Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 English Literature Unseen Passages

An Unseen Passage and Poem

Course :

  1. One literary or discursive passage of about 400-500 words followed by five short answer type questions. Marks : 08
  2. A poem of about 15 lines followed by five short answer type questions to test interpretation and appreciation. Marks : 07

Comprehension :
Comprehend (समझना) एक क्रिया है जिसका अर्थ है समझना या ग्रहण करना। Comprehension समझने या ग्रहण करने का कार्य है। इसका अर्थ है किसी विषय-वस्तु को गहराई (पूर्ण रूप में) से समझना। किसी दिये गये passage को बहुत ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ना Comprehension के लिये प्रथम आवश्यकता होती है। पाठक को पूर्ण रूप से ध्यान केन्द्रित करके व passage में दिये गये शब्दों के अर्थों को पूर्ण रूप में समझ कर पढ़ना चाहिये। पाठक को इसकी (passage की) आत्मा (स्वरूप) को भी ध्यान में रखना चाहिये।

इसकी प्रथम reading करते समय इसके (passage के) मुख्य विचार या विषय वस्तु पर ध्यान केन्द्रित करें। जैसे ही इसकी मुख्य विषय वस्तु या सारांश स्पष्ट होता है, उससे सम्बन्धित नोट्स (points) बना लें। दूसरी reading में, प्रथम reading के आधार पर ज्ञात मुख्य भाव को ध्यान में रखते हुए, मुख्य शब्दों वे वाक्यांशों पर ध्यान देते हुए, उनके अर्थों पर ध्यान देते हुए, न सिर्फ इस पर ध्यान देना है कि passage में क्या कहा गया है बल्कि इस पर भी ध्यान देना है कि कैसे कहा गया है। यह भी देखिये कि passage का development कैसे हुआ है। अब आप परीक्षक के प्रश्नों के अध्ययन के लिये तैयार हैं।

पहले सभी प्रश्नों को पढ़िये। सभी प्रश्नों को सावधानीपूर्वक पढ़ने से प्रत्येक प्रश्न स्वयं में स्पष्ट हो जाता है। जब आप सभी प्रश्नों को पढ़ चुकें, तब प्रश्नों को दिमाग में रखते हुए passage को एक बार फिर पढ़े। तृतीय reading पूर्ण करने के उपरान्त प्रश्नों के उत्तर देना आरम्भ करें। यदि आपसे एक वाक्य में उत्तर देने के लिए कहा जाये तो आप एक वाक्य में ही उत्तर दें। यदि आपसे किसी वर्णात्मक passage में पूछा जाये कि किसी पात्र ने ऐसा क्यों किया इसके चार कारण बताएं तो चार ही कारण बताएं न उससे कम न अधिक। यदि आप वैसा करते हैं जो आपसे करने के लिये नहीं कहा गया है तो आपको उसके लिये कोई अंक नहीं मिलते हैं। अन्त में, जब आप सभी प्रश्नों के उत्तर दे चुकें, सभी प्रश्नों व उनके उत्तरों को एक बार फिर से पढ़े। जाँच लें कि आपने सभी निर्देशों का पालन किया है, जो त्रुटियाँ हो गयी हों उन्हें भी सुधार लें।

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :(Discursive) (From Prudence : Page 142)

Why don’t I have a telephone?
Not because I pretend to be wise or pose as unusual. There are two chief reasons : because I don’t really like the telephone, and because I find I can still work and play, eat, breathe, and sleep without it. Why don’t I like telephone? Because I think it is a pest & time-waster. It may create unnecessary suspense and anxiety, as when you wait for an expected call that doesn’t come, or irritating delay, as when you keep ringing a number that is always engaged.

As for speaking in a public telephone box, that seems to me really horrible. You would not use it unless you’re in a hurry and because you are in a hurry you will find other people waiting before you. When you do get into the box, you are half asphyxiated by stale, unventilated air, flavoured with cheap face powder and chain smoking; and by the time you have begun your conversation your back is chilled by the cold looks of somebody who is fidgeting to take your place.

If you have a telephone in your house, you will admit that it tends to ring when you least want it to ring-when you are asleep, or in the middle of a meal or a conversation, or when you are just going out or when you are in your bath. Are you strong minded-enough to ignore it, to say to yourself, ‘Ah well, it will all be the same in a hundred years’ time? You are not. You think there may be some important news or message for you. Have you never rushed dripping from the bath, or chewing from the table, or dazed from bed, only to be told that you are a wrong number? You were told the truth. In my opinion all telephone numbers are wrong numbers. If, of course, your telephone rings and you decide not to answer it, then you will have to listen to an idiotic bell ringing and ringing in what it supposed to be the privacy of your own home. You might as well buy a bicycle bell and ring it yourself.

If, like me, one is without a telephone, somebody is sure to say ! Oh, but don’t you find you have to write an awful lot of letters?’ The answer to that is ‘Yes, but I should have to write an awful lot of letters anyway. This may bring the remark ‘Ah, well, if you don’t have a telephone, at least you must have a typewriter.’ And the answer to that is ‘No’. What, no telephone and no typewriter! Do please explain why.’ Well, I am a professional man of letters, and when I was younger.

I thought a typewriter would be convenient. I even thought it was necessary, and that editors and publishers would expect anything sent to them to be typewritten. So I bought a typewriter and taught myself to type, and for some years I typed busily. But I didn’t enjoy typing. I happen to enjoy the act or writing. I enjoy forming letters or words with a pen, and I never could enjoy tapping the key of a typewriter.

There again, there was a bell-only a little bell that rang at the end of each line-but still, a bell. And the fact is, I am not mechanically minded, and the typewriter is a machine. I have never been really drawn to machines. I don’t like oiling, cleaning, or mending them. I do not enjoy making them work. To control them gives me no sense of power-or not of the kind of power that I find interesting. And machines do not like me. When I touch them they tend to break down, get jammed, catch fire, or blow up.

Word Meanings : pretend = to make a false show of something, असत्य दर्शाना। unusual = uncommon, असामान्य chief = main, मुख्य। suspense = uncertainty, असमंजस। anxiety = worry, चिन्ता। irritating = causing annoyance, झुंझलाहट। hurry = haste, शीघ्रता,जल्दबाजी। asphyxiated = suffocated, घुटन महसूस की। unventilated air = lack of free circulation of air, वायु के स्वतंत्र आवागमन का आभाव। strong minded = (here) determined, द्ढ़ निशचयी। rushed = moved with with great speed, दौड़ा। dazed = bewildered, भौचकका। of course, वास्तव में। idiotic = मूर्खतापूर्ण। awful = terrible, भयंकर। convenient = सुविधाजनक। necessary = essential, आवश्यक। editors = सम्पादक। publishers = प्रकाशक।


  1. Does the author find telephone a nuisance? Why?
  2. Do you agree with all that is said in the above passage?
  3. Describe the author’s observation while using a telephone box.
  4. Are you mechanically minded to use all types of gadgets? If so, what do you think can be done for those who are not?
  5. What irritates the author the most while using a typewriter?


  1. The author finds telephone a nuisance because it is a pest and time-waster. And also it may create unnecessary suspense and anxiety.
  2. Yes, to some extent I agree with it all. Any gadget should be used only when it is re quired.
  3. Use of a telephone box is a horrible experience for the writer. Due to unventilated air, smoking and other things, it is suffocating.
  4. People who want to use all type of gadgets should develop their interest in them.
  5. They should look at both positive and negative aspects of any machinery.

2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Literatry) (From Prudence: Page 145)

When the spring sunshine awakens a man once more to a fresh awareness of his surroundings, and takes his mind back to other springs which first suggested to his infant mind that the earth was a beautiful place, it is not invariably a shining river that he remembers, or solitary hills, or green fields and greening woods. It may be, if he was a town mouse and nurtured among bricks and mortar, nothing more than a public park.

A town park is a poor thing to set beside the country, but for many a man, before his legs grew strong enough and his spirit independent enough to carry him to the moors or the mountains, a park was his English heaven, air, rivers, ‘suns of home’. It was here that he was pushed along in his perambulator, and here that he made his first close contacts with Mother Earth-though large areas of the Mother Earth in the place might have been carefully concealed by Father Macadam and his associates. The ratio of gravel and asphalt to grass and flowers and water was likely to be in the neighborhood of two to five. And yet enough of Nature remained, enough at least to mark the passage of the seasons.

It is not necessarily the birds and the flowers that flash from time to time upon the inward eye of the man thus indebted to the park. The annual spring visits in a party from school, to draw the bursting birds in the botanical garden, is remembered less for its intrinsic excitement than for the relief it afforded from ordinary lessons. The annual furnishing of the boathouse and the tea chalet were much more satisfying signs of spring and of the return to a fuller life. The boathouse from which the Princess Ida would soon be setting sail round the little-more-than-aduck pond with cargoes of small children gazing down into 18 inch depths, the tea chalet that was the trusty stand-by of mothers in the long summer holidays when the children grew bored and tea in the park was a sure diversion. In school-time the park had other uses. It was the obvious place to play truant in and, though adults might wonder what a child could find to do there alone all day, truants were untroubled by such trifling problems.

