2. Reported Speech
अंग्रेजी भाषा में ‘कहने वाले’ (वक्ता) की बात को दो प्रकार से व्यक्त किया जा सकता है
1. Direct Narration : जब वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों अर्थात् उसी के शब्दों में कहा जाता है तो इस ढंग को Direct Narration अथवा Direct Speech कहते हैं। ऐसी दशा में कहने वाले के शब्दों का inverted commas (“—”) में रखा जाता है। Reported Clause का प्रथम शब्द बडे अक्षर (Canital letter) से आरम्भ होता है।
2. Indirect Narration : जब वक्ता (कहने वाले व्यक्ति) के कथन को अपने शब्दों में व्यक्त करते हैं कि उसके कहने का अर्थ क्या था, तो इस ढंग को Indirect Narration अथवा Indirect Speech अथवा Reported Speech कहते हैं। इस दशा में, Inverted commas का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
3. Structure (संरचना) of Direct Speech :
Reported Clause Reporting Clause/Verb : यह sub. + verb + ob. (आवश्यक हो तो) से बनता है। इसकी Verb (क्रिया) Reported Clause को प्रस्तुत करती है।
Reported Clause : यह वक्ता द्वारा कहा गया मूल कथन होता है जो inverted commas में होता है।
Direct से Indirect में Change करने के कुछ सामान्य नियम
1. Reporting Clause/Verb की Verb का Tense कभी भी नहीं बदलता है। Reporting Clause में
Object (कर्म) दिया गया हो तो say को tell में, says को tells में एवं said को told/asked/
ordered आदि में नियमानुसार बदलते हैं तथा ‘to’ को हटा देते हैं। किन्तु, say/said के बाद कोई Object न हो तो say/said ज्यों के त्यों लिख देते हैं।
2. Reporting Clause/Verb के बाद लगाये गये Comma (,) को हटा देते हैं।
3. Indirect speech में inverted commas (“……….’) को हटा देते हैं।
4. Reporting Clause व Reported Clause को जोड़ने के लिए नियमानुसार Conjunction (that, if आदि) लगाते हैं।
5. Reported Clause का first letter जो कि capital letter में होता है, को Indirect Speech में small letter में change करते हैं, किन्तु यदि यह Proper Noun है तो फिर Capital में ही रहने ” देते हैं।
6. Direct Speech में दिये गये विभिन्न प्रकार के sentences को Assertive Sentence (साधारण वाक्य) में ही change करते हैं।
7. Tenses, Pronouns (सर्वनाम) व Words denoting nearness of Time and Place (समय अथवा स्थिति की निकटता सूचक शब्दों) में नियमानुसार changes करते हैं, जो आगे विस्तार से बतलाया गया है।
Statements/Assertive Sentences ( (साधारण वाक्या) )
1. Rules For The Changes of Tenses
Tenses (में परिवर्तन संबंधी नियम)
Rule 1 : यदि Reporting Clause की Verb, Present या Future Tense में हो तो Reported Clause के Tense (अर्थात् Verb) में कोई change नहीं करना है किन्तु यदि Reported Clause में Pronouns या/और Words of Time and Place (समय व स्थान की निकटता सूचक शब्द) दिये हों तो उनमें नियमानुसार परिवर्तन करना है। जैसे
Direct : Ram says, “Children like to play.”
Indirect : Ram says that children like to play.
Direct : ‘Arti will say, “Bharti is honest.”
Indirect : Arti will say that Bharti is honest.
Direct : He has said, “I am innocent.”
Indirect : He has said that he is innocent.
Rule 2 : यदि Reporting Clause की Verb, Past Tense में हो तो Reported Clause के Tense में निमन नियमानुसार changes करें |
(a) Simple Present Tense at Get Simple Past Tense –
[V – I] → [Verb – II या did + V – I]
Direct : Shyam said, “Hari grows plants.”
Indirect : Shyam said that Hari grew plants.
Direct : Mohan said, “Mamta does not like oily things.”
Indirect : Mohan said that Mamta did not like oily things.
(b) Present Continuous के बदलें Past Continuous
[is/are/am] → [was/were]
Direct : She said, “Anita is writing a story.”
Indirect : She said that Anita was writing a story.
(c) Present Perfect के बदलें Past Perfect मे –
[has/have] → [had]
Direct : I said, “Asha has learnt English.”
Indirect : I said that Asha had learnt English.
(d) Present Perfect Continuous ad Past Perfect Continuous
[has been/have been] – [had been]
Direct : You said, “Snow has been falling since Monday.”
Indirect: You said that snow had been falling since Monday.
(e) Simple Past Tense के बदलें Past Perfect Tense मे
[V – II या did + V-I] → [had + V-III]
Direct : Hariom said, “Anita went there.”
Indirect : Hariom said that Anita had gone there.
Direct : Vishnu said, “Gvanesh did not beat him.”
Indirect : Vishnu said that Gyanesh had not beaten him.
(f) Past Continuous Tense के बदलें Past Perfect Continuous मे –
(was/were] → [had been]
Direct : Vishal said, “Kuldeep was obtaining good marks.”
Indirect : Vishal said that Kuldeep had been obtaining good marks.
(g) Past Perfect Tense में कोई change नहीं होता है
[had + V-III] Direct : Mahendra said, “Rameshwar had married.”
Indirect : Mahendra said that Rameshwar had married.
(h) Past Perfect Continuous Tense में कोई change नहीं करना है [had been + VƏ ing)
Direct : He said, “She had been teaching since 2001.”
Indirect : He said that she had been teaching since 2001.
(i) सभी Future Tenses में shall व will को would में बदलें
Direct : Sandhya said, “Prashant will get the job.”
Indirect : Sandhya said that Prashant would get the job.
Direct : He said, “I shall work hard.”
Indirect : He said that he would work hard.
(j) Can को Could में व may को might में बदलें
Direct : Seema said, “Purushottam can do it.”
Indirect : Seema said that Purushottam could do that.
Direct : Kusum said, “Asha may talk in English.”
Indirect : Kusum said that Asha might talk in English.
(k) Must को परिवर्तित नहीं करते हैं यदि यह Permanent rule (स्थायी नियम), command (आदेश), prohibition (निषेध), intention (इरादा), advice (परामर्श) आदि को इंगित करता है।
- Must को had to में परिवर्तित करते हैं यदि यह Present or immediate necessity (वर्तमान या तात्कालिक अनिवार्यता) को इंगित करता है।
- Must को would have to में परिवर्तित करते हैं यदि यह भविष्य की अनिवार्यता (future necessity)
Direct : He said, “She must help them.”
Indirect : He said that she must help them.
Direct : Puru said, “Kusum must go home at once.”
Indirect: Puru said that Kusum had to go home at once.
Direct : Puru said, “Seema must leave tomorrow.”
Indirect : Puru said that Seema would have to leave the next day.
(1) could, would, should, might, ought to, needn’t, daren’t, used to आदि Modals a had better आदि में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है।
Changes Of Tenses
1. Simple Present Tense को change करें Simple Past Tense
2. Present Progressive [is/are/am + V में ing] — Past Progressive [was/were + V में ing)
3. Present Perfect [has/have + V-II] — Past Tense[Verb-II]
4. Present Perfect Progressive [has been/have been] — Past Perfect Progressive [had been]
5. Simple Past [V-II था did + V-I] — Past Perfect [had + V-III]
6. Past Progressive [was/were + V में ing] — Past Perfect Progressive [had been + V में ing]
7. Past Perfect Tense [had + V-III] —
8. Past Perfect Progressive [had been + V में ing] —
9. will/shall — would/should
10. can/may — could/might
11. will/shall have been — would/should have been
12. will/shall have — would/should have
13. must — must or/and Had to/would have to
Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद [Exceptions]
निम्न स्थितियों में Reporting Clause के Past Tense में होते हुए भी Reported Clause के Tense में Change नहीं होता है।
(1) जब Reported Clause Universal Truth (सार्वभौम सत्य)
Direct : The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect: The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.
