He hated his school as he found it a tough task to prepare his lessons. One day his teacher, M. Hamel told the class that it was their last lesson in their mother tongue, French. From the next day, they were going to be taught German in piace of French. His teacher was also going to leave the school. This arose Franz’s sentirnents. He felt sorry for having neglected his studies. Now he began to like the school he hated earlier.

फ्रेन्ज हमेशा अपनी पढ़ाई के प्रति लापरवाह रहा था । उसे अपने स्कूल से घृणा थी क्योंकि उसे अपने पाठ तैयार करना बहुत कठिन लगता था। एक दिन उसके अध्यापक एम. हैमल ने कक्षा को बताया कि वह उनका उनकी मातृभाषा फ्रेंच में आखिरी सबक था । अगले दिन से उन्हें फ्रेंच के स्थान पर जर्मन भाषा पढ़ाई जानी थी । उसके अध्यापक भी स्कूल से जाने वाले थे । इससे फ्रेंज भावुक हो उठा । उसे दु:ख हुआ कि वह अपनी पढ़ाई की उपेक्षा करता रहा था। अब वही स्कूल उसे अच्छा लगने लगा जिससे वह पहले घृणा करता था ।

Question 6.
Why was it so difficult for the teacher to leave his school ?
अध्यापक के लिए अपने विद्यालय को छोड़ना इतना अधिक कठिम क्यों था ?
Answer:
The teacher M. Hamel had been in the school for forty years. His garden was outside the window and his class was in front of him. The same desks and benches were there in the class-room, only they had been worn smooth. The walnut trees in the garden had grown taller. He had planted the hopevine himself. It was very difficult for him to dissociate himself from all these things for they had become part and parcel of his life.

अध्यापक एम. हैमल चालीस वर्षों से उस स्कूल में थे । उनका बगीचा खिड़की के बाहर था और उनकी कक्षा उनके सामने थी । कक्षा कक्ष में वही डेस्क और बेन्च थीं, सिर्फ वे घिसकर चिकनी हो गई थीं। बगीचे में अखरोट के पेड़ लम्बे हो गये थे। उन्होंने होप की बेल स्वयं लगाई थी। उनके लिए इन सब चीजों से सम्बन्ध तोड़ना बहुत कठिन था क्योंकि वे उनके जीवन का अभिन्न अंग बन चुकी थीं।

Question 7.
What is your opinion about the title of the lesson “The Last Lesson’?
पाठ के शीर्षक ‘The Last Lesson’ के विषय में आपका क्या विचार है ?
Answer:
In my opinion the title of the lesson “The Last Lesson’ is quite appropriate. The lesson presents a vivid description of M. Hamel’s last lesson in the class on the last day. There came an order from Berlin banning the teaching of French. According to the order only German was to be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Addressing the students he said, “My children, this is my last lesson in French”. On his last day he taught so well that every student was attentive to him.

मेरे विचार में पाठ का शीर्षक “The Last Lesson’ एकदम सटीक है । यह पाठ एम. हैमल द्वारा पढ़ाये जाने वाले अन्तिम पाठ (फ्रेन्चं भाषा का) के अन्तिम दिन का सजीव वर्णन प्रस्तुत करता है । बर्लिन से फ्रेन्च भाषा पढ़ाने पर रोक सम्बन्धी आदेश आया था । इस आदेश के अनुसार अल्सैस और लॉरेन के विद्यालयों में अब सिर्फ जर्मन भाषा पढ़ाई जानी थी । एम. हैमल ने कक्षा को सम्बोधित करते हुए कहा, “मेरे बच्चों, यह फ्रेन्च भाषा में मेरा अन्तिम पाठ है ।” उन्होंने अपने अन्तिम दिन इतनी अच्छी तरह से पढ़ाया कि कक्षा में प्रत्येक विद्यार्थी का ध्यान उनकी ओर था ।

Question 8.
How did M. Hamel look different on the day of the last lesson ?
अन्तिम पाठ वाले दिन एम. हैमल किस प्रकार अलग दिख रहे थे ?
Answer:
On the last day M. Hamel came wearing a fine dress that he used to wear on special occasions. On the last day he addressed everybody present in the class, “My children, this is the last lesson of French”. He was looking very sad at the order which had come from Berlin. The order imposed a ban on teaching French. On the last day he explained everything in detail with utmost dedication. It seemed as if he wanted to teach them everything in just one stroke.

