2 Grammar Modals

Modals, Auxiliary Verbs का एक प्रकार है। इसका पूरा नाम Modal Auxiliaries है। इसके दो प्रकार – प्रथम, Modal Auxiliaries foram can, could, may, might, shall, will, should, would, must site ought to अपनी Negative forms के साथ हैं। द्वितीय, Semi Modals जिनमें needn’t, daren’t और used to सम्मिलित हैं। Modals की तीन common characteristics हैं जो निम्न प्रकार हैं

1. Modals के बाद हमेशा bare infinitive (verb की first form) का प्रयोग होता है।
2. Sentence का Subject, Singular हो या Plural, Modal हमेशा एक जैसा रहता है। 

Examples : 
I — can do it. 
She — can do it. 
They — can do it. 

3. Modals की infinitive form (to shall, to must आदि) 41 participle form (maying, canning, mayed, shalled आदि) इसीलिए इन्हें Defective Verbs of भी कहते हैं

Negative Forms of Modals :

Usages (प्रयोग) नीचे दी गई परिस्थितियों में can का प्रयोग किया जाता है

Can :

1. Present ability or capability. [be able to know how to] :
वर्तमान योग्यता या क्षमता के लिए : 
I can solve any question of this exercise. 
She can lift 100 Kg. weight this time.
He can repair this watch. 

2. Present Permission- less formal or informal [be allowed to, be permitted to] :
वर्तमान आज्ञा – कम औपचारिक या अनौपचारिक : 
Can I use your pen, dear friend?
Can you guide me, brother? 

3. Present Theoretical or General Possibility :
वर्तमान व्यावहारिक या सामान्य सम्भावना के लिए : 
Anybody can make mistake.
We can learn by mistakes.
Can it be a murder ? 

4. Puzzlement or Impatience by Interrogative Sentences :
घबराहट या बेचैनी को प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य द्वारा प्रकट करना : 
What can he mean? (puzzlement)
Where can I study ? (impatience) 

5. In Probable Conditional Sentences : खुली सम्भावना वाले Conditional वाक्यों में :
If you request, he can help you.
If she tries, she can achieve it. 

6. Can + Perfect infinitive (have + V-III) for Past deduction or assumption : II
कार्यों के अनुमान हेतु :
He went early so he can have caught the bus. 

Can’t : 

इसका प्रयोग नकारात्मक अर्थ में होता है।
can के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

I can’t do it. — (inability) 
I can’t lift it. — (incapacity) 
You can’t use it. — (not allowed) or (prohibition) 
Can’t we make mistake? — (possibility) 
She can’t be my sister. — (Negative deduction/assumption) 
He went late so he can’t have caught the bus. — (Negative Past deduction/assumption)

Could 

Usages (प्रयोग) नीचे दी गई परिस्थितियों में can का प्रयोग किया जाता है

Could :
1. Past ability or capability. [be able to, knew how to]
भूतकाल की योग्यता या क्षमता के लिए : 

I could learn fast when I was young. 
She could swim when she was at school.
He could type fast when he was in the job.

2. Present or Future Permission : वर्तमान या भविष्य की आज्ञा के लिए :
Could I use it now? Could I use it tomorrow ?
Could I smoke in here? 

3. Present Possibility (theoretical or factual) वर्तमर्त ान सम्भावना (व्यावहारि क या वास्तवि क) के लिए:
Tag: The road could be blocked.
We could attend the meeting. 

4. Contingent possibility or ability in unreal condition :
आकस्मिक सम्भावना या योग्यता के लिए-अवास्तविक स्थिति में : 
If I had more money, I could buy a bunglow.
If she won a lottery, she could live leisurely. 

5. Polite request : विनम् प्रार्थना के लिए
Could you help me, please ? 

6. Puzzlement or Impatience to suggest only present time :
घबराहट या बेचैनी के लिए केवल वर्तमान में 
What could I do about it? (Puzzlement)
What could this result in ? (Impatience) 

7. General Permission (Past): सामान्य आज्ञा-भूतकाल की
They could play more on Sundays those days.

8. Occasional Possibility : सम्भावना-यदा-कदा हुआ कार्य|
He could be very rough :
The sea could be stormy in summer. 

9. Could + Perfect infinitive expresses non-fulfilment in the past : भूतकाल में नहीं किया हुआ कार्य
He could have helped her. (but he didn’t help her) 

इसका प्रयोग नकारात्मक अर्थ के लिए होता है। usages of could के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप : 

I couldn’t learn fast when I was young. — (Inability)
He couldn’t type fast when he was in job. — (Incapacity)
We couldn’t attend the meeting. — (no possibility)
They couldn’t play more even on Sundays those days. — (no permission)

Usages (प्रयोग) – निम्न परिस्थितियों में may का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

May 1. Formal Permission : औपचारिक आज्ञा के लिए :
May I come in, Sir ?
You may come in. 