(2) जब Reported Clause में आदत संबंधी कार्य (customary action) हो
Direct : The teacher said, “Birds fly in the sky.”
Indirect: The teacher said that birds fly in the sky.
(3) जब Reported Clause में कोई कहावत/मुहावरे (Proverbs/Idioms) हों
Direct : The teacher said, “Fortune favours the brave.”
Indirect: The teacher said that fortune favours the brave.
(4) जब Reported Clause में ऐतिहासिक तथ्य (historical fact) हो
Direct : The teacher said, “India got freedom in 1947.”
Indirect : The teacher said that India got freedom in 1947.
(5) जब Time Clause, Past Tense में हो.
यदि Reported Clause में Time Clause है तथा Main Verb व Verb in Time Clause दोनों Simple Past Tense में हैं तो इन Verbs में कोई change नहीं होगा।
1. Direct : You said, “The boy stopped there till his father came back.”
Indirect : You said that the boy stopped there till his father came back.
2. Direct : Anita said, “I was happy when I saw Hariom.”
Indirect : Anita said that she was happy when she saw Hariom.
लोकिन यदि main verb, Simple Past Tense में व Verb in Time Clause, Past Continuous Tense में हो तो main verb को Past Perfect Tense में change करें किन्तु Time Clause की verb को unchanged रखे.
1. Direct : She said, “Bharti slipped when she was trying to board a train.”
Indirect : She said that Bharti had slipped when she was trying to board a train.
(6) A State of Affairs still Exists
यदि Reported Clause में A state of affairs which still exists (ऐसी कार्य स्थिति जो अभी भी विद्यमान है) हो तो इसका Tense प्रायः नहीं बदलता है —
1. Direct : Asha said, “Whatever Arti does it displeases Bharat.”
Indirect : Asha said that whatever Arti does it displeases Bharat.
2. Direct : Arjun said, “Dad wants to become rich by winning a lottery.”
Indirect : Arjun said that Dad wants to become rich by winning a lottery.
2. Change of Pronouns
(सर्वनाम में परिवर्तन)
निम्न तालिका Pronouns के बदलाव को समझने में सहायता करती है व Pronouns के Case व Number व Gender को स्पष्ट करती है —
Rule 1: Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Reported Clause के First Person Pronouns [I, my/mine/myself, me; We, our/ours/ourselves, us] के Case (कारका), Number (वचन) a Gender (लिंग) का ध्यान रखते हुए इन्हें Reporting Clause के Subject (कर्ता) से change करना है|
Rule 2 : Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Reported Clause as Second Person Pronouns [You, your/yours/yourself/yourselves, You] is Case (कारका), Number (वचन) व Gender (लिंग) का ध्यान रखते हुए इन्हें Reporting Clause के Object से Change करना है|
नोट – यदि Reporting Clause में Object नहीं दिया हो तो ऐसे में First Person या Third Person Pronouns an objective cases (me, us; him, her, them) में से किसी एक को सन्दर्भानुसार Object मानकर Second Person Pronouns में नियमानुसार आवश्यक change करते है|
Direct : Vishnu said, “You should help your friend.”
Indirect : Vishnu said that I/We/he/she/they should help my/our/his/her/their friend.
व्याख्या–यदि Object, me मानेंगे तो I; us मानेंगे तो we; him मानेंगे तो he; her मानेंगे तो she; ” them मानेंगे तो they आयेगा और आगे भी ऐसे ही change होगा।
Rule 3 : Direct से Indirect बनाते समय Reported Clause में आये हुए Third Person Pronouns [he, his, him, himself, she, her, herself, hers; it, its, itself, they, their, theirs; them, themselves] में कोई change नहीं करना है।
Direct : Sobha said, “He is intelligent.”
Indirect : Sobha said that he was intelligent.
Rule 4 : यदि Direct Speech में I या we के साथ shall हो और Indirect बनाते समय I के स्थान पर he या she तथा we के स्थान पर they का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो shall को भी would में ही change करना है, should में change नहीं करना है।
Direct : Kusum said, “I shall work hard.”
Indirect : Kusum said that she would work hard.
3. दूरी अथवा समय सम्बन्धी परिवर्तन
Direct में — Indirect में
This — that
These — those
Here — there
Now — then
Ago — before
Today– that day
Tonight — that night
Tomorrow– the next day
Yesterday — the previous day
Last — the previous
Next — the following
Thus — so
Hence — Thence
Hither — Thither
Just — Then
1. Direct : You said to me, “I went to school yesterday.”
Indirect : You told me that you had gone to school the previous day.
2. Direct : She said, “This is a good joke today.”
Indirect : She said that that was a good joke that day.
3. Direct : She said, yesterday I was here.
Indirect : She said that the previous day she was there.
Some Special Changes
कुछ विशेष परिवर्तन
[Address (सम्बोधन) वाले वाक्य]
Type : 1 : यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर आरम्भ में कोई Noun हो और उसके तुरन्त बाद Comma ( ) हो तो वह Noun, Reporting Verb में आ जायेगा। जैसे
Direct : She said, “Mukesh, I am going to your house.” (यहाँ Mukesh के बाद Comma है।)
Indirect : She told Mukesh that she was going to his house.
Type 1A : यदि Reported Clause में-
(i) वाक्य के लगभग अंत में Comma हो,
(ii) Capital अक्षर में कोई Noun हो, और
(iii) वाक्य समाप्त हो गया हो तो वह Noun, Reporting Verb में आयेग जैसे —
Direct : He said, “I can give you money. Sita.”
Indirect : He told Sita that he could give her money.
Type 1B : यदि Reported Clause में-
(i) वाक्य के लगभग अंत में Comma हो,
(ii) small letter में कोई Noun हो, और
(iii) वाक्य समाप्त हो गया हो तो वह Noun के पहले, the ‘ Reporting Verb में आयेग जैसे —
Direct : The teacher said, “I shall not teach you, boys.”
Indirect : The teacher told the boys that he would not teach them.
Type 2. यदि inverted commas के आरम्भ में ‘Well ………….’अथवा “You see ………. ‘I see………. हो तो इनको हटा देते है
Direct: He said, “Well Rani, I cannot come to you.”
Indirect : He told Rani that he could not come to her.
Direct : Rajesh said, “You see, I shall punish you.”
Indirect : Rajesh said that he would punish him.
Type : 3 : यदि Reported Clause में ‘Sir’ दिया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय
(i) Reporting Clause में ‘respectfully’ का प्रयोग करो
(ii) और Reported Clause में से ‘Sir’ हटा दो।
Direct: She said, “Sir, I want to go home”.
Indirect : She respectfully said that she wanted to go home.
Type : 4 : यदि Reporting Clause में ‘Thanks’, अथवा ‘Thank you’ हो तो इन शब्दों को हटा देते हैं और Reporting Clause में Verb को ‘thanked’ में बदल देते हैं।
Direct: Vimla said, “Thank you Ramesh for coming to my house”.
Indirect : Vimla thanked Ramesh for coming to her house.