At weekends in the summer in these present days there are concert parties in the park, and ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’, and roller skating. The former patron will remember that in his young days it was always brass bands. Good brass bands, too, for the audience was expert. The best bands in the country were summoned to the park and the local paper sent its music critic. The children might be deaf to musical points, but they could not be blind to uniforms of scarlet. For the rest, it was their parents who enjoyed it most-the band and the sunshine and the gossip with friends; their parents, and those older brothers and sisters who had reached the mysterious stage of washing without being told, and going for walks without father and mother, and flirting with the opposite sex. Though the last phenomenon, to be sure, did not wait on summer bands. It all began, in the park, in spring.

Word Meanings : spring = बसंत। sunshine = धूप। awaken = to arouse, नींद से उठाना, जगाना। awareness = knowledge of something, जरूरकता। surroundings = आस पास का वातावरण। invariable = never changing, अपरिवर्तनीय। solitary = alone, isolated, निर्जन। town mouse = city dweller, शहरी निवासी। nurtured = nourished, पोषित। bricks and mortar = इट व गारा। perambulator = a child’s hand carriage, बच्चे को बैठाकर हाथ से चलाकर घुमाने की गाड़ी। botanical = related to botany, वनस्पति शास्त्र सम्बन्धी। intrinsic = essential, परमावश्यक। diversion = amusement, मनोरंजन, मौज-मस्ती। trifling = of little value, तुच्छ truant = idle activities, अलसी क्रिया कलाप, अलसी ,कक्षा से भगोड़े विद्यार्थी। concert = a public musical performance, सर्वजानिक संगीत प्रस्तुति।


  1. What do people, who spent their childhood in the town, remember in the spring time?
  2. What did children like to do during the holidays in the park which the writer remembers?
  3. What can be seen in the park at the weekend?
  4. What used to be heard in the parks when the writer was a boy?
  5. What did the children like the most about the bands?


  1. It may be a shining river, solitary hills or green fields or greening woods that they re member.
  2. The children like to play truant during the holidays in the park.
  3. At the weekends in the summer in these present days, concert parties can be seen in the park.
  4. It was always brass bands, even good brass bands used to be heard in the parks when the writer was a boy.
  5. The thing that the children most liked about the bands was their musical excellence.

3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

In my life I hold a high value for my family. I wish to maintain a happy, healthy family life, and therefore try to act so as to best promote a good family life. However, I am human, and therefore I do sometimes fall short. While I try to act in the best interest of my family, sometimes my own selfishness causes me to act in a way that is not in the best interest of my family. I do have ethical guidelines that I try to follow.

The first of these guidelines is the golden rule. “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.” I do not like to be treated badly and therefore I try to treat others in the way I want to be treated. I also do not enjoy treating others badly because it does not make me feel good to hurt others. I am sensitive to the feelings of others. On occasions, I lose sight of this rule, and treat others in a way that I know I would not want to be treated. This causes conflict and unhappiness, and I then realize that it was not worth for me to act selfishly, because while it made me happy temporarily, it made me unhappy in the end to hurt another person or people. The consequences of violating the golden rule cause discord and unhappiness. I would rather act so as to maintain happiness and harmony in my family and with others.

I also feel that it is important to learn from my own mistakes, although some mistakes I do repeat. When I make a mistake, I am unhappy with myself for doing so. Because my ultimate goal is to be happy, I prefer not to repeat my mistakes. I already know that the last time I made that mistake, I was displeased with myself and my family was also displeased with me. I want to be happy, and therefore try not to act in a way in which I already know the consequences have made me unhappy.

Like Socrates, I also believe that we should seek truth in life. Socrates encouraged people to seek new ideas and truth by asking questions that inspired people to think deeply and more analytically. Truth is beneficial for people and societies. Without truth, we would lose touch with human dignity. “The unexamined life is not worth living”, said Socrates. If we do not examine ourselves and seek truth, while we lose our dignity, we also lose our happiness and therefore our purpose of living.

Word-Meanings : ethical = नैतिक guidelines = मागदर्शन हेतु नियम unto = किसी के लिए treat = व्यवहार करना। hurt = दुख पहुँचाना। conflict = अन्तर्द्वन्द्व। realise = महसूस करना। temporarily = मात्र कुछ समय के लिये। consequences = परिणामों। violating = उल्लंघन करने। harmony = सद्भाव। ultimate = अन्ततः goal = लक्ष्य, उद्देश्य prefer = अधिक पसन्द करना displeased = अप्रसन्न therefore = इसलिए seek = खोजना। analytically = विश्लेषणात्मक रूप से। beneficial = लाभदायक। dignity = प्रतिष्ठा, सम्मान। unexamined = बिना मूल्यांकन वाला


  1. What did Socrates encourage people to do?
  2. What is the first ethical guideline which the writer follows ?
  3. What happens when the writer loses sight of the golden rule ?
  4. What did the writer learn from his previous mistakes ?
  5. What is the ultimate goal of the author ?


  1. Socrates encouraged people to seek truth and new ideas by asking deep and searching questions.
  2. The first ethical guideline for the author is “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you”.
  3. Oversight of the golden rule causes conflict and unhappiness to the writer.
  4. He learnt from his mistakes that he was displeased with himself and his family too was displeased with him.
  5. The ultimate goal of the author is to keep himself and his family happy.

4. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

When boiling milk scalded Radha’s forearm, her mother-in-law lavishly applied ghee to the wound and wrapped a tight bandage around it. By the next day, the forearm was swollen and she was in severe pain. She then developed high fever, and four days later, was admitted to the Fortis Hospital in Noida, near Delhi, in a feverish state. She was in hospital for a month and had to undergo plastic surgery.

Her mother-in-law had made a common mistake-she relied on an old prescription. First aid treatment has come down from generation to generation, and many of our mothers’ remedies are no longer recommended. Take a look at your first-aid kit; bandages, some gauze, painkillers, a tube of anti-bacterial cream, may be iodine or hydrogen peroxide. We are all familiar with these supposedly tried-and-true remedies.

They may be tried, but they are not all true. “So many of us still follow traditional remedies like applying hydrogen peroxide on an open wound,” says Dr Asif Ali, head of Fortis Hospital’s emergency medicine department. “But this and other common remedies do more harm than good.” After years of research, experts are finding that your standard first-aid response sometimes may be the worst thing you can do to update your first-aid kit.

When the skin is not broken, it’s hard to bear iodine for killing bacteria. That’s why doctors use it to clean an area before surgery. But if there’s a cut, says Dr Mahesh Joshi, Head of the department of emergency medicine, Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, full-strength iodine, hydrogen peroxide and rubbing alcohol can prove toxic to the exposed tissue, impending healing. The chemical reaction that occurs when hydrogen peroxide hits the skin isn’t only cleaning the wound- it’s killing healthy cells. This stuff hurts because it’s wiping out healthy tissue.

Applying iodine on cuts and wounds kills bacteria, says Dr Mahesh Joshi, but it won’t clean the wound. “Iodine doesn’t protect good skin tissue, it harms it.” Instead of cleansing a wound: “The best way to rid of dirt and germs is to wash the wound out with water,” says Dr Asif Ali. Put the wound under a tap, or a hand shower. Flush it with water to clear it of all waste. If you are worried about the bandage sticking to the wound, consider using an antibacterial ointment like Soframycin to keep the area lubricated. In this way we should be very cautious in using traditional way of first aid.

Word-Meanings : scalded = झुलसा दिया। lavishly = भारी मात्रा में। Swollen = फूल गई। tissue = ऊतक। stuff = पदार्थ, सामग्री। cleansing = सफाई। toxic = खतरनाक। severe pain = तीव्र दर्द। relied =विशवास कर लिया prescription = चिकित्सक द्वारा बताये गये उपचार के तरीको, विधि दवाईयॉं आदि। treatment = प्राथमिक उपचार। remedies = उपाय। familiar = परिचित होना। traditional = परम्परागत (पुराने)। occurs = घटित होता है। hurts = नुकसान पहुँचाता है। wiping out = (यहाँ) नष्ट करना। instead = के बजाय। bandage sticking = पट्टीका चिपकना।


  1. How according to Dr Asif should a wound be cleaned as a first-aid ?
  2. Which ointment for lubrication has been mentioned in the passage ?
  3. Which mistake caused Radha’s hospitalization and plastic surgery?
  4. How does hydrogen peroxide hurt the wound in the cleaning process ?
  5. What can prove toxic to exposed tissue ?


  1. According to Dr Asif, a wound should be cleaned by putting it under a tap shower or hand shower as a first aid.
  2. The passage mentions soframycin as an antibacterial ointment used for lubrication.
  3. Wrong first aid to Radha by her mother-in-law to her scalded arm caused her hospitalization and plastic surgery.
  4. Cleaning a wound with hydrogen peroxide hurts the wound because it wipes away the healthy tissues.
  5. Iodine, hydrogen peroxide and rubbing alcohol can hurt exposed tissue.

5. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Literary)

This letter is written by the great American President Abraham Lincoln to the teacher of his son. Very inspiring and sometimes in life you might need to give it to your children to read. My son starts school today. It is all going to be strange and new to him for a while and I wish you would treat him gently. It is an adventure that might take him across continents. All adventures probably include wars, tragedy and sorrow. To live this life will require faith, love and courage. So dear Teacher, will you please take him by his hand and teach him things he will have to know, teaching him – but gently, if you can. Teach him that for every enemy, there is a friend. He will have to know that all men are not just, that all men are not true. But teach him also that for every scoundrel there is a hero, that for every crooked politician, there is a dedicated leader.