2. Possibility (usually factual), likelihood, probability : सम्भावना (अधिकांशतः तथ्याधारित) :
The clouds are dark so it may rain.
She may obtain good marks as she is working hard.

3. Wish/bless इच्छा/आशीर्वाद के लिए :
May you live long !
May God bless you ! 

4. May + Perfect infinitive – Past deductions/assumptions : भूतकाल के अनुमान
She went late so she may have missed the train. 

5. In Probable Conditional Sentences to show Possibility :
सम्भावना वाले Conditional वाक्यों में :
If you try, you may reach the goal. 

6. To denote a very unemphatic advice with “as well :
अप्रभावी परामर्श
You may go as well, if you like.

Mayn’t : इसका प्रयोग नकारात्मक अर्थ के लिए किया जाता है। may के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप
It may not rain tonight. — (no possibility)
You may not come in. — (no permission)
She went early so she may not have missed the train. — Negative past deduction)

Might

Usages (प्रयोग) निम्न परिस्थितियों में Might का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

1. Remote Possibility to क्षीण सम्भावना के लिए 
The last bus has gone so he might come now. 
There are very few clouds so it might rain. 

2. Theoretical or factual possibility व्यावहारिक या वास्तविक सम्भावना के लिए : 
What you say might be true.
The road might be blocked for the VIP. 

3. Permission (more diffident than “may) अज्ञा के लिए
Might I smoke in here ?
Might I ask a question ? 

4. Past deductions or assumptions with might + Perfect Infinitive’ भूतकाल के अनुमान के लिए : 
She might have missed the train though she went early.
(She did not miss the train but there was possibility.) 

5. To express a very casual request : आकस्मिक प्रार्थना
You might post these for me.

6. To express a reproachable request : निन्दात्मक प्रार्थना
You might help me. (You should have helped me but you didn’t help.) 

7. To express an irritation : झुझलाहट के लिए 
He might pay us. (He should have paid but he didn’t pay.) 

8. To express a very unemphatic advice : अप्रभावी परामर्श के लिए
You have got failed many times even if you like you might try once more. 

Mightn’t : might के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप :

The road might not be blocked. (no possibility) 
She might not have missed the train. (negative past deduction)

Should 

Usage (प्रयोग)-निम्न परिस्थितियों में should का प्रयोग किया जाता है

1. Obligation and logical necessity. or Present or Future deduction : बाध्यता व तर्कसंगात आवश्यकता:
She should do as they say.
She should be home by now. 

2. Suggestions/advice : परामर्श
You should work hard.
The rich should help the poor. 

3. In Conditional Sentences to express a very unlikely condition :
बहुत कम सम्भावित Condition बताने हेतु: 
Should it rain today, the evening will be pleasant.
Should you win a lottery, would you help me? 

4. To express a desire : इच्छा प्रकट करने हेतु |
I did not wish that you should leave me alone.
I did not like that my son should join the army. 

5. To express an expectation : आश प्रकट करने हेतु
They should be here any moment now. 

6. To express a purpose : उददेश्य प्रकट करने हेतु |
Be careful lest you should catch infection.
They killed the prisoners lest they should escape. 

7. Should + perfect infinitive to show past deduction :
He should have caught the bus since he started early. 

Shouldn’t – should के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप :
You should not help him. (Negative advice) 
He shouldn’t have caught the bus. (Negative deduction)

Must

Must – 1. To denote obligation/compulsion/coercion/duty/essential/mandatory/inevitable etc.
अनिवार्यता, बाध्यता आदि प्रकट करने हेतु —

You must have a licence to drive a vehicle.
Every employee must follow rules. 

2. Logical necessity or strong possibility :
तर्काधारित अनिवार्यता या अत्यधिक सम्भावना
The lights are on; somebody must be in the room. 

3. Strong suggestions/advice : मजबूत परामर्श
You are seriously ill so you must go to a hospital.
She must work hard to be in the merit list. 

4. Past deductions with must + perfect infinitive : भूतकालिक अनुमान 
You must have got a job by that time.
She went early so she must have caught the bus. 