II. Interrogative Sentences
पहचान – Inverted Commas में Interrogative Sentences (प्रशनवाचक वाक्य) or आरम्भ हो सकते हैं
(i) Wh- अयत् question word ( -who, whose, whom, when, where, why, how………. आदि) से; अथवा
(ii) Helping Verb (th-do, did, does, is, are, am, was, were, shall, will, would, may, might, has, have, had ……….. आदि)
Golden Rules (Part-I)
Rule 1. Reporting Clause में said to के स्थान पर asked लाग दो asked’ के बाद ‘to’ नहीं आता है। ‘said to’ को ‘enquired of’ में भी बदल सकते हैं। spelling की सुविधा के कारण तुम ‘asked’ में ही बदले
Rule 2. यदि Reported Clause में वाक्य Wh – से आरम्भ हो तो कोई Connective नहीं आयेग|
Rule 3. यदि Reported Clause मे वाक्य Helping Verb (is, are, am, was, were, will, can ………) से आरम्भ हो तो Connective- if’ अथवा ‘whether’ लगाओ। तुम्हारे लिए ‘if सुविधाजनक रहेगा।
Rule 4. Helping Verb को Subject के बाद लाओ
Rule 5. वाक्य के अन्त में Full stop लगा ओ| प्रश्नवाचक चिह हटा दो
(आगे Examples के बाद देखें)
1. Direct : She said to Hari, “Are you a student ?”
Indirect : She asked Hari if he was a student.
2. Direct: Rakhi said to Atul, “Can you help me in my work?”
Indirect : Rakhi asked Atul if he could help her in her work.
3. Direct : He said to Sita, “When will you go to your school tomorrow?”
Indirect : He asked Sita when she would go to her school the next day.
Golden Rules (Part III)
Rule 6. यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर do (अथवा does) H. V. Indirect बनाते समय (अथवा does) get a verb at II Form Chat
Direct : He said to me, “Do you help Sita?
Indirect : He asked me if I helped Sita.
Rule 7. यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर did -helping verb हो तो Indirect बनाते did it had + V कर दो
Direct : Vimla said to Hari, “Did you write a story?”
Indirect : Vimla asked Hari if he had written a story.
Rule 8. यदि Inverted Commas के अन्दर do not (या does not) हो तो Indirect did not कर दो
Direct : You asked me, “Do you not go to school ?”
Indirect : You asked me if I did not go to school.
Rule 9. यदि Inverted Commas में did not हो तो Indirect बनाते समय had not + V लाओ।
Direct : The teacher told you, “Did you not pay my fee?”
Indirect : The teacher asked you if you had not paid his fee.
1. Direct : She said to me, “Do you play football in the evening ?”
Indirect : She asked me if I played football in the evening.
2. Direct : He said to Sita, “Did I not attend your function?”
Indirect : He asked Sita if he had not attended her function.
3. Direct : Mohit said, “Why were they late?”
Indirect : Mohit asked why they had been late.
4. Direct : Uma said to Hari, “Why did you not come to my house ?”
Indirect : Uma asked Hari why he had not come to her house.
“Will there be any more rain today?” said I.
“No”, she replied
I asked her if there would be any more rain that day. She replied in the negative.
I asked her if there would be any more rain that day. She replied that it would not.
She said to Hari, “Can you give me your book ?” Hari said, “Yes”.
She asked Hari if he could give her his book. He replied in the positive.
She asked Hari if he could give her his book. He replied that he could.
पहचान – Direct Narration के ऐसे वाक्य हमेशा H.V. से ही आरम्भ होते हैं, अर्थात् Wh- से आरम्भ नहीं हो सकते हैं।
Rule : 1. प्रथम वाक्य में प्रायः object नहीं होता।
2. दूसरे वाक्य के Noun अथवा Pronoun को माने हुए (assumed) object से change करो और Indirect नियमानुसार बना दो।
3. दूसरे वाक्य के ‘said’ को ‘replied’ बना दो।
4. यदि inverted commas में “No” दे रखा हो तो या तो
(i) “No” का in the negative कर दो; अथवा
(ii) प्रथम वाक्य के subject + HV + not को रखो।
5. यदि inverted commas में “Yes” दे रखा हो तो या तो
(i) “Yes” का in the affirmative (positive) कर दो, अथवा
(ii) subject + HV कर दो।
III. Imperative वाक्यों को बदलना
(आज्ञा व प्रार्थना के वाक्य) पहचान-ऐसे वाक्य निम्नलिखित में से किसी भी एक प्रकार से आरम्भ हो सकते हैं
1. Verb की I Form से,
2. Do अथवा Do not से,
3. Please से।
जैसे- He said, “Open the bag.” .
The teacher said, “Do not make a noise.”
She said, “Do your work.”
Golden Rules :
(1) बाहर said के स्थान पर आवश्यकतानुसार ordered, requested, advised, warned आदि शब्द लगा दो। यदि ज्ञात न हो सके तो said के स्थान पर asked लगा दो। यहाँ asked शब्द का अर्थ किसी काम को करने के लिए कहना होता है।
(2) Connective शब्द to का प्रयोग किया जाता है, यह हमेशा verb के पहले ही आता है। यदि verb के पहले to नहीं रखा अथवा अन्य कहीं रख दिया तो गलती होगी।
(3) to के बाद सदैव ही verb की first form अर्थात् Present Tense ही आयेगा, कभी भी Past Tense नहीं आयेगा।
ध्यान दें-Direct Narration के ऐसे वाक्य सदा ही Present Tense में होते हैं, Past Tense में नहीं होते हैं।
(A) Verb की I Form से आरम्भ होने पर :
1. Direct : The doctor said to the patient, “Take light food.”
Indirect : The doctor advised the patient to take light food.
2. Direct : The captain said to the soldiers, “Attack the enemy in the morning.”
Indirect : The captain ordered the soldiers to attack the enemy in the morning.
(B) Do अथवा Do not से आरम्भ होने पर :
Golden Rules :
‘Do’ यदि मुख्य verb है तो
(a) connective to’ आयेगा
(b) verb की I Form do’ यथावत् रहेगी।
3. Direct : The teacher said to me, “Do your work.”
Indirect : The teacher ordered me to do my work.
(2) यदि Direct Narration ‘Do not’ से आरम्भ हो तो Indirect Narration दो प्रकार से बन सकता है
पहला तरीका – (i) ‘Do’ हटा दो तथा (ii) “not’ के बाद ‘to’ लगा दो।
(a) बाहर (Reporting verb) said के स्थान पर forbade (अर्थ = मना किया, निषेध किया) रख दो,
(b) ‘Do not’ को हटा दो,
(c) मुख्य verb के पहले ‘to’ लगा दो। जैसे
4. Direct : He said, “Do not play in the sun.”
Indirect : He forbade me to play in the sun.
He advised (me) not to play in the sun.
5. Direct .: The teacher said to the students, “Never waste your time.”
Indirect : The teacher advised the students never to waste their time.
(C) ‘Please’ से आरम्भ होने पर
Rule : यदि Reported Clause का वाक्य ‘Please’ से आरम्भ हो तो..
(i) बाहर (Reporting Verb) ‘said’ के स्थान पर ‘requested’ लगा दो।
(ii) Reported Clause से ‘please’ हटा दो।
(iii) Connective to’ आयेगा।
(iv) शेष नियम यथावत् हैं।’ .
6. Direct : The stranger said to me, “Please tell me the way to the station.”
Indirect : The stranger requested me to tell him the way to the station.
7. Direct : The student said to the teacher, “Kindly check my homework.”
Indirect : The student requested the teacher to check his homework.
Mixed Sentences (मिश्रित वाक्य)
पहचान – एक ही Inverted commas
1. Direct : She said to me, “I am in trouble. Will you help me?”
Indirect : She told me that she was in trouble and asked if I would help her.
2. Direct : The teacher said to you, “Do not make a noise. I shall punish you.”
Indirect : The teacher forbade you to make a noise and said that he would punish you.
iv. Typical Sentences
1. Direct: She said to her friend, “Good Morning.”
Indirect : She wished her friend Good Morning.
2. Direct: She said to her friend, “Good Morning. How do you do?”
Indirect : She wished her friend Good Morning and asked how she was.
3. Direct: He said, “Thank you.”
Indirect : He thanked (me).
4. Direct: He said, “Congratulations.”
Indirect : He congratulated (me).
