12 Grammar Passive Voice
अंग्रेजी में दो Voice होते हैं.
1. Active Voice
2. Passive Voice
Active Voice : ‘Active’ का अर्थ है – ‘सक्रिय होना। जब वाक्य में Subject (कर्ता) स्वयं सक्रिय होता है। अर्थात स्वयं कार्य करता है तो यह Active Voice है।
write a letter. मैं एक पत्र लिखता हूँ, इसमें ‘I’ स्वयं
सक्रिय है – मैं (पत्र) लिखता हूँ।
Passive Voice : ‘Passive’ का अर्थ है – निष्क्रिय।। अर्थात् वाक्य में Subject स्वयं ‘निष्क्रिय’ होता है, और verb के अनुसार कार्य किया जाता है तो यह Passive Voice है। जैसे A letter is written by me. एक पत्र मेरे द्वारा लिखा जाता है।
विशेष : ये 10 शब्द याद करो – must, can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, need not. ये Modals हैं। ध्यान दें, इनके बाद Helping verb हमेशा ‘be’ ही आयेगा। Helping verb हमेशा verb की III Form के पहले प्रयोग करते हैं।
Rules 1. Object को Subject बनाओ ।
(पहचान : 1. Verb के तुरन्त बाद Object होता है।
2. Verb के पहले अर्थात् वाक्य के आरम्भ में Subject होता है!),
2. Helping Verb लाओ।
(उपर्युक्त Table-II में Helping Verb है, इनमें से ही किसी का प्रयोग आवश्यकतानुसार अवश्य ही होगा।)
3. Verb की III Form लाओ।
(Passive Voice बनाने में Verb की III Form का
प्रयोग अवश्य ही होगा, चाहे कोई भी Tense हो।)
4. ‘by’ लाओ।
(यदि Unimportant Subject हो तो by का प्रयोग नहीं करते हैं।)
5. Subject को Object बनाकर by के बाद लगायें।
(Subject वाक्य के आरम्भ में होता है।)
चार ध्यातव्य बातें
1. बिना Helping Verb के Passive Voice कभी नहीं
बनेगा अर्थात् Passive Voice में H.V. का प्रयोग अवश्य ही होगा।
2. Verb की III Form के बिना Passive कभी नहीं
बनेगा, अर्थात् verb की III Form अवश्य ही लानी होगी।
3. Active से Passive बनाने में केवल तीन change
ही होते हैं. चौथा change नहीं होता है।
4. वाक्य में Subject का पहला स्थान होता है, Verb
का दूसरा स्थान व Object का तीसरा स्थान होता है।
1. Active : A policeman helped her.
Passive : She was helped by a policeman
2. Active : Sheela writes a letter.
Passive : A letter is written by Sheela.
3. Active : The servant washed the floor.
Passive : The floor was washed by the
Practice Exercise 1.
Change the following sentences into Passive Voice :
1. She keeps the books in a box.
2. Ram sells vegetables.
3. Anil washes the clothes daily.
4. We take tea at 5 p.m.
5. My father writes letters in the afternoon.
6. All my friends like music.
7. Rita won a prize.
8. Kamla bought a wrist-watch.
9. Lalu stole my book.
10. Sarla polished her shoes.
11. The servant washed the floor.
12. Raju took photographs.
1. The books are kept by her in a box.
2. Vegetables are sold by Ram.
3. The clothes are washed by Anil daily
4. Tea is taken at 5 p.m.
5. Letters are written by my father in the afternoon.
6. Music is liked by all my friends.
7. A prize was won by Rita
8. A wrist watch was bought by Kamla.
9. My book was stolen by Lalu.
10. Her shoes were polished by Sarla.
11. The floor was washed by the servant.
12. Photographs were taken by Raju.
Practice Exercise 2.
Turn into Passive.
1. They use stones to build a house.
2 All the men and women sing bhajans in the temple.
3. The policeman was checking the licence.
4. The engineer is repairing the computer.
5. Someone is calling you.
6. Somebody is knocking at the door.
7. They are playing chess.
8. The servant is bringing tea.
9. The post-office is selling Indian Festival Stamps
10. They are hanging pictures in the drawingroom
1. Stones are used to build a house.
2. Bhajans are sung in the temple.
3. The licence was being checked by the policeman.
4. The computer is being repaired by the engineer.
5. You are being called.
6. The door is being knocked at.
7. Chess is being played
8. Tea is being brought by the servant
9. Indian Festival Stamps are being sold by the post office
10. Pictures are being hung in the drawing room.
Practice Exercise 3.
Change the following sentences into passive :
1. Someone has closed the door.
2. The washerman has washed the clothes.
3. She has cooked food for the guests.
4. Someone has witched on the T.V.
5. The shopkeeper has sold all the bicycles.
6. The mechanic has repaired the watch.
7. We have paid the workers.
8. The gardener has planted all the trees.
9. The monitor has collected the books.
10. The teacher has corrected the exercises
11. The captain has chosen a good team
12. Somebody has stolen my money.
13. A beggar has won the lottery.
14. Satish has painted this picture.
15. The police have closed the road.
1. The door has been closed.
2. The clothes have been washed by the washerman
3. Food has been cooked by her for the guests.
4. The T.V. has been switched on.
5. All the bicycles have been sold by the shopkeeper.
6. The watch has been repaired by the mechanic
7. The workers have been paid.
8. All the trees have been planted by the gardener.
9. The books have been collected by the monitor
10. The exercises have been corrected by the teacher
11. A good team has been chosen by the captain.
12. My money has been stolen.
13. The lottery has been won by a beggar.
14. This picture has been painted by Satish
15. The road has been closed by the police
Practice Exercise 4.
Change the following sentences into passive :
1. The chief-guest gave us prizes.
2. Mother gave me an interesting book of stories.
3. The teacher allotted us work.
4. I returned her the wrist-watch.
5. She wrote her father two letters last week.
6. The manager offered her a good salary.
7. The teacher asked her many questions,
8. My father promised me a prize.
9. I appointed him a clerk.
10. She suggested me some questions
1. We were given prizes by the chief-guest.
2. I was given an interesting book of stories by mother.
3. We were allotted work by the teacher.
4. She was returned the wrist-watch by me.
5. Her father was written two letters by her last week.
6. She was offered a good salary by the manager
7. She was asked many questions by the teacher.
8. I was promised a prize by my father.
9. He was appointed a clerk by me.
10. I was suggested some questions by her.
Practice Exercise 5.
Change the following sentences into passive
1. He can write a story.
2. I must teach the students.
3. She will cook food in the kitchen.
4. The teacher can help you.
5. My father would purchase a scooter.
6. Sita should wash my shirt.
7. Raju could eat a banana.
8. You must teach me.
9. He can do this work.
10. Mohan will sell a car.
11. Ram is eating an apple.
12. Sheela writes a letter.
13. The servant washed the floor.
14. Prakash has swept the room.
15. The big dog had bitten the little girl.
1. A story can be written by him.
2. The students must be taught by me.
3. Food will be cooked by her in the kitchen.
4. You can be helped by the teacher.
5. A scooter would be purchased by my father.
6. My shirt should be washed by Sita.
7. A banana could be eaten by Raju.
8. I must be taught by you.
9. This work can be done by him.
10. A car will be sold by Mohan.
11. An apple is being eaten by Ram.
12. A letter is written by Sheela.
13. The floor was washed by the servant.
14. The room has been swept by Prakash
15. The little girl had been bitten by the big dog.