13 Grammar Reported Speech
जब हम किसी के द्वारा कही गई बात को ज्यों का त्यों कहते हैं तो इसे Direct Speech कहते हैं। किन्तु जब हम उस बात को उसके वास्तविक शब्दों में न कहकर अपने शब्दों में कहते हैं तो इसे Indirect Speech अथवा Reported Speech कहते हैं।
Direct Speech के दो भाग होते हैं|
I. Reporting Verb-यह Inverted Commas के बाहर होता है।
Golden Rules के अनुसार इसे ‘बाहर वाला भाग’ अथवा संक्षेप में इसे ‘बाहर’ कहते हैं।
II. Reported Speech Inverted Commas के अन्दर होता है।
Golden Rules के अनुसार इसे ‘अन्दर का भाग’ अथवा संक्षेप में ‘अन्दर’ कहते हैं।
Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने के लिए तीन प्रकार से परिवर्तन किये जाते हैं
I. Pronoun सम्बन्धी परिवर्तन,
II. Verb सम्बन्धी परिवर्तन,
III. दूरी सम्बन्धी परिवर्तन। आपकी पाठ्यपुस्तक में yes/no type questions तथा ‘wh’ word वाले questions के indirect बनाना सम्मिलित किया गया है। अतः यहाँ उन्हीं को समझाया जा रहा है। Interrogative Sentences दो प्रकार के हो सकते हैं|
I.Yes/No Type: ऐसे वाक्य किसी Helping Verb (जैसे – is, are, am, was, were, can, will, has, have………… आदि) से आरम्भ होते हैं। जैसे
1. He said, “Is your father a doctor?”
2. She said, “Will you help me?”
II. Wh-Type : ऐसे वाक्य Wh-शब्द से आरम्भ होते हैं। जैसे
1. Sita said, “What are you doing?”
2. He said, “When will you go ?”
Interrogative Sentences Reported Speech में बदलने के
Golden Rules :
(1) बाहर ‘said’ के स्थान पर asked कर दो। asked के बाद ‘to’ नहीं आता है।
(2) यदि प्रश्न Yes/No Type हो अर्थात् यदि अन्दर वाक्य किसी H.V. से आरम्भ हो तो connective if अथवा whether आयेगा किन्तु spelling की कठिनाई के कारण if का ही प्रयोग करो।
(3) यदि प्रश्न-Wh-(जैसे-who, when, where,why, what……. आदि) से आरम्भ हो तो कोई भी connective नहीं आयेगा।
(4) सबसे पहले अन्दर Pronoun को change करो, यदि होता हो तो।
(5) उस Pronoun के पहले जो Helping Verb है, उसे Change करके उसी शब्द के बाद रख दो।
(6) यदि अन्दर प्रश्न Do से आरम्भ हो तो Do हटा दो। और Verb की II Form लगाओ।
(7) यदि अन्दर प्रश्न Do…..not से आरम्भ हो तो not नहीं हटेगा किन्तु जिस शब्द के पहले Do है, उसी शब्द के बाद Tense के अनुसार did not हो जायेगा।
(8) किसी भी प्रकार का प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य (चाहे Wh वाला, चाहे Yes/No वाला) हो,
के अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न (?) नहीं लगेगा, Full-stop लगेगा।
Examples: Yes/No Type
1. Direct : He said to me, “Is your father a doctor?
Indirect : He asked me if my father was a doctor.
2. Direct : She said to Hari, “Will you help me ?”
Indirect : She asked Hari if he would help her.
3. Direct : Rekha said to her brother, “Where are you going?”
Indirect: Rekha asked her brother where he was going ‘Do’ अथवा ‘Do……..not’ से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्य
5. Direct : Babli said to Hari, “Do you go to school daily?”
Indirect : Babli asked Hari if he went to school daily
6. Direct : Vimla said to her son, “Do you not play football in the evening?”
Indirect :Vimla asked her son if he did not play football in the evening.
Practice Exercise :
1. Change the following sentences into Indirect Narration :
1. I said to Sita, “Am I late ?”
2. He said to me, “Are you going to Jaipur ?
3. The teacher said to the students, “Are the cows running?”
4. She said to him, “Will you go to school ?
5. He said, “Can I sleep?”
6. He said to me, “Is the water fresh ?”
7. Babita said to Raju, “Can you do my work ?
8. She said to me, “Why are you happy ?”
9. Radha said to Hari, “Where is my book?”
10. You said to her, “What is your name?”
11. Gopal said to Seema, “When can I come to you?”
12. He said to me, “Do you live in this house ?”
13. Vimla said to Rajesh, “Do I not play with you?”
14. You said to me, “Does Anil help you?”
15. She said to you, “Who will help you ?”
1. I asked Sita if I was late.
2. He asked me if I was going to Jaipur.
3. The teacher asked the students if the cows were running
4. She asked him if he would go to school
5. He asked if he could sleep
6. He asked me if the water was fresh.
7. Babita asked Raju if he could do her work.
8. She asked me why I was happy.
9. Radha asked Hari where her book was.
10. You asked her what her name was.
11. Gopal asked Seema when he could come to her.
12. He asked me if I lived in that house.
13. Vimla asked Rajesh if she did not play with him.
14. You asked me if Anil helped me.
15. She asked you who would help you.
Practice Exercise 2.
1. Mohan said, “What should I do?”
2. He said to her, “What are you looking for?”
3. Hari said to me, “Where do you live?”
4. She said to me, “What are you doing?
5. Ramesh said to her, “How is your father?”
6. You said to me, “Do you know my name?”
7. She said to you, “Do you not play football ?
8. Vimla said to me, “Can I see your pencil ?
9. I said to her, “Will you come to my house?
10. Ravi said to me, “Can you spare some time for me?”
11. My father said to Mohan, “Are you happy with your new job?”
12. Richa said to Ram, “Does she work very hard ?
13. I said to her, “Am I late ?”
14. He said to her, “Is your brother at home?”
15. He said to me, “Where is she going?
1. Mohan asked what he should do.
2. He asked her what she was looking for.
3. Hari asked me where I lived.
4. She asked me what I was doing
5. Ramesh asked her how her father was.
6. You asked me if I knew your name.
7. She asked you if you did not play football.
8. Vimla asked me if she could see my pencil.
9. I asked her if she would come to my house.
10. Ravi asked me if I could spare some time for him.
11. My father asked Mohan if he was happy with his new job.
12. Richa asked Ram if she worked very hard.
13. I asked her if I was late.
14. He asked her if her brother was at home.
15. He asked me where she was going