5. Direct: “Many happy returns on your birthday,” he said.
Indirect : He blessed me with many happy returns on my birthday.
6. Direct: He said, Good-bye, my brother.”
Indirect : He bade good-bye to his brother.
7. Direct: He said, “Hello what do you want ?“
Indirect : He greeted (me) and asked what I wanted.
8. Direct: He said, “Condenm it.”
Indirect : He asked to condemn it.
V. Let’ से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्य
यदि Direct में वाक्य के आरम्भ में Let us हो तो इनके विशेष नियम हैं। ध्यान रहे कि Let आरम्भ में न आये, लेकिन वाक्य में और कहीं आये तो वह साधारण वाक्य है, Let के नियम लागू नहीं होंगे। Let us से आरम्भ होने वाले वाक्यों को Indirect में बदलने के लिए ये नियम ध्यान में रखें।
(A) यदि ‘Let us’ से वाक्य आरम्भ हो तो
(1) Reporting Verb में said के स्थान पर suggested लाओ, यदि said to हो तो suggested to लाओ, to नहीं हटाना चाहिए अथवा proposed लाओ। Proposed के बाद ‘to’ नहीं आयेगा।
(2) Let हटा दो, that लगा दो।
(3) Reported Clause में verb सदैव Present Tense में होता है, Reported Clause में verb में कोई change मत करो लेकिन verb के पहले should अवश्य लगा दो। ) यदि Reported Clause में ‘us’ हो और Reporting Verb में I या me हो तो us को हटाकर we कर दो। यदि Reporting Verb में I या me आदि न हों तो us को हटाकर they कर दो।
(4) यदि Reported Clause में us’ हो और Reporting Verb में I या me हो तो us को हटाकर we कर दो। यदि Reporting Verb में I या me आदि न हों तो us को हटाकर they कर दो।
1. Direct : I said to my friend, “Let’s go to some holy place.”
Indirect : 1 suggested to my friend that we should go to some holy place.
2. Direct : I said to Hari, “Let us go to a hotel.”
In direct : I suggested to Han that we should go to a hotel.
(B) ‘let’ के साथ यदि us नही हो अर्थात जब सामान्य verb हो जिसका अर्थ अनुमति (allow) हो-
1. Reporting Verb में said के स्थान पर आवश्यकतानुसार requested, asked, said या told कर दो।
2. Let को मत हटाओ |
3. Let to के पहले to लग दो | जैसे
1. Direct : The beggar said, “Let me stay here.”
Indirect : The beggar requested to let him stay there.
2. Direct : He said to his friends, “Let me go home now.”
Indirect : He requested his friends to let him go home then.
He suggested to his friends that he should go home then.
(C) Let प्रयोग – to express a condition :
1. Direct : Geeta said, “Let it rain ever so hard, I must go to school.”
Indirect : Geeta said that however hard it might rain, she must go to school.
2. Direct : Puru said, “Let him try ever so hard, he will not succeed.”
Indirect : Puru said that however hard he might try, he would not succeed.
1. Let को हटा दें
2. ever so hard को however hard में बदलें।
3. subject के बाद might का प्रयोग करें।
4. conjunction that का प्रयोग करें।
VI. Optative Sentences
(प्रार्थना, आशीर्वाद, कामना आदि सम्बन्धी वाक्य) अर्थ-प्रार्थना, इच्छा, कामना, आशीर्वाद आदि के वाक्य Optative वाक्य कहलाते हैं।
ऐसे वाक्य जिनमें Reported Clause, may से आरम्भ होते हैं
Golden Rule :
1. ऐसे वाक्यों को Indirect में बदलते समय Reporting verb ‘said’ के स्थान पर इच्छा (wish), कामना या प्रार्थना (pray) प्रकट करने वाली verb ‘wished’, ‘prayed’, ‘cursed’ आदि का आवश्यकतानुसार प्रयोग किया जाता है।
2. Connective that’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
3. May को इसके बाद आये God या अन्य शब्द के बाद रखते हैं।
4. वाक्य में नियमानुसार Tense का परिवर्तन किया जाता है।
1. Direct : He said to me, “May God bless you !”
Indirect : He prayed (wished) that God might bless me.
2. Direct : I said to her, “May you live long !”
Indirect : I wished that she might live long.
VII. Exclamatory Sentences
पहचान-ऐसे वाक्यों के अन्त में ! चिह्न होता है। ऐसे वाक्य प्रायः What, How, Hurrah ! Alas! 0! Oh ! आदि शब्दों से आरम्भ होते हैं। इन्हें विस्मयबोधक वाक्य कहते हैं।
Golden Rules :
(1) Reporting Verb में said के स्थान पर इन शब्दों में से आवश्यक शब्द लगाओ
- exclaimed या -exclaimed with surprise (यदि वाक्य What से आरम्भ हो)
- exclaimed with joy (यदि वाक्य में hurrah हो तो)
- exclaimed with sorrow (यदि वाक्य के आरम्भ में Alas या Oh हो)
(2) That से Reporting Verb व Reported Clause वाले भागों को मिला दो।
(3) What, How आदि शब्दों को हटा दो।
Type – I
(4) यदि वाक्य के अन्त में कोई Noun हो तो उस Noun के पहले The लगाकर वाक्य आरम्भ करो।
(5) उसके बाद आवश्यकतानुसार was या were लगाओ।
(6) इसके बाद a या an हटा दो।
(7) was/were के बाद प्रायः very लगाओ।
(8) इसके बाद शेष शब्द रख दो।
Direct : Meena said, “What a beautiful house !“
Indirect : Meena exclaimed with surprise that the house was very beautiful.
Direct : He said, “What a dirty scene !“
Indirect : He exclaimed that the scene was very dirty.
(यदि वाक्य के अंत में H.V. हो।)
(9) Helping Verb जिसके लिए आया है, वहाँ से वाक्य चालू करो तथा H.V.-was या were आवश्यकतानुसार रखो।
(10) ऐसे वाक्यों के Indirect में a या an नहीं हटेगा।
(11) शेष नियम ऊपर की तरह हैं। जैसे
1. Direct : He said, “How lucky I am !“
Indirect : He exclaimed that he was very lucky.
2. Direct : He said, “What a beautiful car he has purchased !“
Indirect : He exclaimed that he had purchased a very beautiful car.
(Hurrah ! Alas ! O ! Oh God ! आदि से प्रारम्भ होने वाले)
1. Reporting Verb में said के स्थान पर आवश्यकतानुसार exclaimed with joy/sorrow/ surprise लगा दो।
2. Connective that’ लगेगा।
3. Reported Clause से Hurrah ! Alas ! O ! Oh God ! हटा दो। अब वाक्य साधारण हो गया।
अतः साधारण वाक्य के नियम लागू होंगे। जैसे
1. Direct : “Mas ! He is no more”, exclaimed she.
Indirect : She exclaimed with sorrow that he was no more.
2. Direct : She said to him “Bravo ! You have done well.”
Indirect : She applauded him saying that he had done well.
VIII. Special Type (i) on phone (ii) on mobile
(i) on phone
Rule : 1. यदि Reporting verb में ब्रेकिट में (on phone) दिया हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इसे आवश्यकतानुसार told अथवा asked अथवा requested………….(him, Sita आदि ) के तुरन्त बाद on phone कर दो।
Rule 2. शेष नियम यथावत् हैं।
1. Direct : Harish (on phone) : “Can you log on towww.mailcity.com for my result, Sudha?”
Indirect : Harish asked Sudha on phone if she could log on to www.mailcity.com for – his result.