Teach him if you can that 10 cents earned is of far more value than a dollar found. In school, teacher, it is far more honourable to fail than to cheat. Teach him to learn how to gracefully lose, and enjoy winning when he does win. Teach him to be gentle with people, tough with tough people. Steer him away from envy if you can and teach him the secret of quiet laughter. Teach him if you can – how to laugh when he is sad, teach him there is no shame in tears. Teach him there can be glory in failure and despair in success. Teach him to scoff at cynics.

Teach him if you can the wonders of books, but also give time to ponder the extreme mystery of birds in the sky, bees in the sun and flowers on a green hill. Teach him to have faith in his own ideas, even if everyone tells him they are wrong. Try to give my son the strength not to follow the crowd when everyone else is doing it. Teach him to listen to everyone, but teach him also to filter all that he hears on a screen of truth and take only the good that comes through.

Teach him to sell his talents and brains to the highest bidder but never to put a price tag on his heart and soul. Let him have the courage to be impatient, let him have the patience to be brave. Teach him to have sublime faith in himself, because then he will always have sublime faith in mankind, in God. This is the order, teacher but see what best you can do. He is such a nice little boy and he is my son.

  • Regards
  • Lincoln

Word-Meanings : inspiring = प्रेरणादायक। treat = व्यहार करना। gently = अच्छी तरह adventure = साहसिक कार्य। continent = महाद्वीप। scoundrel = दुष्ट। crooked = कुटिल। dedicated = समर्पित। gracefully = अनुग्रह से। steer = मार्गदर्शन करना। scoff = हंसी उड़ाना। cynic = निंदक। ponder = विचार करना। sublime = भव्य। probably = सम्भवतः। tragedy = दुखान्त। honourable = सम्माननीय। glory = गौरव, ख्याति। despair = निराशा। mystery = रहस्य। strength = ताकत। filter = अलग करना। highest bidder = सबसे ज्यादा ऊँची बोली (कीमत) लगाने वाला। impatient = अधीर। patience = धैर्य,धीरज।


  1. Why does Lincoln want his son to have faith in himself ?
  2. What is required to live this life ?
  3. What can be the other identity of every crooked politician ?
  4. How does Lincoln want his son to behave with people ?
  5. What does Lincoln want his son to know ?


  1. Lincon wants his son to have faith in himself because faith in self leads to faith in mankind and in God.
  2. Faith, love and courage are the qualities required to live this life.
  3. The other identity of every crooked politician is of a dedicated leader.
  4. Lincoln wants his son to behave politely and gently with people, but he should be tough with tough people.
  5. Lincoln wants his son to know that for every enemy there is a friend and all men are not just and true.

6. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Literary)

We often come across the situations and incidents, which appear quite contradictory to the known laws of Nature, creating doubts about the impartiality of divine justice. For instance, an honest, duty-conscious, morally elevated person is often seen caught in adversities in one form or the other, or is suddenly struck with a great misfortune in life as though he/ she were being punished by God for a great sin. On the other hand, we find persons engaged in worst types of corrupt practices living in peace and prosperity. An idler wins a jackpot or inherits a fortune from unexpected quarters, whereas a hard working intelligent person is found suffering endlessly for want of basic necessities. One person achieves great success with little effort, whereas another does not succeed in spite of his best efforts. Such phenomena are popularly ascribed to the role of fate.

Unprecedented natural calamities like famine, epidemics, tornadoes and floods, damage by lightning and earthquakes and untimely death are also commonly attributed to the will of God and called predestined. Such unexpected happenings as financial loss, accidents, sudden mental/ physical disability and physical separation from a dear one are also attributed to fate. Such unexpected adversities are rare, but they do occur in life. At times, they leave such deep imprints on the psyche, that it is not possible to ignore them. Those who are not familiar with the mysteries of divine justice become very much perplexed by such experiences and form prejudiced opinions, which, in some form or the other, hinder their mental and spiritual progress. Many become resentful towards God, blame and abuse Him for favouritism and injustice.

A few even become atheists, considering the futility of worshipping God who does not respond to prayer in distress, despite their prolonged adherence to religiosity. Then there is a class of devotees who serve the saints and worship deities in expectation of some material gains. However, if they are visited with some failure, unfavourable circumstances, or mishap coincidentally, their adoration changes to contempt or disbelief.

There are quite a few believers in this world who correlate people, places and things with good and bad luck. Such superstitions have caused extreme miseries to innocent persons. The root cause for such irrational behaviour is the belief that whatever comes to pass is predestined by God and the beings created by Him have absolutely no role in shaping their own destiny. Quite a few persons in this world forsake their responsibility in the mistaken belief that the gain and loss being predestined, there is no necessity of personal effort.

Word-Meanings : contradictory = विरोधभासी। impartiality = निष्पक्ष व्यवहार। divine justice = ईश्‍वरीय न्याय। instance = उदाहरण। duty conscious = कर्तव्य के प्रति सजग। elevated = उच्च, बुलंद। adversities = विपदाएँ। struck = आघात पहुँचना। sin = पाप, अपराध। fortune = धन-सम्पत्ति। inherits = विरासत में मिलना। phenomena = घटनाएँ। ascribe = आरोपित करना। unprecedented = अभूतपूर्व। famine = अकाल। epidemics = महामारियाँ। untimely = असामयिक। attributed = आरोपित किया। disability = अक्षमता। unexpected = अनअपेक्षित। adversities = प्रतिकूल परिस्थितियाँ। rare = अत्यन्त कम (दुर्लभ)। will = इच्छा। predestined = पूर्वनिर्धारित। occur = घटित होना। imprint = छाप। psyche = मानस। perplexed = हक्का – बक्का कर देने वाला। prejudiced = पूर्वग्रह से ग्रस्त। hinder = अड़चन डालना। spiritual = आध्यत्मिक futility = व्यर्थता, निरर्थकता। distress = विपत्ति कष्ट। prolonged adherance = दीर्घकाल तक आसक्ति। adoration = भक्ति। contempt = तिरस्कार, अनादर। irrational = अतार्किक। predestined = पूर्ण। निर्धारित (नियति)। necessity = आवश्यकता। resentful = नाराज। atheist = नास्तिक। superstitions = अंधविश्वासों।


  1. What is a mistaken belief ?
  2. When do we doubt the impartiality of divine justice ?
  3. Why is it not possible to ignore unexpected adversities ?
  4. What is painful to see about an intelligent person ?
  5. Name some natural calamities attributed to God’s will.


  1. That gain and loss are predestined and there is no necessity of personal effort, is a mistaken belief.
  2. We doubt the impartiality of divine justice, when the honest suffer and the corrupt live in peace and prosperity.
  3. Unexpected adversities leave deep imprints on our mind and we believe that we are fated for sufferings. So it is impossible to ignore them.
  4. It is painful to see an intelligent person suffering endlessly for want of basic necessities.
  5. Famine, epidemics, floods, earthquake and untimely death are attributed to God’s will.

7. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

Shopping centres are good. They are a sign of dizzying economic growth, and a demonstration of how far Asians have come, in such a short time. For many of the older generation who can remember a time when everyone lived in villages and there was no running water, the multilevel air-conditioned mall represents comfort, choice, luxury and better times. But many Asian metropolises with growing middle classes now have such a great number of malls – all full with outlets of Marks & Spencer, Gap, Starbucks, Bulgari, Cartier, Mont Blancthat they appear to have long crossed saturation point. Nowadays, it seems our default place for every activity is the mall–it’s where we shop, eat, watch movies, bowl, arrange to meet our friends, have a romantic date or just generally lie around.

Many young people shop for clothes at the mall so that they can look good when they meet their friends – at the mall. My main argument with shopping centres is not that they are often massive concrete blocks that don’t take into account the architectural nuances or cultural backdrop of a city, or that they promote ultra-consumerism at a time when our planet can ill afford it. My main protest with the excess of malls is that they don’t seem to make us happy. Oh, the large advertisements outside the stores could persuade us to think that if we only had this pair of jeans, or if we hung out at this café, then we could feel more satisfied. But once we buy something, we only want to buy something more.

Shopping malls, even though they try to look as showy and as welcoming as possible, can be unkind places. The very concept of the mega-mall plays on human feelings of inadequacy and competitiveness. To make us buy, it must make us feel that we lack something, or that everyone else has something we do not yet own. We must consume to surpass others or, at the very least, to keep up. We purchase to fit in. How can this constant undercurrent of competitiveness of us always trying to be “cool,” bring us true joy ?

The saddest thing is that the modern mall, basically an American import, has made us put aside a whole array of beautiful, worthwhile – and yes, cheaper-activities, many of them inherent to our own culture or region. We have no one to blame but ourselves. Instead of shopping, we could be cooking, visiting a nearby waterfall, beach or temple, reading a novel, writing poetry, starting a blog, making music, taking a long walk, playing a game, learning a dance or – here’s a fundamental idea-visiting a friend.