Mustn’t-

1. Prohibition : निषेध
You mustn’t park your vehicle here.
We mustn’t change the lane. 

2. Negative way of expressing the usages of must :
must के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप 
Lights are off so she mustn’t be in the room. (negative probability) 
She went late so she mustn’t have caught the bus. (negative past deduction)

Modal अपनी तरफ से लगाना| 

– ऐसे प्रश्न में वाक्य दिया होता है और कहीं रिक्त स्थान दिया होता है। 
– वाक्य की समाप्ति के बाद, आगे कोष्ठक में Modal-सूचक शब्द दिया होता है। 
– उस दिए हुए Modal-सूचक शब्द के आधार पर उपयुक्त Modal अपनी ओर से, रिक्त-स्थान में भरना होता है। 

Note : इस प्रकार के प्रश्न में, अपनी ओर से Grammar के नियमों से Correct Modal भरना बहुत कठिन है। अतः Golden Rules की सहायता से भरिये, अत्यन्त सरल लगेगा। इसके लिए नीचे KEY-BOARD दिया है। वैसे तो यह Key-Board बहुत विस्तृत हो सकता है, किन्तु परीक्षा की दृष्टि से केवल चुने हुए महत्त्वपूर्ण शब्द ही दिए गये हैं। 
RBSE Class 9 English Grammar Modals 3

Golden Rule- यदि वाक्य की समाप्ति के बाद, आगे कोष्ठक में उपर्युक्त शब्द हों तो सम्बन्धित Modal लगाएँ | नीचे दी गई Examples से समझें

Examples 

1. He………..do this work easily. (ability) 
Answer: He can do this work easily.
(ध्यान दें- ability’ के लिए modal-‘can’ है।) 

2. You……….go to the cinema today. (allowed) 
Answer: You may go to the cinema today. 
(ध्यान दें-‘allowed’ के लिए modal-may’ है।) 

3. You………..help your brother. (moral duty) 
Answer: You should help your brother. 
(ध्यान दें-moral duty के लिए modal-should’ है।) 

4. You……….. respect your teachers. (duty) 
Answer:You must respect your teachers.
(ध्यान दें- duty’ के लिए modal-must’ है।) 

5. You……….enter the office without permission. (prohibited) 
Answer: You must not enter the office without permission.
(ध्यान दें-prohibited’ के लिए modal-must not’ है।) 

6. She………..dance well when she was young. (capability) 
Answer: She could dance well when she was young.
(ध्यान दें-‘capability’ के लिए modal-can’ है किन्तु वाक्य में ‘was’ है, जो Past Tense का

7. There are clouds in the sky. It……….rain at night. (possibility) 
Answer:It may rain at night.  
(ध्यान दें-“possibility’ के लिए modal-may’ है।) 

8. The sky is clear. It …………….. rain. (Remote possibility) 
Answer: It might rain. 
यहाँ बहुत कम सम्भावना है।

Practice Exercise 1.

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given below :

(can, could, may, might, should, must) 

1. There are no clouds in the sky, but it …………. rain today. 
2. She was a rich lady so she ………….. buy a car for her son. 
3. The patient is very serious. He …………… die at any time.
4. I …………… solve any question of this exercise.
5. ……………. you help me, please ? 
6. The last bus has gone so Savita ……………… come now. 
7. She ….. speak English well. 
8. The train is running slow so it ……………. get late. 
9. I …………… run fast when I was young. 
10. Television ……………. be found in every middle class family. 
11. Death …………… lay her icy hand on everyone.
12. The rich …………. help the poor. 
13. Carry umbrella lest it …………….. start raining. 
14. We …………….. take exercise to be healthy.
Answer:
1. might 
2. could 
3. may 
4. can 
5. Could 
6. might 
7. can 
8. may 
9. could 
10. can 
11. must 
12. should 
13. should 
14. must 

Practice Exercise 2.

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given below :

(can, could, may, might, should, must) 

1. There are clouds in the sky. So, it …………. rain today. 
2. My grandmother is over sixty, but she ………….. still read without glasses. 
3. He belonged to a poor family, therefore, he ………….. not buy a car. 
4. He has broken friendship so he ……………. help now. 
5. You ……. be ill because your forehead is hot. 
6. He …………….. help you if he wanted.
7. …………… you live long! 
8. Anybody …………… commit error. 
9. The days are warmer so you …………. need to wear a sweater. 
10. …………… you give me lift upto the school, please ? 
11. The injured ……………. be taken immediately. 
12. Poeple …………… grow more and more trees. 
13. A soldier ………………….. be in the uniform. 
14. Walk carefully lest you ……… fall down.
Answer:
1. may 
2. can 
3. could 
4. might 
5. may 
6. could 
7. May 
8. can 
9. might 
10. Could
11. must 
12. should 
13. must 
14. should 

Practice Exercise 3.