उस अन्तिम दिन एम. हैमल एक अच्छी पोशाक पहनी थी जिसे वह विशेष अवसरों पर ही पहनते थे। उस दिन उन्होंने कक्षा में बैठे सभी लोगों को सम्बोधित किया, “मेरे बच्चों, यह फ्रेन्च भाषा का अन्तिम पाठ है ।” वह उस आदेश पर जो कि बर्लिन से आया था, बहुत दुखी थे । उस आदेश ने फ्रेन्च भाषा पढ़ाने पर रोक लगा दी थी । अन्तिम दिन उन्होंने प्रत्येक चीज का विस्तार से और बड़े ही समर्पित भाव से वर्णन किया। ऐसा प्रतीत होता था जैसे वह एक ही बार में उन्हें (विद्यार्थियों को) सब कुछ सिखा देना चाहते थे ।

Question 9.
Give a character sketch of M. Hamel.
एम. हैमल का चरित्र-चित्रण कीजिये
Answer:
In the beginning, M. Hamel emerges as a very strict teacher who always keeps a ruler in his hand. and he seems to be a typical hard task-master. But when he teaches his last lesson, the sensitive and thought-provoking teacher within him comes out. He is a great patriot and wants his students and countrymen to be proud of their nation and language. M. Hamel teaches even his last lesson with great patience. To sum up, M. Hamel is a perfect teacher.

शुरू में, एम. हैमल एक ऐसे कठोर अध्यापक के रूप में उभरकर आते हैं जो हमेशा अपने हाथ में एक डण्डा. रखता है और वह विशिष्ट सख्त मिजाज व्यक्ति प्रतीत होते हैं । किन्तु जब वह अपना अन्तिम पाठ पढ़ाते हैं, तो उनके अन्दर का संवेदनशील और विचारोत्तेजक अध्यापक बाहर आ जाता है एक महान देशभक्त हैं और चाहते हैं कि उनके विद्यार्थी तथा देशवासी अपने देश और अपनी भाषा के प्रति गौरव का अनुभव करें । वह अपने अन्तिम पाठ को बहुत धैर्य के साथ पढ़ाते हैं । संक्षेप में, एम. हैमल एक सम्पूर्ण शिक्षक हैं ।

Question 10.
What did the French teacher tell his students in his last French lesson ? What impact did it have on them? Why?
फ्रेन्च भाषा के अध्यापक ने फ्रेंच की अपनी अन्तिम कक्षा में अपने छात्रों से क्या कहा ? इसका उन पर क्या
Answer:
The French teacher in his last French lesson seemed very emotional. In a very grave tone he told his students and the villagers that this was the last time they were studying their mother tongue. From the next day, German was going to be imposed on them. Listening to this, they all turned emotional. They felt great yearning for their language. Feeling repentence for not having paid heed to learn their language, they studied very attentively. Now they felt the importance of their mother tongue.

फ्रेन्च भाषा के अध्यापक फ्रेन्च की अन्तिम कक्षा में बड़े भावुक लग रहे थे । उन्होंने बड़े गम्भीर लहजे में अपने छात्रों और गाँव वालों से कहा कि वे उस दिन अन्तिम बार अपनी मातृभाषा पढ़ रहे थे । अगले दिन से, उन पर जर्मन भाषा थोपी जाने वाली थी । यह सुनकर वे सब भावुक हो उठे । उन्हें अपनी भाषा के प्रति बड़ी चाहत का अनुभव हुआ । अपनी भाषा के अध्ययन के प्रति पूर्व में ध्यान न देने पर पछताते हुए उन्होंने बहुत ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ाई की । अब उन्हें अपनी मातृभाषा के महत्व का अनुभव हुआ ।

Seen Comprehension Passages

Read the following passages and answer the questions given below:

Passage 1.