Every time there’s a spare piece of land, all we can think of building on it is yet another mall. This way, we show not only our affluent status but also demonstrate our poverty in terms of imagination, adventure and passion. Perhaps instead, we should be building libraries, or theatres, art galleries, museums, sports halls, public swimming pools, parks, animal sanctuariesthe list is endless.

word-Meanings : dizzying = अचंभे में डालने वाला। saturation = संतुष्टि। nuance = अतिसूक्ष्म अंतर। backdrop = पृष्ठभूमि। ultra-consumerism = अति-उपभोक्तावाद। demonstration = प्रदर्शन। malls = खरीददारी के भव्य केन्द्र। argument = बहस। concept = धारणा। inadequacy = अपर्याप्तता। competitiveness = प्रतिस्पर्धा। saddest = सर्वाधिक खेदजनक। worthwhile = उपयोगी। inherent = स्वाभाविक। blog = सोशल मीडिया का एक प्रकार। fundamental = मौलिक। spare = खाली। affluent = धनाढ्य। passion = जुनून।


  1. What should we be building instead of malls ?
  2. What are the shopping centres a sign of ?
  3. What do we generally do at malls ?
  4. Why do many people shop at malls ?
  5. What is the main protest of the author with the excess of malls ?


  1. Instead of malls, we should be building libraries, theatres, art galleries, museums, sports halls, etc.
  2. The shopping centres are a sign of dizzying economic growth and show how far Asians have come in such a short time.
  3. At malls we shop, eat, watch movies, bowl, arrange to meet our friends, have a romantic date or generally lie around.
  4. Many people shop at malls so that they can look good when they meet their friends there.
  5. The main protest of the author is that malls do not make us happy.

8. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

Rajasthan is India’s largest state, located on its north-western border with Pakistan. It is surrounded by the states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and the Punjab. Rajasthan is bisected by the Aravalli hills, dividing it into two distinct landscapes. On the west is Rajasthan’s unique feature, the Thar Desert; an area of sand, scrub and thorn. The other is the region to the east of the Aravallis, which is more rain fed and hospitable.

The culture of Rajasthan is defined by the Rajputana kingdoms that ruled it for centuries; the word Rajput meaning sons of royalty. The Thar Desert region saw the Desert Kingdoms of Marwar; modern Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner. The east saw the kingdoms of Mewar, modern Chittor and Udaipur, Amber, modern Amber and Jaipur, and Hadoti, modern Bundi, Kota and Jhalawar among many others. As a result, Rajasthan has a larger concentration of forts, palaces, and royal riches than any other place in India. This is the reason why tourism is a primary pillar of the economy; apart from agriculture and cattle rearing. Several palaces or abandoned fortresses have been converted to Heritage Hotels to attract visitors and provide an income for the erstwhile princes.

The capital Jaipur, with its many imposing buildings made of rosy sandstone, is called Pink City. The City Palace complex and Hawa Mahal are examples of Rajasthani-Mughal architecture. The old parts of town offer shopping such as jewellery, hand-dyed clothes, precious stones and craftswork. Jaipur has an international airport.

Udaipur has many lakes, lakeside palaces, and the largest palace complex (City Palace) in Rajasthan. Jaisalmer fort is made of yellow sandstone such that it’s called the Golden Fort. Jaisalmer also gives access to pristine sand dunes of Sam and Khuri, with camel safaris and nomadic music. The Amber Fort (near Jaipur, 16th century); the Chittor Fort; Junagarh Fort (at Bikaner); Mehrangarh Fort, (at Jodhpur, 15th century) are among the main fortress attractions.

The Shekhawati region in the north east offers painted havelis belonging to old business families. Ranthambore and Sariska National Parks are for tiger reserves while Keoladeo Ghana National Park, or ‘Bharatpur Bird Sanctury’ is a bird-rich wetland, where over 375 species of migratory birds visit each year. Mt Abu is the only hill station in Rajasthan.

Home to over 500 temples of all sizes, Puskhar is revered for its spiritual significance. Brahma Temple is the main attraction here, Pushkar being the only place in the world where Lord Brahma is worshipped. The hilltop temple has a red spire with a symbol of hans or swan at the entrance. The one hour trek uphill offers good view of the lake.

Word-Meanings: bisected = दो भागों में बाँटा गया। scrub = झाड़-झंखाड़ वाला इलाका। hospitable = (here) inhabitable (यहाँ) रहने योग्य। concentration = संकेन्द्रण। pillar = स्तम्भ | rearing = पालना। abandoned = 1 531 erstwhile = yen ao, abaya I lakeside palaces = filc 3489-94 AICI HESHI pristine = clean and pure, साफ व शुद्ध। sand dunes = बालू के टीले। safari = जंगल में यात्रा। migratory birds = प्रवासी पक्षी। revered = पवित्र माना जाता है। spiritual significance = आध्यात्मिक महत्व। trek = travel on foot, पैदल यात्रा। view = दृश्य। nomadic = खानाबदोश। spire = शिखर। symbol = प्रतीक।

Questions :

  1. Name the states which surround Rajasthan.
  2. What is the unique feature of west Rajasthan ?
  3. Why is Jaipur called Pink city ?
  4. How many species of migratory birds visit ‘Bharatpur Bird Sanctury’ every year ?
  5. What does the word ‘Rajput’ mean?


  1. The states which surround Rajsathan are Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Harayana and Punjab.
  2. The unique feature of west Rajasthan is the Thar Desert, an area of sand, scrub and thorn.
  3. Jaipur is called pink city because many of its imposing buildings are made of rosy sandstone.
  4. Over 375 species of migratory birds visit Bharatpur sanctuary every year.
  5. The word ‘Rajput’ means son of royalty.

9. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

The Taj Mahal at Agra is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, for reasons more than just looking magnificent. It’s the history of the Taj Mahal that adds a soul to its magnificence: a soul that is filled with love, loss, remorse, and love again. Because if it was not for love, the world would have been robbed of a fine example upon which people base their relationships. An example of how deeply a man loved his wife, that even after she remained but a memory, he made sure that this memory would never fade away. This man was the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who was head-over-heels in love with Mumtaz Mahal, his dear wife. She was a Muslim Persian princess (her name Arjumand Banu Begum before marriage) and he was the son of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir and grandson of Akbar, the Great. It was at the age of 14 that he met Mumtaz and fell in love with her. Five years later in the year 1612, they got married.

Mumtaz Mahal, an inseparable companion of Shah Jahan, died in 1631, while giving birth to their 14th child. It was in the memory of his beloved wife that Shah Jahan built a magnificent monument as a tribute to her, which we today know as the “Taj Mahal”. The construction of the Taj Mahal started in the year 1631. Masons, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran, and it took approximately 22 years to build what we see today. An epitome of love, it made use of the services of 22,000 labourers and 1,000 elephants. The monument was built entirely out of white marble, which was brought in from all over India and central Asia. After an expenditure of approximately 32 million rupees (approx US $68000), the Taj Mahal was finally completed in the year 1653.

It was soon after the completion of the Taj Mahal that Shah Jahan was deposed by his own son Aurangzeb and was put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort. Shah Jahan, himself too, lies entombed in his grave along with his wife. Moving further down the history, it was at the end of the 19th century that British Viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping restoration project of the Taj Mahal which was completed in 1908, as a measure to restore what was lost during the Indian rebellion of 1857: Taj being discoloured by British soldiers and government officials who also deprived the monument of its immaculate beauty by chiselling out precious stones of its walls. Also, the British style lawns that we see today adding on to the beauty of Taj were remodelled around the same time. Despite prevailing controversies, past and present threats from Indo-Pak war and environmental pollution, this epitome of love continues to shine and attract people from all over the world.

Word-Meanings : magnificent = भव्य। remorse = ग्लानि, पश्चात्ताप। fade away = धुंधली पड़ना। monument = स्मारक। tribute = श्रद्धांजलि। masons = राजमिस्त्री। carvers = नक्काशी का कार्य करने वाले। calligraphers = facilitato sta (169) Å fra arsti requisitioned = i t I approximately = 47971 epitome = प्रतीक। entirely = पूर्ण रूप से। deposed = अपदस्थ किया। entombed = दफना expenditure = खर्च (लागत)। restore = सुधार करना। rebellion = विद्रोह। deprived = वंचित किया। immaculate = प्रवीण, उत्तम (यहाँ) कलात्मक। precious = बेशकीमती। controversies = विवादों। threat = चुनौती। chiselling = काट के निकालना।


  1. Where was Shah Jahan put after being deposed ?
  2. What was the name of the wife of Shah Jahan before marriage ?
  3. How much money was spent to build the Taj ?
  4. When was a sweeping restoration project of the Taj completed ?
  5. How was Shah Jahan related to Akbar, the great ?


  1. Shah Jahan was put under house arrest at the Agra Fort after being deposed.
  2. Before marriage, the name of the wife of Shah Jahan was Arjumand Banu Begum.
  3. Approximately 32 million rupees (approx US $68000) were spent to build the Taj.
  4. A sweeping restoration project of the Taj Mahal was completed in 1908.
  5. Shah Jahan was the grandson of Akbar, the Great.

10. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

Today everybody is health cautious. He/She wants to keep himself/herself fit and healthy. Different people adopt different methods. To obtain best possible health, we should ideally engage in exercises that will strengthen the heart (a strong heart helps reduce the risk of coronary heart disease) and lungs. We should participate in exercises that strengthen and tone muscles, as well as increase our energy level. Exercising regularly can help us maintain a healthy weight and simply help us feel and look better. In fact, a good exercise programme has the ability to add a couple of years to our life! Additionally, people who exercise regularly, tend to be happier and laugh more, because exercise alleviates stress and anxiety. And, when a person attains better health through exercise, that person will generally have a healthier, more optimistic outlook on life.

Running is one of the best ways of getting fit. It’s inexpensive, requires no special equipment or out-of-the way locations, and is easy to fit in with your everyday routines. Running eats up lots more calories per minute than swimming or cycling. The crucial rule is never to run at a pace that would stop you talking to someone as you go. Make sure that your strides are not too long. Run with your back straight but keep your body tilted slightly forward. Hit the ground heel first and roll your foot through to the toes. Keep your arms bent (at right angles from the elbow) and parallel to your body. Let your hands hang loose.

How long you should run for depends on your general state of health. If you’ve not done any sports for some time or if you’re not entirely well, consult your doctor before you start running. With an ECG, he can find out how fit you are. Repeat the examination after six months and you’ll see how your performance has improved. · For beginners, five minutes’ running is a respectable achievement. And if you spend three minutes of those just walking briskly, that’s still a good start. More important than the length of the run is the regularity aspect. Try to make sure you get out there two to four times a week. Run a minute longer every week, and you’ll soon notice the difference.

This method works minor miracles. After a week or two, you won’t be gasping for breath after five minutes, and soon you’ll be jogging ten minutes at a stretch without feeling the strain. Then you’ll be well on the way to stealing a march on the aging process. Never run if it hurtij. Pain is an indication that the body is under strain and needs a rest. Muscle pains, for example, are a result of lesions in the tiniest muscle fibres, in other words damage to the tissue. Take the strain off the aching muscle until it stops hurting.

Word-Meanings : cautious = सचेत। to obtain = पाना, प्राप्त करना। strengthen = मजबूती प्रदान करना। reduce = कम करना। muscles = माँस पेशियाँ। optimistic outlook = आशावादी दृष्टिकोण। inexpensive = सस्ता। equipment = उपकरण। elbow = कोहनी। parallel = समानान्तर। entirely = पूर्ण रूप से। miracle = चमत्कार। indication = संकेत। stress = तनाव। anxiety = चिन्ता। alleviate = कम करना। stress = तनाव। optimistic = आशावादी। strides = कदम। tilted = झुकी हुई। briskly = फुर्ती से। gasping = हाँफते हुए। strain = थकान। lesions = चोट।


  1. Why do the people who do exercises tend to be happier ?
  2. How much running is a respectable achievement for the beginners ?
  3. How should we hit our foot on the ground while running ?
  4. How should we run ?
  5. Whom should we consult before starting running ?


  1. The people who do exercise tend to be happier because exercise reduces stress and anxiety.
  2. For beginners, five minutes’ running is a respectable achievement.
  3. While running, we should hit the ground with heel first and roll our foot through to the toes.
  4. We should run according to the general state of our body.
  5. We should consult the doctor before starting running.

11. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

The emergence of Mr Narendra Damodardas Modi as the Prime Minister of India is the true triumph of the common man. Narendra Modi is not a palace dweller. He has not been educated at the Harrow Public School which has produced many a Prime Minister and President for the various countries of the world. He comes of a Ghachi community – a recognized other backward class listed in the scheduled class list of India. His childhood saw no schooling and no good education. Later poverty deprived him of all the normal facilities which a poor child should get in a free democratic country.

As a child he helped his father Damodardas sell tea at the Vadnagar Railway Station, and later ran a tea-stall with his brother near a bus terminal. During his election campaign of his political party, he patiently and politely eschewed the sarcastic remarks of the civilized spokepersons of other political parties. Some of them stooped as low as to say while addressing the election rallies, “Can a tea seller perform his duties as a Prime Minister of a huge democracy like India ?” Modesty forbids me to rewrite filthy abuses and accusations labelled against him.

However all these filthy remarks failed to excite his ego and gentlemanliness. He did not resort to retaliation but confessed in his election meetings that he earned his bread with the sweat of his brow and his work as a tea-boy enabled him to bring him close to the masses. Through this closeness, he could understand their difficulties, their basic needs and their pain of deprivation.

At the age of 17, he came in contact with Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh. There he was much impressed by Laxman Rao Inamdar populary known as Vakil Saheb, who was to be Modi’s political mentor. He came under the guidance of Nathulal Jaghda and other prominent leaders of Bhartiya Jan Sangh Party. They became later on the leading members of BJP in Gujarat.

At the morning and evening Shakha, boy Modi came in contact with many patriots who had devoted their lives to the cause of the country. Amongst them, he came in contact with those who had done yeoman’s service to the Kashmiries when Pakistan’s Qabalies had invaded Kashmir. The stories of their sacrifices filled the boy with deeper patriotism. He felt that the RSS forum was a place where patriots were produced and trained. After the end of Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, he totally stopped working at the tea-stall with his brother and became full time Pracharak (campaigner). He earned the degree of M.A. in Political Science under Distance Education Programme from Delhi University.

His successful performance as Chief Minister of Gujarat from (2001-2014) elevated him to the post of chairman of the party’s election committee. In Sept. 2013, he was announced as the BJP’s Prime Ministerial candidate. People attended his meetings in huge numbers and soon he became the crowd puller’ He lead the BJP-NDA to an absolute majority victory in the General Election of 2014. The Indian National Congress suffered its worst defeat.

Mr Narendra Modi was sworn in as the 15th Prime Minister of Indian Democracy on 26 May 2014 at Rashtrapati Bhawan. He is the first Prime Minister born after the independence of the country. He was born on September17, 1950 at Vadnagar, Distt Mehsana formerly in Bombay State but now in Gujarat. Modi is an example of the triumph of invincible spirit over the seemingly unsurmountable obstacles of life.

Word-Meanings : triumph = विजय Ghanchi = तेली deprived = वंचित कर दिया facilities = सुविधाएँ। bus terminal = बस स्टैण्ड। eschewed = सहन किये ! sarcastic = व्यंगात्मक। civilized = सभ्य। stooped = गिर गये ! filthy = गंदी। accusations = आरोप। did not resort = सहारा नहीं लिया। retaliation = बदला। deprivation = अभाव, जरूरतों की कमी। mentor = बुद्धिमान सलाहकार। yeoman’s service – समर्पित सेवा unsurmountable = जिसको न जीता जा सके obstacles = कठिनाईयॉं।


  1. Why did Narendra Modi as a boy work at his father’s tea shop ?
  2. Where did his brother carry on his tea-stall ?
  3. Where did boy Modi come in contact with the patriots ?
  4. Why did the BJP elevate him to the position of the Chairman of the Election. Committee ?
  5. “Modi is the man of the masses”. Comment.


  1. Boy Modi helped his father sell tea to buy the basic needs of life.
  2. His brother carried on his tea stall near a bus terminal.
  3. Boy Modi came in contact with the patriots when he became a member of RSS and attended the Shakha.
  4. Seeing his good governance in Gujarat as the Chief Minister, the BJP made him the Chairman of the Election Committee.
  5. Mr Modi has been in close touch with the poor people and experienced the pain of proerty himself. So he is a man of the masses.

12. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Discursive)

Every urbanite knows that the bright lights of the city make it impossible to see all the stars in a night sky. What most of us don’t know is that those lights might also be making us sick. The cause is light pollution- the unearthly glow of billions of street lamps, security and porch lights, searching, and office lights signs-as people everywhere try to dispel the limitations of the light.

For the first time, light is being investigated seriously as a human health hazard, a possible contributor to the increased rate of breast cancer, depression and other ailments. And for many wildlife species, light pollution seems to be as grave an environmental threat as cleared habitats and toxic-chemical dumping. “People are beginning to take it much more seriously,” says Alan Outen, a British ecologist who has written extensively on the dangers of night brightness. “Its implications are far, bigger than ever realized.”

Nearly two third of the world’s population lives under night skies polluted by light, accordance to the first atlas of the world’s artificial night-sky brightness, published by Italian and US researchers in 2001. In the most heavily urbanized regions, it no longer ever really gets dark. Satellite images

reveal that in large areas of East North America, Western Europe, Japan and South Korea, night has become a constant twilight. Because of the reflective properties of snow, Canadian cities are particularly flooded in light pollution. In a natural night sky, someone looking at the heavens with the unaided eye should be able to see nearly 3500 stars and planets and the glow from the Milky Way, our home galaxy. But in cities like Toronto, the number of visible stars has dwindled to about a few dozen.

This stunning drop has caused Canada’s foremost astronomy writer, Terence Dickinson, to lament, “It’s now possible to grow up never having been exposed to the natural beauty and. inspiration of the night sky.” The key author of the bright-sky atlas, Italian astronomer Pierantonio Cinzano, and his research team have found that many people’s eyes now never get to the stage where they are fully adapted to darkness. The researchers have calculated that one tenth of people in the world, including about 60 per cent of Canadians living in highly populated southern areas, have lost much of their night vision.