1. प्रश्नवाचक है, इसलिए Reporting Verb में asked किया।
2. Reported Clause
- वाक्य के लगभग अंत में Comma है,
- Comma के तुरन्त बाद कोई Noun (Sudha) है, तथा
- वाक्य समाप्त है इसलिए asked के बाद ‘Sudha’ लगाया।
3. अब on phone लिखा।
4. Connective if” लगाया।
5. शेष भाग नियमानुसार किया।
1. Direct : Sita (on phone) to Ram, “You will help me when I am in trouble.”
Indirect : Sita told Ram on phone that he would help her when she was in trouble.
2. Direct : The captain (on phone) said to fr soldiers, “Attack the enemy early in the morning.”
Indirect: The captain ordered the soldiers on phone to attack the enemy in the morning.
3. Direct : Seenia said to me on phone, “Please attend my birthday party.”
Indirect : Seema requested me on phone to attend her birthday party.
(ii) on mobiIe
2. Direct : Sharda (on mobile): “No, I cannot attend your party.”
Indirect : Using her mobile, Sharda replied in the negative and said that she could not attend her party.
ix. How To Report A Dialogue
संवाद (Dialogue) दो व्यक्तियों के बीच का वार्तालाप है। अभिव्यक्त वाक्यों के बीच आंतरिक सम्बन्ध होता है। इसीलिए संपूर्ण संवाद की दी गई परिस्थितियों को ध्यान में रखकर ही वाक्यों को Indirect Speech में परिवर्तित किया जाता है।
Conversion of Dialogues into Indirect Speech
1. Conversion of Statements/Assertive Sentences
(a) Father : I am buying a new house, son.
Son : You are right.
Father told his son that he was buying a new house.
The son said that he (father) was right.
(b) Daughter : We do not waste time, mother.
Mother : It is good for you.
Daughter told her mother that they did not waste time.
Mother said that it was good for her.
2. Conversion of Questions/Interrogative Sentences
(a) Salony : What are you doing these days, Soni?
Soni : I am revising my lessons.
Salony asked Soni what she was doing those days.
Soni replied that she was revising her lessons.
(b) Seema : Paro, will you have lunch with me tomorrow?
Paro : Thank you, I will.
Seema asked Paro if she could have lunch with her the next day.
Paro thanked her (Seema) and said that she would.
3. Conversion of Imperative Sentences
(a) Gardener : Don’t pluck flowers, children.
Children : O.K. Sir, we won’t.
The gardener forbade the children to pluck flowers.
The children replied in affirmation and said that they wouldn’t.
(b) Teacher : Students, work hard.
Students : Thank you. We will.
The teacher advised the students to work hard.
The students thanked him and said that they would.
4. Conversion of Exclamatory Sentences
(a) Captain : Hurrah! We have won the championship.
Coach : The nation is proud of you.
The captain exclaimed with joy that they had won the championship.
The coach said that the nation was proud of them.
(b) Han : What a huge tree it is!
Ram : Yes, it is.
Hari exclaimed with surprise that it was a very huge tree.
Ram agreed and said that it was.
(c) Student : Alas! I have got failed.
Teacher : Have courage and try again.
The student exclaimed with grief that he had got failed.
The teacher advised him to have courage and try again.
5. Conversion of Optative Sentences
(a) Teacher : May you live long!
Student : Thank you, Sir.
The teacher blessed the student that he might live long.
The student respectfully thanked the teacher.
Points to Remember
1. Direct Speech में दिए गए वाक्यों के प्रकारों को पहचानें-Statement, Question, Imperative; Exclamatory a Optative.
2. प्राय: Answers में Reporting Verb/Clause को तो Indirect Speech में परिवर्तित कर पहले ही दिया होता है। अतः आपको तो केवल Reported Clause का Conjunction (अगर उत्तर में पहले से ही नहीं दिया हुआ हो तो) वाक्य के प्रकार के अनुसार नियमानुसार लगाना है तथा Reported Clause के Tense, Pronouns तथा स्थान व समय वाले शब्दों में नियमानुसार
परिवर्तन करना है।
3. Direct Speech के दोनों speakers के वाक्य अलग-अलग प्रकार के हो सकते/होते हैं। आप इन वाक्यों के प्रकारों के अनुसार ही नियमों का प्रयोग कर इन्हें Indirect Speech में change करें।
Rewrite the following sentences by changing them into indirect speech :
A. (i) Ram said, “Did you like the movie??’
(ii) They said, “Hurrah! we have won the match.”
(iii) “Shoot the prisoner,” said the officer.
The officer commanded………..
(iv) She said to the teacher, “Please explain this question to me.”
(i) Ram asked if he/she had liked the movie.
(ii) The exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.
(iii) The officer commanded to shoot the prisoner.
(iv) She requested the teacher to explain that question to her.
B. (i) Nisha said to her sister, “I have something to show you.”
Nisha told …
(ii) The doctor said to the patient, “Take these tablets everyday before you go to bed.”
The doctor advised ……..
(iii) Mr. Rajora said to his wife, “Why don’t you sleep early?”
Mr. Rajora asked………..
(iv) The poor beggar said, “Give me something to eat.”
The poor beggar begged……
(i) Nisha told her sister that she had something to show her.
(ii) The doctor advised the patient to take those tablets everyday before he went to bed.
(iii) Mr. Rajora asked his wife why she didn’t sleep early.
(iv) The poor beggar begged to give him something to eat.
C. (i) The principal said to the teacher, “How many students are there in your class ?”
The principal asked ………..
(ii) My friend said to me, “I have bought a new book for you.”
My friend told, ……
(iii) The old woman said to me, “Please help me.”
The old woman requested me ……………..
(iv) I said to him, “I have a message for you.”
I told him……………
(i) The principal asked the teacher how many students were there in her/his class.
(ii) My friend told me that he had bought a new book for me.
(iii) The old woman requested me to help her.
(iv) I told him that I had a message for him.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into indirect speech :
A. (i) The teacher said “Two and two make four”.
The teacher said….
(ii) He said to me “What do you want from me?”
He asked me……..
(i) The teacher said that two and two make four.
(ii) He asked me what I wanted from him.
B. (i) The young seagull said, “I am too young to fly”.
The young seagull said……..
(ii) Santosh said to me, “Will you bring me a gift?”
Santosh asked me.
(iii) The doctor said to the lady, “Take the medicines daily”.
The doctor advised the lady….
(iv) Vivek said to Ajay, “Where do you live?”
Vivek asked Ajay………….
(i) The young seagull said that he was too young to fly.
(ii) Santosh asked me if I would bring her/him a gift.
(iii) The doctor advised the lady to take the medicines daily.
(iv) Vivek asked Ajay where he lived.
C. (i) Gopal said to the bookseller, “Please provide me some new books.”
Gopal requested the bookseller…………
(ii) The bookseller asked Gopal, “Which book do you want?”
The bookseller asked Gopal………..
(ii) Gopal said, “I want some English Grammar books.
(iv) The bookseller said, “I have got a lot of new books.”
The bookseller replied…
(i) Gopal requested the bookseller to provide him some new books.
(ii) The bookseller asked Gopal which book he wanted.
(iii) Gopal said that he wanted some English Grammar books.
(iv) The bookseller replied that he had got a lot of new books.
D. (i) Rita said to Amar, “Have you seen my diary?”
Rita asked Amar….
(ii) Amar said, “Is it the one with a brown cover?”
Amar asked her………….
(iii) Rita said to Amar, “Oh yes, brother !”
(iv) Amar said to Rita, “I saw it lying on the new shelf in our drawing room”.
Amar told Rita that…
(i) Rita asked Amar if he had seen her diary.
(ii) Amar asked her if that was the one with a brown cover.
(iii) Rita asserted with surprise positively.
(iv) Amar told Rita that he had seen that lying on the new shelf in their drawing room.
Exercise : 3
Rewrite the following sentences by changing them from direct to indirect speech.
1. Mother : Don’t go near the fire, children.
Children : O.K. Mama, we won’t.
The mother warned the children……….