I started for school very late that morning and was in great dread of a scolding, especially because M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles, and I did not know the first word about them. For a moment I thought of running away and spending the day out of doors.

It was so warm, so bright! The birds were chirping at the edge of the woods; and in the open field back of the sawmill the Prussian soldiers were drilling. It was all much more tempting than the rule for participles, but I had the strength to resist, and hurried off to school. When I passed the town hall there was a crowd in front of the bulletin-board.

For the last two years all our bad news had come from there the lost battles, the draft, the orders of the commanding officer –and I thought to myself, without stopping, “What can be the matter now?”

Questions:
1. Who is ‘I’m the above passage?
2. What was Franz fearful of?
3. What had M. Hamel said?
4. What ‘bad news’ had the bulletin board delivered since the last two years?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘oppose’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘early’.
Answer:
1. ‘I’ in the above passage refers to the little boy named Franz.
2. Franz was fearful of scolding from his teacher M. Hamel.
3. M. Hamel had said that he would ask questions on participles.
4. The bad news included- the lost battles, the draft, the orders of the commanding officer, etc.
5. resist.
6. late.

Passage 2.

Then, as I hurried by as fast as I could go, the blacksmith, Wachter, who was there, with his apprentice, reading the bulletin, called after me, “Don’t go so fast, bub; you’ll get to your school in plenty of time!”
I thought he was making fun of me, and reached M. Hamel’s little garden all out of breath. Usually, when school began, there was a great bustle, which could be heard out in the street, the opening and closing of desks, lessons repeated in unison, very loud, with our hands over our ears to understand better, and the teacher’s great ruler rapping on the table.

But now it was all so still! I had counted on the commotion to get to my desk without being seen; but, of course, that day everything had to be as quiet as Sunday morning. Through the window I saw my classmates, already in their places, and M. Hamel walking up and down with his terrible iron ruler under his arm. I had to open the door and go in before everybody. You can imagine how I blushed and how frightened I was.

Questions:
1. Who was Wachter and who accompanied him?
2. What was the great bustle which could be heard out in the street?
3. What was the atmosphere at the school that day?
4. What was M. Hamel walking with?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘unitedly’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘slow’.
Answer:
1. Wachter was a blacksmith and he was accompanied by his apprentice.
2. It was the sound of opening and closing of desks, lessons repeated in unison and the teacher’s ruler rapping on the table.
3. That day, everything at school was as still and quiet as Sunday morning.
4. M. Hamel was walking with his terrible iron ruler under his arm.
5. unison.
6. frightened.

Passage 3.

But nothing happened. M. Hamel saw me and said very kindly, “Go to your place quickly, little Franz. We were beginning without you.” I jumped over the bench and sat down at my desk. Not till then, when I had got a little over my fright, did I see that our teacher had on his beautiful green coat, his frilled shirt, and the little black silk cap, all embroidered, that he never wore except on inspection and prize days. Besides, the whole school seemed so strange and solemn.

But the thing that surprised me most was to see, on the back benches that were always empty, the village people sitting quietly like ourselves; old Hauser, with his three-cornered hat, the former mayor, the former postmaster, and several others besides. Everybody looked sad; and Hauser had brought an old primer, thumbed at the edges, and he held it open on his knees with his great spectacles lying across the pages.

Questions:
1. How was the teacher dressed?
2. When did the teacher use to dress up like that?
3. What surprised the little boy the most?
4. Who were sitting on the back benches?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘serious’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to‘ugly’.
Answer:
1. The teacher was dressed in a beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and a little black silk cap, all embroidered.
2. The teacher used to dress up like that only on inspection and prize days.
3. The little boy was most surprised to see the village people sitting on the back benches which were usually always empty.
4. Old Hauser, former mayor, former postmaster and several other villagers were sitting on the back benches.
5. solemn.
6. beautiful.

Passage 4.

While I was wondering about it all, M. Hamel mounted his chair, and, in the same grave and gentle tone which he had used to me, said, “My children, this is the last lesson I shall give you. The order has come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new master comes tomorrow. This is your last French lesson. I want you to be very attentive.”