Other creatures appear also to be highly susceptible to this disturbance. Lighting from office towers confuses migratory birds, which fly into buildings lit up at night. Millions of birds in North America die from these crashes. In Toronto alone, downtown skyscrapers injure or kill an estimated 24,000 birds a year, according to monitoring by a local environment group.

Word-Meanings; urbanite = शहरवासी। dispel = हटाना। hazard = विपत्ति, संकट। ailments = बीमारियाँ। grave = गंभीर। habitats = आवासों। dumping = पटकना। ecologist = पर्यावरणविज्ञान शास्त्री। extensively = बड़े पैमाने पर। implication = निहितार्थ। reveal = प्रकट करना। constant = सतत, स्थाई। dwindled = कम हो गये। stun = स्तब्ध करना। susceptible = अतिसंवेदनशील। skyscraper = गगनचुम्बी हमारत। downtown = नगर का केन्द्र।


  1. What does every urbanite know?
  2. What have Cinzano and his team found ?
  3. Which health hazard is caused due to light pollution ?
  4. What is the thing that confuses the migratory birds ?
  5. What do most of us not know?


  1. Every urbanite knows that the bright lights of the city make it impossible to see all the stars in a night sky.
  2. Cinzano and his team have found that many people’s eyes now never get to the stage where they are fully adapted to darkness.
  3. Breast cancer, depression and other ailments are some health hazards caussed due to light pollution.
  4. It is lighting from office towers that confuses migratory birds.
  5. Most of us don’t know that the bright lights might also be making us sick.

13. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Literary)

Body fat, blood pressure and fasting insulin levels (a marker of diabetes risk) all increased within a decade of moving to a city, and for decades, blood pressure and insulin continued to rise above the levels of their rural counterparts. The findings raise public health concerns as the global population progressively becomes more urban. According to the United Nations, the growth change in India’s urban population is 1.1 per cent each year, while the change in the proportion of people in rural areas is declining by 0.37 per cent.

The proportion of Indians who live in cities is still much smaller than in the United States. Just 30 per cent.of Indians live in urban areas, while 82 per cent of Americans live in urban areas. That number is expected to rise as the proportion of people who live in rural areas in the United States declines by 1.6 per cent each year.

The researchers, led by Dr Sanjay Kinra of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, compared rural Indians to their siblings who moved to one of four cities in India : Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Siblings who lived in a city the longest had the highest average blood pressures.

For instance, men who lived in a city for more than 30 years had an average systolic blood pressure – the top number in a reading – of 126. Men who lived in a city 10-20 years had an average of 124, and those who stayed in rural areas had an average of 123. A systolic blood pressure above 140 is considered high.

The change in body fat was most evident in the first 10 years after moving to a city, and then it levelled off. Men who stayed in rural areas had 21 per cent body fat on average, while those who moved within the past ten years had 24 per cent, on average. The recommended body fat percentage from the National Institutes of Health is 13 to 17 per cent.

The study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, did not pinpoint the cause of these differences between the siblings who moved and those who stayed behind. Nor did it tease out whether the increased levels of body fat, blood pressure and insulin resulted in more disease. Though other studies of rural to urban migration within developing countries have also found negative health effects related to moving to cities, city dwellers in the United States tend to be healthier than those who live in rural areas and even in the suburbs.

According to the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, Americans who live in rural areas are more likely to have fair or poor health, develop chronic diseases, and die from heart disease. One study of suburbanites across several countries found that people who lived in cities were more likely to be active and to walk places. People in cities also tend to be closer to doctors and hospitals. The authors write that the changes among the Indian city-dwellers might be explained by rapid weight gain once people move to a city, spurred by a less healthy diet and a less active lifestyle.

Word-Meanings : fasting = उपवांस। counterpart = प्रतिरूप, समकक्ष। decline = कम होना। sibling = भाई या बहने। decade = दशक। findings = ज्ञात या प्राप्त आँकड़े। global = वैश्विक। urban = शहरी। proportion = अनुपाते। researchers = शोधकर्ता। hygiene = स्वच्छता। instance = उदाहरण। average = औसतन। evident = स्पष्ट। recommended = अनुमोदित। migration = ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों से शहरी क्षेत्रों में जाना। dwellers = निवासी। likely = सम्भावित। rapid = तीव्र, तेजी से। life style = जीवन शैली। suburbs = उपनगरों। chronic = स्थयी, दीर्घकालिक। spurred = प्रेरित।


  1. Why do the Indian city-dwellers gain weight ?
  2. What does agency for healthcare research and quality says about the health of rural areas ?
  3. What are the cause of increasing illness among the city-dwellers ?
  4. What is the percentage of people living in urban areas in India ?
  5. Who had the highest blood pressure ?


  1. The Indian city-dwellers gain weight due to a less healthy diet and a less active lifestyle.
  2. According to Agency for Health Care Research and quality, Americans who live in rural areas are more likely to have poor health, develop chromic diseases, and die from heart disease.
  3. The causes of increasing illness among the city-dwellers are increase in blood pressure, body fat and insulin levels.
  4. About 30 per cent of Indians live in urban areas.
  5. Siblings who lived in a city the longest had the highest blood pressure.

14. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Literary)

Sitting near the fire warms and protects us even in harsh winter. Fire spreads the heat in its surrounding area. That way, our body also has heat in it. The heat inside can be experienced in the exhaled breath. The clothes we wear also become warm by the heat of the body. This effect is more noticeable during winter by touching the clothes that we are going to wear and the ones we cast-off. Wearing woollen clothes in winter prevents the emission of body’s heat outside and thus helps keeping the body at natural temperature. The body-system also possesses many other kinds of energies in it. But most prominent, intense and radiant of the powers a human being is endowed with is the thought-power.

The thought-power and will-power are generated in the mind. Numerous mind boggling examples of the immensity of these mental powers are available in the history of mankind. Paragons are born by awakening of these hidden sources of inner force. Many demonstrations of will power are recorded in the different parts of the world; some are even entered in the Guinness Book of World Records; these often appear miraculous to the masses. While most of us might have experienced will power as the strength of determination, only a few would know that thought-power and will power are manifestations of the same subliminal force of the higher mind.

Mental concentration is an effect as well as a generator of this power. Every impulse of mind is also a reflection of this power; enlightened and deep thoughts are more evolved expressions of this power, which is also regarded by the modern researchers of metaphysics and parapsychology as a source for deciphering the extrasensory psychic force.

The American Society for Psychic Power, the Parapsychology Lab of the Duke University and several other research institutes of global repute have collected and reviewed many authentic examples that signify the importance of the will power or thought-power. The amazing demonstrations of will power of Red Cereus were widely published in the newspapers and magazines of the USA in the early 20th century. Using the focussed force of his thought-power, Isaac Borne of Spain had helped in locating the ships submerged and lost in the gigantic depths of the Pacific Ocean about three-four decades back when no other expertise or technological advancement could provide any clue.

All the super mental talents of this kind including clairvoyance, precognition, telepathy, etc. are expressions of the thought-power or the will power. At times, this power is expressed as a supernatural potential of the physical body, but its origin is always rooted in the subtle cores of the mental body Most of us define and experience thoughts as the language of the conscious mind and regard thought-power as the impact of thoughts on intellectual perceptions and activities. Its inherent equivalence with will power may therefore be difficult for us to visualize.

Word-Meanings : expired = समाप्त emission = उत्सर्जन prominent = महत्वपूर्ण intense = तीव्र। radiant = चमकदार। endowed = सम्पन्न। will-power = इच्छा शक्ति। boggling = आश्चर्यचकित कर देने वाला। immensity = विशालता। paragon = विशिष्ट प्रतिभासम्पन्न व्यक्ति। manifestation = अभिव्यक्ति। implicitly = अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से। impulse = आवेग | enlightened = समझदार। evolved = विकसित हुआ। metaphysics = तत्वविज्ञान। deciphering = गूढ़ रहस्य को समझना। extrasensory = अतिसंवेदी। clairvoyance = अतीन्द्रियता precognition = पूर्वज्ञान।


  1. How do woolen clothes help us maintain our body – temperature ?
  2. Which is the most prominent power a human being is endowed with ?
  3. How did Issac Borne find out the submerged and lost ship in the Pacific Ocean ?
  4. What are the gifts of mental concentration (meditation) ?
  5. How are paragons born ?


  1. Woolen clothes check our body-heat from going outside and thus keep our body temperature normal.
  2. The thought power is the most prominent power.
  3. Issac Borne located the lost and submerged ship in the Pacific Ocean by focussing his thought power.
  4. Through mental concentration, one can see extra-sensory things and can know about coming events.
  5. Paragons are born by awakening the hidden powers of the mind.

15. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Literary)

Those who blame poverty for their failures are just making petty excuses. In fact, they have laid down their weapons against circumstances. They should have prepared themselves mentally and intellectually to face the challenges of life. Gold glitters with more radiance when it is burnt in fire. Dhirubhai Ambani who established Reliance Industries’ once worked at a petrol pump as a petrol-filler boy.

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam in his youth did the job of a newspaper hawker. Abhijeet Sawant who defeated thousands of contestants to become ‘Indian Idol’ has lived in a Mumbai chawl (slum). Irfan Pathan’s father owns a parchoon (grocery) shop outside a mosque at Baroda. Laxmi Niwas Mittal, born in Sadalpur, a remote village of Rajasthan, is now the owner of the world’s biggest steel conglomerate with an annual turnover of $22.2 billion. They all have proved that success is obtained by talent, determination and hard work, not by money. They all have established the fact that “Poverty is not a curse” especially for those who are ready to face every challenge of life.