The children replied in affirmation……
The mother warned the children not to go near the fire.
The mother warned the children against going near the fire.
The children replied in affirmation and said that they wouldn’t.
2. Ram : I plan to leave for USA next week.
Raghav : Please bring a laptop for me.
Ram said that………..
Raghav requested Ram……
Ram-said that he planned to leave for USA the following week.
Raghav requested Ram to bring a laptop for him.
3.Radha : Where are you going?
Rekha : I am going to buy some green vegetables.
Radha asked Rekha……..
Rekha replied that……….
Radha asked Rekha where she was going.
Rekha replied that she was going to buy some vegetables.
4. Teacher : Students, don’t make a noise in the class.
Students : Sir, shall we learn the spelling?
Teacher forbade the students…………………………..
Students asked the teacher respectfully if…………
Teacher forbade the students to make a noise in the class.
Students asked the teacher respectfully if they should learn the spelling.
5. Ramesh : Ravi, what are you doing these days ?
Ravi : Ramesh, I am working in a glass factory.
Ramesh asked Ravi….
Ramesh asked Ravi what he was doing those days.
Ravi replied that he was working in a glass factory.
1 Rewrite the following sentences by changing them from direct to indirect speech :
A. (i) The teacher said to the student, “Have you done your homework?”
The teacher asked the student….
(ii). The student said, “Yes, madam.”
The student respectfully replied………
(iii) The teacher said to the student, “Show me now.”
The teacher ordered the student……………..
(iv) The student said to the teacher, “My one question is incomplete.”
The student told the teacher……….
(i) The teacher asked the student if she/he had done her/his homework.
(ii) The student respectfully replied in the affirmative.
(iii) The teacher ordered the student to show her/him them.
(iv) The student told the teacher that her/his one question was incomplete.
B. (i) The leader said to the voters, “Vote for me, please.”
The leader requested the voters……..
(ii) The voters said to him, “Why should we vote for you?”
The voters asked him……..
(iii) The leader said, “I’ll work for your upliftment.”
The leader replied…..
(iv) The voters said, “Yes, we’ll vote for you.”
(i) The leader requested the voters to vote for him.
(ii) The voters asked him why they should vote for him.
(iii) The leader replied that he would work for their upliftment.
(iv) The voters agreed and said that they would vote for him.
(C) (i) Father said to his daughter, “Has your friend ever been the winner?”
Father asked his daughter………….
(ii) The daughter said, “Oh yes, father!”
(iii) Father further said to his daughter, “What did you’learn?”
Father further asked his daughter……
(iv) The daughter said, “I learnt that diligence bears fruits.
The daughter replied…….
(i) Father asked his daughter if her friend had ever been the winner.
(ii) The daughter asserted with delight.
(iii) Father further asked his daughter what she had learnt.
(iv) The daughter replied that she had learnt that diligence bears fruits.
Exercise : 5
Rewrite the following sentences by transforming them from direct to indirect speech :
(i) Ram : Where is your residence in Rajasthan ?
Shyam : It is in Jaipur.
Ram asked ………….
Shyam replied ……..
(ii) Neetu : Will you come to my office tomorrow ?
Reetu Thank you. I will.
Neetu asked Reetu …………….
Reetu thanked ………….
(iii) Arti : What were you doing, Arpita ?
Arpita : I was learning my lessons.
Arti asked Arpita ……..
(iv) Govind: What are your future plans ?
Gopal : I haven’t yet planned.
Govind asked Gopal ….
Gopal replied ………….
(v) Rani : When do you revise your lessons ?
Reshu : I revise my lessons in February.
Rani asked Reshu …
Reshu replied …………………
(vi) Anjana : Why don’t you do exercises ?
Sanjana : I am a bit lazy.
Anjana asked Sanjana …………
(vii) Brother : How do you obtain best marks ?
Sister : I work hard.
The brother asked his sister ………
The sister replied ….
(viii) Hari : Papa, are we going to attend Ramesh uncle’s marriage ?
Papa Yes, dear…………………
Hari asked his Papa ……..
Papa affectionately replied ……….
(ix) Lady to Judge : This man is responsible for the accident.
Man : No, me lord. This lady doesn’t know car-driving.
The lady told the judge that ……………….
The man denied and told the judge respectfully ……………….
(x) Alan : Are you not going to Exhibition, Helan ?
Helan : No, I don’t want to go.
Alan asked Helan ……………….
Helan replied ……………….
(i) Ram asked Shyam where his residence was in Rajasthan.
Shyam replied that it was in Jaipur.
(ii) Neetu asked Reetu if she could come to her office the next day.
Reetu thanked her and said that she would.
(iii) Arti asked Arpita what she was doing.
Arpita replied that she had been learning her lessons.
(iv) Govind asked Gopal what his future plans were.
Gopal replied that he hadn’t yet planned.
(v) Rani asked Reshu when she revised her lessons.
Reshu replied that she revised her lessons in February.
(vi) Anjana asked Sanjana why she didn’t do exercises.
Sanjana replied that she was a bit lazy.
(vii) The brother asked his sister how she obtained best marks.
The sister replied that she worked hard.
(vii) Hari asked his Papa if they were going to attend Ramesh uncle’s marriage.
Papa affectionately replied in the affirmative.
(ix) The lady told the judge that that man was responsible for the accident.
The man denied and told the judge respectfully that that lady didn’t know car driving.
(x) Alan asked Helan if she was not going to Exhibition.
Helan replied in the negative and added that she didn’t want to go.
(i) Sunaina : God has made the country.
Niharika : Man has made the town.
Sunaina told Niharika that………………..
Niharika said that……………
(ii) Teacher : Students, two and two always make four.
Students : Yes, Sir, You’re right.
The teacher told the students that…………
The students respectfully replied in affirmation………..
(iii) Officer : Have you typed the letter?
Clerk : No, Sir, I am typing.
The officer asked the clerk if………
The clerk respectfully replied in negation….
(iv) Stranger : What is your name?
Boy : My name is Anil.
The stranger asked the boy……..
The boy replied that……..
(v) Judge : Represent yourself.
Accused. : Thank you, Sir, I am going to do so. T
he judge ordered the accused…..
The accused respectfully thanked him..
(vi) Beggar : Help me, please.
Stranger : O.K., I will.
The beggar requested the stranger………
The stranger replied in affirmation.
(vii) Anil : How much short-statured this lady is!
Hari : Undoubtedly, she is.
Anil exclaimed with wonder that.
Hari said that……….
(viii) Saroj : What a foolish person he was!
Prakash : Yes, you are right.
Saroj exclaimed with surprise that………….
Prakash agreed and said that…..
(ix) Irshit : May my enemy go to hell!
Harshit : Please, don’t wish so.
Irshit wished that……
Harshit requested him………………..
(i) Sunaina told Niharika that God has made the country.
Niharika said that man has made the town.
(ii) The teacher told the students that two and two always make four.
The students respectfully replied in affirmation and said that he/she was right.
(iii) The officer asked the clerk if he/she had typed the letter.
The clerk respectfully replied in negation and said that he/she was typing.
(iv) The stranger asked the boy what his name was.
The boy replied that his name was Anil.
(v) The judge ordered the accused to represent himself.
The accused respectfully thanked him and said that he was going to do so.
(vi) The beggar requested the stranger to help him.
The stranger replied in affirmation and said the he would.
(vii) Anil exclaimed with wonder that that lady was very much short-statured.
Hari said that undoubtedly she was.
(viii) Saroj exclaimed with surprise that he had been a very foolish person.
Prakash agreed and said that she was right.
(ix) Irshit cursed that his enemy might go to hell.
Harshit requested him not to wish so.
(i) John : Indian Freedom Fighters frightened the British.
Mary : History says so.
John told Mary that……………
Mary said that ………….