What a thunderclap these words were to me! Oh, the wretches; that was what they had put up at the town-hall! My last French lesson! Why, I hardly knew how to write! I should never learn any more! I must stop there, then! Oh, how sorry I was for not learning my lessons, for seeking birds’ eggs, or going sliding on the Saar!

My books, that had seemed such a nuisance a while ago, so heavy to carry, my grammar, and my history of the saints, were old friends now that I couldn’t give up. And M. Hamel, too; the idea that he was going away, that I should never see him again, made me forget all about his ruler and how cranky he was.

Questions:
1. In what tone did the teacher address the students?
2. What was the order that came from Berlin?
3. Whose words were a thunderclap for the little boy?
4. What was the little boy sorry for?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘annoying’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to cheerful.
Answer:
1. The teacher addressed the students in a grave and gentle tone.
2. The order that came from Berlin was to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.
3. M. Hamel’s words were a thunderclap from the little boy.
4. The little boy was sorry for not learning French and wasting his time instead.
5. nuisance.
6. cranky.

Passage 5.

Poor man! It was in honour of this last lesson that he had put on his fine Sunday clothes, and now I understood why the old men of the village were sitting there in the back of the room. It was because they were sorry, too, that they had not gone to school more. It was their way of thanking our master for his forty years of faithful service and of showing their respect for the country that was theirs no more.

While I was thinking of all this, I heard my name called. It was my turn to recite. What would I not have given to be able to say that dreadful rule for the participle all through, very loud and clear, and without one mistake? But I got mixed up on the first words and stood there, holding on to my desk, my heart beating, and not daring to look up.

Questions:
1. Who has been referred to as the ‘poor man’ in the above passage?
2. Why were the villagers sitting at the back of the room?
3. Whose name was called to recite?
4. What was he supposed to recite?
5. Find the word from the passage which means “glory’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to “afraid’.
Answer:
1. M. Hamel, the teacher, has been referred to as the ‘poor man’ in the passage.
2. The villagers were sitting at the back of the room to thank the master for forty years of his faithful service and to show their respect for the country that was theirs no more.
3. The little boy named Franz was called to recite.
4. Franz was supposed to recite the rules of the participles.
5. honour.
6. daring.

Passage 6.

I heard M. Hamel say to me, “I won’t scold you, little Franz; you must feel bad enough. See how it is! Every day we have said to ourselves, ‘Bah! I’ve plenty of time. I’ll learn it tomorrow.’ And now you see where we’ve come out. Ah, that’s the great trouble with Alsace; she puts off learning till tomorrow. Now those fellows out there will have the right to say to you, ‘How is it; you pretend to be Frenchmen, and yet you can neither speak nor write your own language? But you are not the worst, poor little Franz. We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with.”

“Your parents were not anxious enough to have you learn. They preferred to put you to work on a farm or at the mills, so as to have a little more money. And I? I’ve been to blame also. Have I not often sent you to water my flowers instead of learning your lessons? And when I wanted to go fishing, did I not just give you a holiday?”

Questions:
1. What was little Franz fearful of being scolded for?
2. What was the trouble with the people of Alsace?
3. What did the parents prefer?
4. Why did the parents send their children to work on a farm or at the mills?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘assume.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘best.
Answer:
1. Little Franz was fearful of being scolded for not reciting the rules of participles.
2. The trouble with the people of Alsace was that they used to put off learning things to the next day.
3. The parents preferred to send their children to work on a farm or at the mills.
4. They send their children to work on a farm or at the mills in order to earn a little more money.
5. pretend.
6. worst.

Passage 7.

Then, from one thing to another, M. Hamel went on to talk of the French language, saying that it was the most beautiful language in the world the clearest, the most logical; that we must guard it among us and never forget it, because when a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.

Then he opened a grammar and read us our lesson. I was amazed to see how well I understood it. All he said seemed so easy, so easy! I think, too, that I had never listened so carefully, and that he had never explained everything with so much patience. It seemed almost as if the poor man wanted to give us all he knew before going away, and to put it all into our heads at one stroke.