However, there is another face of the coin also. Poverty results in the lack of resources. Poor students do not have the opportunity to study in good schools, get good coaching, study good books. In many cases, high fee of medical and engineering colleges shatters the dreams of many brilliant but poor students. One who would have become a doctor or engineer by virtue of his talent has to satisfy himself only with smaller jobs.

Poverty also leads to crime. When one is unable to earn money through fair means, he or she resorts to unfair means. Most of the thieves, pickpockets and even terrorists belong to poorer sections of the society. Poverty also leads to overpopulation. Poor people think that by producing more children they would get more hands for work. This results in increased population of the country. Poor people begin to believe in superstitions and become orthodox. To set all these things in right order, it is necessary to remove poverty. As long as there is poverty, there is ignorance and illiteracy, and all these hamper the progress of the country.

So poverty can or cannot be a curse. One gets the opportunity to face every difficulty and experience every aspect of life in poverty. On the other hand, it may result in lack of resources leading to many difficulties in life. Poverty cannot be removed overnight. It is a long job. It can be wiped out step by step. Educational facilities should be provided to all the poor families so that their outlook might be broadened. The exploitation of the poor should be stopped. The money earmarked for Government programmes for poverty alleviation must reach the needy people in full. Then and then only can poverty be removed.

Word-Meanings : radiance = चमक।contestants = प्रतियोगियों।conglomerate = समूह, विभिन्न कंपनियों से मिलकर बनी एक बड़ी कंपनी। shatter = चूर – चूर करना। resort = विवशता में सहारा लेना। hamper = व्यवधान डालना।alleviation = राहते।


  1. Why should educational facilities be provided to all ?
  2. How should the challenges of life be faced ?
  3. For whom is poverty not a curse ?
  4. When does a man resort to unfair means ?
  5. Who are making petty excuses ?


  1. Educational facilities should be provided to all so that their outlook might be broadened.
  2. The challenges of life should be faced by preparing oneself mentally and intellectually.
  3. Poverty is not a curse for those who are ready to face every challenge of life.
  4. When a man is unable to earn money through fair means, he resorts to unfair means.
  5. Those who blame poverty for their failures are making petty excuses.

16. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (Literary)

Why do we make mistakes repeatedly ? Even after making a resolution of not making mistakes, we still end up repeating them. What is the force that aligns all the negativity, makes us commit these mistakes and later regret our actions and decisions ? Everybody has to answer this question in his lifetime. But it is not really true that we cannot correct or control our mistakes. To solve this conundrum, it is necessary to get to the root of the problem; to understand how it is created and what gives it strength.

People make different kinds of mistakes and in different situations, but the root remains the same. Let’s first understand what is a mistake or an error in judgement. Sages say that any act which tarnishes our conscience, makes us fall in our own eyes and harms our self-worth is called sin. Committing a sin means committing a mistake. From a societal perspective, anything which violates societal norms is referred to as sin, yet there are certain actions which do not pass the standards of social morality but are considered righteous in spiritual thought. Also, there are some actions which do not conform to a spiritual mindset although they might be agreeable in a society. A solution to this problem is to define an action which gives joy to our spirit as good and which gives it pain as bad.

People commit mistakes when they are under the influence of greed, attachment or enchantment, lust or’anger. These actions make us fall from grace and harm us in every possible way-financially, socially and spiritually. Everybody tells us how bad these influences are but no one tells us how to correct them. If it cannot be corrected, how can we have any control over it ? These influences are very powerful and contain huge amounts of subconscious energy. Subliminal or subconscious energy is very strong as it has been a part of us for many past lives. It is like an iceberg which shows only its tip on the surface but maintains a very powerful presence beneath the surface. This unknown and unquantifiable energy is the root of our mistakes.

When subliminal forces erupt, all other forces start weakening, our resolve starts to recede and we feel weak and gullible in our mind. This weakness makes us commit mistakes. This state paralyses our wisdom to differentiate between good and bad. For example, when anger affects our mind, we lose our societal inhibitions and composure. We stop differentiating between good and bad and let anger play its dirty tricks on our mind. If we don’t want to let anger overshadow our sense, we will have to keep our resolve and nip anger in its bud.

Word-Meanings : resolution = संकल्प। end up = स्थिति में पहुँचाना। aligns = एक ओर अलग कर देता है। commit = कर डालना। conundrum = पहेली। tarnish = कलंकित करना। societal = सामाजिक। perspective = परिप्रेक्ष्य। iceberg = हिमशैल। subliminal = अवचेतन। erupt = फूटना। recede = कम होना। gullible = सीधा – सादा। composure = मानसिक संतुलन। overshadow = छाया रहना, छा जाना।


  1. What is called sin ?
  2. When do people commit mistakes ?
  3. What should be done if we don’t want to let anger overshadow our sense ?
  4. What does the writer compare bad influences to ?
  5. How can we say whether an action is good or bad ?


  1. Any act which tarnishes our conscience, makes us fall in our own eyes and harms our self-worth, is called sin.
  2. People commit mistakes when they are under the influence of greed, attachment or enchantment, lust or anger.
  3. If we don’t want to let anger overshadow our sense, we should keep our resolve and nip anger in its bud.
  4. The writer compares bad influences to an ice-berg which shows only its tip but keeps its powerful presence beneath water.
  5. An action which gives joy to our spirit is good and the one which gives pain is bad.

17. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

Digital India project was launched by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 1st of July in 2015. It is an effective scheme to transform India for better growth and development of the people and country. Digital India week (from 1st July to 7th July) was inaugurated by the PM in the presence of senior ministerial colleagues and CEOs of leading companies. It aims to give India a digital push for good governance and more jobs. The PM of India has tried his best towards digitizing India in order to bridge the gap between government services and people. Digitization was needed to be implemented in India for its bright future and to make it grow more than any other developed country. Following are the benefits of digital India campaign :

  •  It makes possible the implementation of digital locker system which in turn reduces paperwork by minimizing the usage of physical documents as well as enabling e-sharing through registered repositories.
  • It is an effective online platform which may engage people in governance through various approaches like “Discuss, Do and Disseminate.”
  • It ensures the achievement of various online goals set by the government.
  • It makes possible for people to submit their documents and certificates online anywhere which reduces physical work.
  • Through e-Sign framework, citizens may digitally sign their documents online.
  • It may improve the important health care services through e-Hospital system such as online registration, taking doctor appointments, fee payment, online diagnostic tests, blood check-up, etc.
  • It provides benefits to the beneficiaries through National Scholarship Portal by allowing submission of application, verification process, sanction and then disbursal.
  • It is a big platform which facilitates an efficient delivery of government and private services all over the country to its citizens. Bharat Net programme (a high-speed digital highway) will connect almost 250,000 gram panchayats of country.
  • There is a plan of outsourcing policy also to help in the digital India initiative.
  • For better management of online services on mobile such as voice, data, multimedia, etc. BSNL’s Next Generation Network will replace 30-year-old telephone exchanges.
  • National Centre for Flexible Electronics will help in the promotion of flexible electronics. Large scale deployment of Wi-Fi hotspots has been planned by the BSNL all across the country.
  • There is a Broadband Highway to handle all the connectivity related issues.
  • Open access of broadband highways in all the cities, towns and villages will make possible the availability of world-class services at the click of a mouse.

word-Meanings : launched = आरम्भ किया गया। effective = प्रभावशाली। to transform = परिवर्तन लाना। inaugurated = उद्घाटन किया गया। aim = उद्देश्य। push = आगे बढ़ाना। campaign = अभियान। to bridge the gap = दूरी को कम करना। to implement = क्रियान्वित करना। reduces = कम करता है। ensures = सुनिश्चित करता है। disbursal = भुगतान। efficient = कुशल। initiative = आरम्भ या पहल। availability = उपलब्धता।


  1. When is digital India week celebrated?
  2. What is the aim of digitization?
  3. What is the use of digital locker?
  4. What is the purpose of Bharat Net program?
  5. What is the utility of a Broadband Highway?


  1. Digital India week is celebrated from 1st July to 7th July.
  2. The aim of digitization is to give India a digital push for good governance and more jobs.
  3. The use of digital locker is to reduce paper work.
  4. The purpose of Bharat Net Program is to connect almost 250,000 gram panchayats of India.
  5. A Broadband Highway is useful for handling all the connectivity related issues.

18. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a Clean India drive and Mission launched as a national campaign by the Indian Government in order to cover the 4041 statutory towns aiming at maintaining cleanliness of streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi officially launched this mission on 2nd of October (the birth anniversay of Mahatma Gandhi) in 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi (cremation of Bapu). While launching the mission, Prime Minister himself had cleaned the road. It is the biggest cleanliness drive ever in India when approximately 3 million government employees including students from schools and colleges took part in the cleanliness activities.

On the day of launch of the event, PM himself has nominated the names of nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas. Schools and colleges participated in the event by organizing many cleanliness activities according to their own themes. Students across India participated in this event. PM had also requested to all those nine nominees to call another nine people separately to participate in this cleanliness drive and to continue the chain of calling nine people by each and every participating candidate of the mission until the message reached the every Indian in every corner of the country to make it a national mission. This mission aimed to join each and every Indian from all walks of life.