(ii) Fakir : People didn’t understand Kabir properly.
Disciple : They will understand a day.
The Faķir told the disciple that………………
The disciple hoped that……………………
(iii) Player. : How can I develop stamina, madam?
Coach : Undertake long running daily.
The player respectfully asked the coach..
The coach advised the player……………
(iv) Salma : Are you going to pay the Electricity bill?
Shaloo : I can pay yours too if you want.
Salma asked Shaloo if…
Shaloo told her that…………..
(v) Teacher : Wait here till I return.
Student : Right, Madam, I will.
The teacher ordered/asked the student to…
The student agreed showing respect and said that..
(vi) Officer : Type the letter now.
Clerk : I have already typed, Sir.
The officer ordered the clerk…….
The clerk respectfully told the officer that…….
(vii) Granny : Ah! my back is aching
Grandpa : Show to the doctor, please.
The granny exclaimed with pain that…..
The grandpa requested her to………..
(viii) Aunt : Aha! It’s a golden watch.
Uncle : Take care of it.
The aunt exclaimed with joy that…..
The uncle advised the aunt.
(ix) Guru : May you live long!
Disciple : Thank you.
The guru blessed that..
The disciple thanked….
(x) Mother : May you get well soon, daughter.
Daughter : It will be so.
The mother wished that….
The daughter said that………….
(i) John told Mary that Indian Freedom Fighters had frightened the British.
Mary said that history said so.
(ii) The fakir told the disciple that people hadn’t understood Kabir, properly.
The disciple hoped that they would understand a day.
(iii) The player respectfully asked the coach how she/he could develop stamina
The coach advised the player to undertake long running daily.
(iv) Salma asked Shaloo if she was going to pay the Electricity bill.
Shaloo told her that she could pay hers too if she wanted.
(v) The teacher ordered/asked the student to wait there till she returned.
The student agreed showing respect and said that he/she would.
(vi) The officer ordered the clerk to type the letter then.
The clerk respectfully told the officer hat he/she had already typed.
(vii) The granny exclaimed with pain that her back was aching.
The grandpa requested her to show to the doctor.
(vii) The aunt exclaimed with joy that it was a golden watch.
The uncle advised the aunt to take care of it.
(ix) The guru blessed that he/she might live long.
The disciple thanked him/her.
(x) The mother wished that her daughter might get well soon.
The daughter said that it would be so.
(i) Shopkeeper : The cost of this book is Rs. 200.
Customer : Give more commission, please.
The shopkeeper told the customer that..
The customer requested the shopkeeper.
(ii) Commoner : The poor want their share in national wealth.
Leader : Get united otherwise it’s impossible.
The commoner told the leader that…
The leader advised the commoner…………
(ii) Father : Have you thought about your career, son?
Son : Guide me, please.
The father asked the son…………………………………
The son requested him…………..
(iv) Student : May I come in, Madam?
Teacher : No, you are late.
The student respectfully asked the teacher..
The teacher replied in negation and said that
(v) Author : Get the habit of reading.
Reader : I know it expands knowledge.
The author advised the reader..
The reader said that………..
(vi) Moralist : Never dig ditches for others.
Follower : I’ll fall into it a day; I know it.
The moralist forbade the follower……….
The follower said that……….
vii) Petitioner : Alas! I have been robbed of my wealth.
King: An enquiry will be made.
The petitioned exclaimed with grief that…….
The king said that……
(viii) Space Scientist : Hurrah! we have launched the Moon Probe.
Minister : More funds will be allocated for future plans.
The Space Scientist exclaimed with joy that………….
The minister said that……….
(ix) Oldman : May God keep you happy in your life!
Boy : Thank you, it will be so.
The oldman blessed the boy that…………
The boy thanked him and said that………
(x) Monitor : Whose book is this, classmates?
Ramesh : This is mine.
The monitor asked the classmates whose…
Ramesh replied that……………………..
(i) The shopkeeper told the customer that the cost of that book was Rs. 200.
The customer requested the shopkeeper to give more commission.
(ii) The commoner told the leader that the poor wanted their share in national wealth.
The leader advised the commoner to get united otherwise it was impossible.
(iii) The father asked the son if he had thought about his career.
The son requested him (the father) to guide him (the son).
(iv) The student respectfully asked the teacher if he/she might come in.
The teacher replied in negation and said that he/she was late.
(v) The author advised the reader to get the habit of reading.
The reader said that he knew it expanded knowledge.
(vi) The moralist forbade the follower to dig ditches for others.
The follower said that he would fall into it a day; he knew it.
(vii) The petitioner exclaimed with grief that he had been robbed of his wealth.
The king said that an enquiry would be made.
(vii) The Space Scientist exclaimed with joy that they had launched the Moon Probe.
The Minister said that more funds would be allocated for future plans.
(ix) The oldman blessed the boy that God might keep him happy in his life
The boy thanked him and said that it would be so.
(x) The monitor asked the classmates whose book that was.
Ramesh replied that that was his.
(i) Pupil : I work hard to reach the goal.
Teacher : Don’t lose tenacity.
The pupil told the teacher that………..
The teacher advised him not………..
(ii) Anil : I am here in the park.
Aakash : We are reaching there.
Anil told Aakash that…….
Aakash said that……..
(iii) Passenger : Why aren’t you returning the remaining amount?
Conductor : I don’t have change bills.
The passenger asked the conductor……………..
The conductor replied that…………
(iv) Monitor : Where is your satchel?
Classmate : It is in the drawer of the table.
The monitor asked the classmate where…….
The classmate replied that……………………..
(v) Seema : What a hot day today is!
Paro : There can be rainfall in near future.
Seema exclaimed with astonishment that………….
Paro said that………………..
(vi) Parag : How much maintained this park is!
Anurag : This is a private park.
Parag exclaimed with surprise that….
Anurag said that….
(vii) Seer : Inculcate good habits.
Denotee : I’ll try my level best.
The seer advised his devotee……….
The devotee said that..
(viii) Magistrate : Tell me your name.
Chandra Shekhar : My name is Azad.
The magistrate ordered Chandra Shekhar……
Chandra Shekhar said that….
(ix) Old lady : May you be lucky in your life!
Youngman : I believe in hard work.
The old lady blessed the youngman that………
The youngman said that………..
(x) Hari : Do you play Badminton?
Harsh : No, I play Tennis.
Hari asked Harsh if………..
Harsh replied in negation and said that………….
(i) The pupil told the teacher that he worked hard to reach the goal.
The teacher advised him not to lose tenacity.
(ii) Anil told Aakash that he was there in the park.
Aakash said that they were reaching there.
(iii) The passenger asked the conductor why he wasn’t returning the remaining amount.
The conductor replied that he didn’t have change bills.
(iv) The monitor asked the classmate where his satchel was.
The classmate replied that it was in the drawer of the table.
(v) Seema exclaimed with astonishment that that day was a very hot day.
Paro said that there could be rainfall in near future.
(vi) Parag exclaimed with surprise that that park was very much maintained.
Anurag said that that was a private park.
(vii) The seer advised the devotee to inculcate good habits.
The devotee said that he would try his level best.
(viii) The magistrate ordered Chandra Shekhar to tell him his name.
Chandra Shekhar said that his name was Azad.
(ix) The old lady blessed the youngman that he might be lucky in his life.
The youngman said that he believed in hard work.
(x) Hari asked Harsh if he played Badminton.