Questions:
1. Why did M. Hamel consider French as the most beautiful language in the world?
2. What is the key to the prison of people when they are enslaved?
3. What did M. Hamel open?
4. What did the ‘poor man’ want to do?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘protect’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘carelessly’.
Answer:
1. According to M. Hamel, French was the most beautiful language of the world because it was the clearest and the most logical.
2. Knowledge and understanding of their native language is the key to the prison of people when they are enslaved.
3. M. Hamel opened a grammar book to teach the students.
4. The “poor man’ (M. Hamel) wanted to give the students all the knowledge that he had before going away.
5. guard.
6. carefully.

Passage 8.

After the grammar, we had a lesson in writing. That day M. Hamel had new copies for us, written in a beautiful round hand – France, Alsace, France, Alsace. They looked like little flags floating everywhere in the school-room, hung from the rod at the top of our desks.

You ought to have seen how every one set to work, and how quiet it was! The only sound was the scratching of the pens over the paper. Once some beetles flew in; but nobody paid any attention to them, not even the littlest ones, who worked right on tracing their fish-hooks, as if that was French, too. On the roof the pigeons cooed very low, and I thought to myself, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?”

Questions:
1. What did M. Hamel have for the students that day?
2. What did the beautiful round hand- France, Alsace, France, Alsace- look like?
3. What was the only sound that could be heard?
4. Who cooed on the roof and in what tone?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘silent.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite toʻugly’.
Answer:
1. M. Hamel had new copies for the students that day.
2. It looked like flags floating everywhere in the schoolroom.
3. The only sound that could be heard was the scratching of the pens over the paper.
4. Pigeons cooed on the roof in a very low tone.
5. quiet.
6. beautiful.

Passage 9.

Only the desks and benches had been worn smooth; the walnut-trees in the garden were taller, and the hopvine that he had planted himself twined about the windows to the roof. How it must have broken his heart to leave it all, poor man; to hear his sister moving about in the room above, packing their trunks! For they must leave the country next day.

But he had the courage to hear every lesson to the very last. After the writing, we had a lesson in history, and then the babies chanted their ba, be bi, bo, bu. Down there at the back of the room old Hauser had put on his spectacles and, holding his primer in both hands, spelled the letters with them. You could see that he, too, was crying; his voice trembled with emotion, and it was so funny to hear him that we all wanted to laugh and cry. Ah, how well I remember it, that last lesson!

Questions:
1. Who had planted the hopvine?
2. Who had to leave the country the next day?
3. What was the lesson after the writing?
4. What was old Hauser doing?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘boxes’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to ‘rough’.
Answer:
1. The teacher named M. Hamel had planted the hopvine.
2. M. Hamel and his sister had to leave the country the next day.
3. After the writing, there was a lesson in history.
4. Old Hauser was spelling the letters with the children and was crying.
5. trunks.
6. smooth.

Passage 10.

All at once the church-clock struck twelve. Then the Angelus. At the same moment the trumpets of the Prussians, returning from drill, sounded under our windows. M. Hamel stood up, very pale, in his chair. I never saw him look so tall.

“My friends,” said he, “I – I – ” But something choked him. He could not go on. Then he turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk, and, bearing on with all his might, he wrote as large as he could-
“Vive La France!” Then he stopped and leaned his head against the wall, and, without a word, he made a gesture to us with his hand – “School is dismissed – you may go.”

Questions:
1. What happened when the church-clock struck twelve?
2. How did M. Hamel look in his chair?
3. What happened to M. Hamel when he wanted to speak?
4. What did M. Hamel write on the blackboard?
5. Find the word from the passage which means ‘expression made by hand head etc’.
6. Find the word from the passage which is opposite to‘started’.
Answer:
1. The trumpets of the Prussians started sounding when the church-clock struck twelve.
2. M. Hamel looked extremely pale and tall in his chair.
3. When M. Hamel wanted to speak, something choked him and he could not say anything.
4. M. Hamel wrote Viva La France’ (Long Live France) on the blackboard.
5. gesture.
6. stopped.

The Last Lesson Textbook Questions and Answers