Earlier, many awareness programmes (such as Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, etc.) about environmental sanitation and personal cleanliness were launched by the Indian government. However, these could not be so effective to make India a clean India. The main objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are removing the trend of open defecation, changing insanitary toilets into pour flush toilets, removal of manual scavenging, proper disposal of solid and liquid wastes, bringing behavioural changes among people, enhancing awareness about sanitation, facilitating the participation of private sector towards cleanliness facilities.

There are various brand ambassadors who have been chosen by the PM to initiate and promote the abhiyan of Swachh Bharat in various fields. He had also nominated some other dignitaries from different fields including politics, film, music, entertainment industry, etc. In order to continue and make this campaign successful, Finance Ministry of India has started a programme named Swachh Bharat cess. According to this everyone has to pay 0.5% more service tax on all the services in India (50 paise per 100 rupees) which will go towards funding this cleanliness campaign.

Word-Meanings : launched = चालू या आरम्भ किया गया। campaign = अभियान| aiming = उद्देश्य से। infrastructure = मूलभूत सुविधाएँ। drive = कार्य या अभियान। approximately = लगभग। including = सहित। nominated = नामांकित किये। their own areas = उनके स्वयं के क्षेत्रों। awareness = जागरूकता। sanitation = स्वच्छता, सफाई। effective = प्रभावशाली। objective = उद्देश्य। remove = खत्म, समाप्त। defecation = मलत्याग, शौच। scavenging = हाथों से शौचालयों की गन्दगी साफ करना। proper disposal = उचित निस्तारण। behavioural changes = व्यवहार में परिवर्तन। enhance = वृद्धि करना। various = विभिन्न। to initiate = पहल करना। promote = बढ़ावा देना। dignitaries = प्रतिष्ठित लोग।


  1. hat is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?
  2. When and where was the Clean India Drive launched ?
  3. Why did the PM nominate nine people?
  4. What is the aim of Clean India Mission?
  5. Why has the PM chosen various brand ambassadors?


  1. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is Clean India Drive.
  2. The Clean India Drive was launched on 02 Oct. 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi.
  3. The PM nominated nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas.
  4. The aim of clean India Mission is to join each and every Indian from all walks of life.
  5. PM has choosen various brand ambassadors to initiate and promote the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in various fields.

19. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

Make in India is the BJP-led NDA government’s flagship campaign intended to boost the domestic manufacturing industry and attract foreign investors to invest into the Indian economy. The Indian Prime Minister, Mr Narendra Modi first mentioned the keyphrase in his maiden Independence Day address from the ramparts of the Red Fort and over a month later launched the campaign in September, 2014 with an intention of reviving manufacturing businesses and emphasizing growth of key sectors in India amidst growing concerns that most entrepreneurs are moving out of the country due to its low rank in ease of doing business rating.

Manufacturing currently contributes just over 15% to the national GDP. The aim of this campaign is to increase this to a 25% contribution as seen with other developing nations of Asia. In the process, the government expects to generate jobs, attract much foreign direct investment, and transform India into a prefered manufacturing hub around the globe.

The logo for the Make In India campaign is a an elegant lion, inspired by the Ashoka Chakra and designed to represent India’s success in all spheres. The campaign was dedicated by the Prime Minister to the eminent patriot, philosopher and political thinker, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay who was born on the same date in 1916.

The Prime Minister called upon all those associated with the campaign, especially the entrepreneurs and the corporates, to step forward and discharge their duties as Indian nationals by First Developing India and for investors to endow the country with foreign direct investments. The Prime Minister also promised that his administration would aid the investors by making India a pleasant experience and that his government considered overall development of the nation an article of faith rather than a political agenda. He laid stress on employment generation and poverty alleviation that would inevitably accompany the success of this campaign.

For the Make in India campaign, the government of India has identified 25 priority sectors that shall be promoted adequately. These are the sectors where likelihood of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) is the highest and investment shall be promoted by the government of India. On the campaign launch, the Prime Minister Mr Modi said that the development of these sectors would ensure that the world shall readily come to Asia, particularly to India where the availability of both democratic conditions and manufacturing superiority made it the best destination, especially when combined with the effective governance intended by his administration.

Word-Meanings : to boost = आगे बढ़ाने में सहायता देना। domestic = घरेलू (देश में)। investors = निवेशकर्ता। invest = निवेश। mentioned = उल्लेख किया। keyphrase = मुख्य वाक्य (वाक्यांश)। maiden = प्रथम। address = सम्बोधन। rampart = प्राचीर। intention = इच्छा, मंशा। revive = पुर्नजीवित करना। manufacturing = उतपादन। emphasizing = जोर देते हुये। key sectors = मुख्य (आधारभूत) क्षेत्रों। contribution = योगदान। generate = उत्पन्न करना। elegant = ललित, शानदार। inspired = प्रेरित। dedicated = समर्पित। eminent = विख्यात। identified = पहचान की, चिन्हित किये। likelihood = सम्भावना। promoted = बढ़ावा दिया। adequately = पर्याप्त रूप से। superiority = श्रेष्ठता। inevitably = अनिवार्य रूप से। poverty alleviation गरीबी उन्मूलन।


  1. What is the objective of Make in India campaign?
  2. When was the Make in India campaign launched?
  3. What is the aim of this campaign?
  4. What is the logo of Make in India campaign?
  5. How many priority sectors has the government identified for this campaign?


  1. The objective of Make in India campaign is to boost the domestic manufacturing industry and attract foreign investors.
  2. Make in India campaign was launched in September 2014.
  3. The aim of this campaign is to increase manufacturing contribution from 15% to 25% to our GDP.
  4. The logo of Make in India compaign is an elegant lion.
  5. he government of India has identified 25 priority sectors for this campaign.

20. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow : (Discursive)

The main goal of ‘Skill India’ programme is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth and to develop more of those sectors which have already been put under skill development for the last so many years and also to identify new sectors for skill development. The new programme aims at providing training and skill development to 500 million youth of our country by 2020, covering each and every village. Various schemes are also proposed to achieve this objective The emphasis is to impart skills to the youths in such a way that they get employment and also improve entrepreneurship.

The programme provides training, support and guidance for all occupations that were of traditional type like carpenters, cobblers, welders, blacksmiths, masons, nurses, tailors, weavers, etc. More emphasis will be given on new areas like real estate, construction, transportation, textile, gem industry, jewellery designing, banking, tourism and various other sectors where skill development is inadequate or nil.

The training programmes would be on the lines of international level so that the youths of our country could not only meet the domestic demands but also of other countries like the US, Japan, China, Germany, Russia and those in the West Asia. The course methodology of ‘Skill India’ would be innovative, which would include games, group discussions, brainstorming sessions, practical experiences, case studies, etc.

It’s not that we do not have any skill development programme already. The Government of India has always considered skill development as a national priority. It is just that since the ministry is new, the approach taken for skill development is also new. Earlier, the emphasis was on traditional jobs. But this time, all kinds of jobs will be given equal emphasis.

The idea is to raise confidence, improve productivity and give direction through proper skill development. Skill development will enable the youths to get blue-coller jobs. Development of skills, at an young age, right at the school level, is very essential to prepare them for proper job opportunities. There should be a balanced growth in all the sectors and all jobs should be given equal importance. Every job aspirant would be given training in soft skills to lead a proper and decent life. Skill development would reach the rural and remote areas also. Corporate educational institutions, non-government organizations, Government, academic institutions, and society would help in the development of skills of the youths so that better results are achieved in the shortest time possible.

Word-Meanings : goal = लक्ष्य। opportunities = अवसर। to identify = पहचान या चिन्हित करना। skill development = कौशल विकास। schemes = योजनाएँ। proposed = प्रस्तावित। objective = उद्देश्य । emphasis = जोर। traditional = परम्परागत। cobbler = मोची । blacksmith = लोहार । masons = राजमिस्त्री। weavers = जुलाहे। real estate = जमीन-जायदाद। construction = निर्माण। textile = कपड़ा। gem = रत्न। inadequate = अपर्याप्त। domestic = घरेलू । priority = प्राथमिकता। approach = (यहाँ) तरीका। equal = समान। raise confidence = विश्वास बढ़ाना। productivity = उत्पादकता। enable = सक्षम बनाना। rural = ग्रामीण। remote = दूरदराज के। academic = शैक्षिक। institutions = संस्थानों। occupations = व्यवसायों।


  1. What is the main goal of ‘Skill India’ program?
  2. How is “Skill India” programme useful for traditional occupations?
  3. What kind of training programmes would be there in “Skill India”?
  4. What would be the contents of the course methodology of “Skill India”?
  5. Why is the development of skills at the school level essential?


  1. The main goal is to create opportunities, space, and scope for the development of the talents of the Indian youth.
  2. “Skill India” is useful for traditional occupations because it provides training, support and guidance for all these occupations.
  3. The training programme would be on the lines of international level.
  4. The contents would be innovative which would include games, group discussions, brain storming sessions, practical experiences, case studies, etc.
  5. It is essential to prepare the youth for proper job opportunties.