Harsh replied in negation and said that he played Tennis.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into Indirect Speech :
1. You cannot just sit back and say, “I will follow the rest of the people and seek success and position.”
2. He said very loudly, “We are going to admit even elders in our cricket club hereafter.”
3. Swami said, “I think he must have been a very strong and grown-up person, not at all a boy.”
4. Father sneered, “Do you think you are wiser than the newspaper?”
5. Swami said, “How can it be, father?”
6. Father said to Swami, “Courage is everything, strength and age are not important.”
7. Father said to me, “Leave alone strength.”
8. Father said to me, “Can you prove you have courage?”
9. Father said to me, “Let me see if you can sleep along tonight in my office room.”
10. She said to me, “Why do you look at me while you say it?”
1. You cannot just sit back and say that you will follow the rest of the people and seek success and position.
2. He said very loudly that they were going to admit even elders in their cricket club there after.
3. Swami said that he thought he must have been a very strong and grown-up person,………. not at all a boy.
4: Father showed hatred if I thought I was wiser than the newspaper.
5. Swami asked his father how that could be.
6. Father told Swami that courage is everything, strength and age are not important.
7. Father asked me to leave alone strength.
8. Father asked me if I could prove I had courage.
9. Father proposed me to let him see if I could sleep along that night in his office room..
10. She asked me why I looked at her while I said that.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into Indirect Speech :
1. Granny said to the boys, “Are you already feeling sleepy?”
2. Father said to Swami, “Get up”.
3. Granny said to me, “Don’t cover your face”.
4. Swami said to me, “Are you really very sleepy?”
5. Granny said to me, “Shut up”.
6. Swami said to Granny, “Please don’t talk to me and don’t let anyone call me even if the house is on fire.”
7. Granny pleaded Swami, “Why do you disturb him?”
8. Swami pleaded father, “Let me sleep in the hall.”
9. Swami said to father, “Your office room is very dusty and there may be scorpions behind your law books.”.
10. Father said to Swami, “Can I have a lamp burning in the room?”
1. Granny asked the boys if they were already feeling sleepy.
2. Father asked Swami to get up.
3. Granny forbade me to cover my face.
4. Swami asked me if I was really very sleepy.
5. Granny asked me to shut up.
6. Swami requested Granny not to talk to him and not to let anyone call him even if the house was on fire.
7. Granny asked Swami emotionally why he disturbed him.
8. Swami asked father emotionally to let him sleep in the hall.
9. Swami told father that his office room was very dusty and there might be scorpions behind his law books.
10. Father asked Swami if he could have a lamp burning in the room.
Rewrite the following sentences changing them into Indirect Speech :
1. Father said to Swami, “Will you leave the door open?”
2. The inspector said to Swami, “Why don’t you join the police when you are grown up?”
3. The teacher said to the boys, “Pen is mightier than the sword.”
4. The moralist said to us, “Can’t we think of a suitable device for expressing our protest without causing inconvenience to others and loss to the nation?”
5. Mahatma Gandhi said to the protesters, “All these minor issues are of major significance.”
6. He called his servant and said, “All the guests have not yet been fed.”
7. So he went nearer and said quietly, “I am the one whom you helped greatly many years ago.”
8. The stranger said to the landlord, “It was very kind of you to feed me when I came to your house uninvited.”
9. The stranger said to him, “I have many sons and grandsons.”
10. Babuli said to us, “She has even reminded me of those pre-marriage days of mine.”
1. Father asked Swami if he would leave the door open.
2. The inspector asked Swami why he did not join the police when he was grown up.
3. The teacher told the boys that pen is mightier than the sword.
4. The moralist told us if they thought of a suitable device for expressing their protest without causing inconvenience to others and loss to the nation.
5. Mahatma Gandhi told the protesters that all those minor issues were of major significance.
6. He called his servant and told that all the guests had not yet been fed.
7. So he went nearer and told quietly that he was the one whom he had helped greatly many years ago.
8. The stranger told the landlord that that was very kind of him to feed him when he had come to his house uninvited.
9. The stranger told him that he had many sons and grandsons.
10. Babuli told us that she had even reminded him of those pre-marriage days of his.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. I said, “You look a bit of a wrestler yourself.”
2. Anil said to me, “Can you cook?”
3. I said to Anil, “I want to work for you.”
4. Anil said to me, “I made some money yesterday.”
5. Ram Lal cried and said to me, “Are you crazy?”
6. Ram Lal said to Bholi, “Come with me. I will take you to school.”
7. She said, “I want to know what you have been doing to my chair upstairs.”
8. Her mother said to her, “Why should you cry?”
9. She said to her son, “Why do you ask this?”
10. He said, “Do not worry, my son.”
11. Uttanka said, “Let the Serpent king return the ear-rings.”
12. I said to Rashida, “There is no string for your kite.”
1. I said that he looked a bit of a wrestler himself.
2. Anil asked me if I could cook.
3. I told Anil that I wanted to work for him.
4. Anil told me that he had made some money the previous day.
5. Ram Lal cried and asked me if I was crazy.
6. Ram Lal proposed Bholi to come with him and added that he would take her to school.
7. She said that she wanted to know what I had been doing to her chair upstairs.
8. Her mother asked her why she should cry.
9. She asked her son why he asked that.
10. He encouraged his son not to worry.
11. Uttanka suggested that the Serpent king should return the earrings.
12. I told Rashida that there was no string for her kite.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. He said, “What a beautiful picture this is !”
2. She said, “O God ! My son ran away at night.”.
3. “Oh dear ! I have lost my purse”, he said.
4. They said, “Alas ! Our leader is dead.”
5. The players said, “Hurray ! We have won the match.”
6. She said, “Let us invite some guests to our son’s birthday.”
7. He said, “Let the guests come in.”
8. The teacher said, “May God help you in your life.”
9. Lord Buddha said to the Bhikshus, “Rely on yourselves.”
10. “Stars shine during the night only,” he explained.
11. The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”
12. Madam said, “Girls, have you taken down my notes ?”
13. He said to the teacher, “Did you find time to check my answers ?”
14. Mohan said, “When will the night bus for Jaipur leave ?
15. The teacher said, “When the rains fail, there is famine.”
16. The teacher said, “Stop making noise in my class otherwise I shall punish you.”
17. My father said, “Always respect your elders.”
18. She said, “Never tell a lie before me.”
19. Seema (on phone) : “Can you lend me your book for a day, Raju ?”
20. Babita (on phone) to Rakesh, “I shall not attend your birthday party.”.
21. Meena (on phone) to Hari, “Do you like to play chess with me ?”
22. Rekha (on phone) : “Don’t come to my house today in the evening, Gopal.”
23. Monika (on phone) : “Please help me.”
24. Laxmi (on phone) : “Bring a costly sari for me.”
25. Sudha (on mobile) to Rajesh : “Your mother is coming today with my brother.”
1. He exclaimed with surprise that that picture was very beautiful.
2. She exclaimed with sorrow that her son had run away at night.
3. He exclaimed that he had lost his purse.
4. They exclaimed with sorrow that their leader was dead.
5. The players exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.
6. She suggested that they should invite some guests to their son’s birthday.
7. He asked to let the guests come in.
8. The teacher blessed (wished) that God might help you in your life.
9. Lord Buddha advised the Bhikshus to rely on themselves.
10. He explained that stars shine during the night only.
11. The teacher said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
12. Madam asked the girls if they had taken down her notes.
13. He asked the teacher if he had found time to check his answers.
14. Mohan asked you when the night bus for Jaipur would leave.
15. The teacher said when the rains fail there is famine.
16. The teacher ordered (you) to stop making noise in his class otherwise he would nish you.
17. My father advised me always to respect my elders.
18. She asked (you) never to tell a lie before her.
19. Seema asked Raju on phone if he could lend her his book for a day.
20. Babita told Rakesh on phone that she would not attend his birt! lay party.
21. Meena asked Hari on phone if he liked to play chess with her.
22. Rekha asked Gopal on phone not to come to her house that day in the evening.
23. Monika requested (you) on phone to help her.
24. Laxmi asked (you) on phone to bring a costly sari for her.
25. Using her mobile Sudha told Rajesh that his mother was coming that day with her brother.