Fill in the gaps with the correct modal : 

1. She……………speak English well. (ability) 
2. Students…………… respect their teachers. (obligation) 
3. Sita…………… leave the school at 4 o’clock. (permission) 
4. He…………..swim in the river. (ability) 
5. She… …cook food at night. (possibility) 
6. Students……………smoke. (prohibition) 
7. He ran as fast as he…………. (ability)
8. I…………..see him tomorrow. (probability) 
9. You are ill. You……………take rest. (advice) 
10. He is an average student so he ……….. obtain 90% marks. (remote possibility)
Answer:
1. can 
2. must 
3. may 
4. can 
5. may 
6. must not 
7. could 
8. may 
9. should 
10. might 

Practice Exercise 4. 

Fill in the gaps with the correct modal : 

1. The students……………attend the classes regularly. (compulsory)
2. He is a small boy but………….lift this table. (possibility)
3. She was late so she……………catch the train. (unable)
4. You………….. enter the Collector’s house without permission. (prohibition)
5. You…………..consult a good doctor. (advice)
6. Sita is ill. We……………call a doctor. (necessary)
7. He…………..not keep this secret. (capable)
8. You…………. look after your old father.(duty) 
9. The train is late. It………….. reach the station in an hour. (probability)
10. She is ill. She……………not run fast.(ability)
Answer:
1. must 
2. may 
3. could not 
4. must not 
5. should 
6. must 
7. can 
8. must 
9. may
10. can 

Practice Exercise 5. 

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate modal : 

1. She is capable. She……………run fast.
2. ……..I leave for home, dear friend, now? 
3. Everybody……………meet an accident. 
4. I……………run fast when I was young. 
5. …………… I come in, please? 
6. She…………..have helped us but she didn’t. 
7. Waiter;……………you bring some more water?
8. ……….I come in, Sir? 
9. The train is moving slow. It…………get late. 
10. …………..all your dreams come true !
Answer:
1. can 
2. Can 
3. can 
4. could 
5. Could 
6. could 
7. can 
8. May 
9. may 
10. May 

Practice Exercise 6. 

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate modal : 

1. He is intelligent. He……………solve it. 
2. The last bus has gone. She…………..come now. 
3. She hesitatingly said it. …………….I ask a question? 
4. To drive a vehicle you…………..have a licence.
5. She is unsteady. She…………..be ill. 
6. You are extremely weak. You……………take milk and fruits.
7. Her son is ill. She……………be late. 
8. You…………..smoke here. It’s no smoking zone. 
9. They are incapable. The………….do it. 
10. It is very negligible amount. It………….. not help you.
Answers:
1. can 
2. might 
3. Might 
4. must 
5. must 
6. must 
7. may 
8. mustn’t 
9. can’t 
10. may 

Practice Exercise 7.

 Fill in the correct modal in the blanks : 
 
1. He has two cars. He ……………. be a rich man. (sure)
2. You……………. do your duty honestly. (moral duty)
3. You…………….go home now as you have done your homework. (permission)
4. You…………….park your car here. (not allowed) 
5. She………….go and see her father because he is seriously ill. (necessary) 
6. She…………….go to Mumbai alone. (prohibited) 
7. You. …easily pass your examination. (capable) 
8. She…………….be married as she is twenty four year old. (necessity) 
9. You are a weak student. You …………….. spend more time in your studies. (necessary) 
10. Rakesh is very rich. He……………..marry his daughter to a doctor. (capable) 
11. We… …….obey the laws of our country. (duty) 
12. Yesterday I was ill. I……………..not attend the meeting. (not possible) 
13. He is an old man but he… ……………go for a long walk. (capable) 
14. I …………….. prepare tea. (able) 
15. Sita……………..attend your birthday party. (possibility) 
16. Students…………….play in the classroom. (prohibited) 
17. She…………….do this work yesterday. (ability) 
Answers:
1. must 
2. should 
3. may 
4. mustn’t 
5. must 
6. must not 
7. can 
8. must 
9. must 
10. can 
11. must 
12. could 
13. can 
14. can 
15. may 
16. must not 
17. could.

2 Grammar Modals