9 Grammar Modal Auxiliaries

Modals का प्रयोग विभिन्न मनोभावों को प्रकट करने के लिए होता है। मुख्य Modals ये हैं can may shall will must ought to could might should would need not used to

‘Can’ का प्रयोग 

1. Can का प्रयोग शक्ति (Power), सामर्थ्य (Capability), क्षमता (Capacity) व योग्यता (Ability) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए किया जाता है। Can का Past Tense ‘could’ है। 
(i) He can run fast. (Power) 
(ii) Ramesh is very rich. He can buy a car. (Capability) 

2. Can का प्रयोग आज्ञा देने (Permission), अनुमति लेने या अनुमति देने के लिए किया जाता है। 
(i) You can sit here. (Permission)
(ii) Can I take your scooter for two hours? 

3. सामान्य सम्भावना (General Possibility) प्रकट करने के लिए। 
(i) Television can be found in every middle class family. ‘Could’ का प्रयोग 
I. Can का Past Tense – could है। भूतकाल में योग्यता (ability), सामर्थ्य (capability) के लिए can के स्थान पर could का प्रयोग किया जाता है, जैसे 
(i) I could read without glasses a few years back. (Ability) 
(ii) I could lift 100 kg. weight when I was young. (Capability) 

2. वर्तमान काल में Polite Request (विनम्र निवेदन)
के लिए भी ‘could’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है –  

(i) Could you please help me?

May’ का प्रयोग 

May का प्रयोग सम्भावना (Probability/Possibility), शुभकामनायें (Wishes), आशीर्वाद (Blessings), उद्देश्य (Purpose), अनुमति (Permission) देने या लेने के लिए होता है। May का Past tense-might है। 
(i) There are clouds in the sky. It may rain today. (Possibility) 
(ii) May I come in? (Permission) 

‘Might’ का प्रयोग 

क्षीण सम्भावना (Remote Possibility) बताने के लिए might का प्रयोग करें। 
(i) There are very few clouds so it might rain. 

‘Will’/’Shall’ का प्रयोग 

1. I तथा We के साथ will-अवश्य (certainty), धमकी (threat), आदेश (order) तथा वायदा (promise) का भाव देता है। 
(i) We will go to cinema the next week. (certainty)

2. शेष सभी कर्ता के साथ (you, he, she, they, Mohan, father, teacher आदि) के साथ अवश्य (certainty), धमकी (threat), आदेश (order) तथा वायदा (promise) के लिए shall का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे
(ii) Boys shall be punished. (threat) ‘Should’ का प्रयोग ‘Should’ का अर्थ है’चाहिए’। सलाह (Advice), परामर्श (Suggestion), प्रस्ताव (Proposal) तथा नैतिक कर्तव्य (Moral Duty) का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए ‘should’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है। ‘should’ में बाध्यता अथवा अनिवार्यता का भाव नहीं होता है। 

(i) You should respect your teachers. (Moral Duty) 
(ii) Sita should not go there at night. (Advice) 

‘Would’ का प्रयोग विनम्र प्रार्थना (polite request), भूतकाल की आदतों आदि के लिए would का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 
(i) Would you come to tea tomorrow? ‘ (Polite Request) 
(ii) ‘He would play with toys in his childhood. (Past Habit) 

‘Must’ का प्रयोग 
‘Must’ का अर्थ होता है-‘अवश्य चाहिए।’ इसमें ‘बाध्यता’ का भाव होता है। ‘must’ का प्रयोग—बाध्यता (Compulsion), अनिवार्यता (Necessity), कर्तव्य (Duty), पक्की धारणा (Certainty), दृढ़ निश्चय (Firm determination), निषेध (Prohibition) आदि का भाव देता है। जैसे
(i) You must sleep at night. (Compulsion)
(ii) She must cook food for her family. (Necessity) 

‘Ought to’ का प्रयोग 
‘Ought to’ का अर्थ है-अवश्य, अवश्य चाहिए। इसके प्रयोग में वक्ता द्वारा, कर्ता (Subject) को उसके नैतिक कर्त्तव्य (Moral duty), नैतिक बाध्यता (Moral obligation) का बोध कराया जाता है। ध्यान रहे, ought ही एकमात्र ऐसा modal है जिसके, तुरन्त बाद ‘to’ अवश्य आता है; अन्य modals के बाद ‘to’ कभी नहीं आता है। जैसे You ought to serve your old parents (Moral duty) 

‘Need not’ का प्रयोग 
Needn’t का अर्थ है — आवश्यकता नहीं। इसके लिए (Not Necessary) or (absence of obligation) समूह का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जब subject के लिए कार्य करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है अथवा यदि कार्य किया भी जाये तो कोई लाभ नहीं हो तो Needn’t का प्रयोग किया जाता है। It is bright sunlight so you needn’t light a lamp.

Practice Exercise 1.

Select the correct answer:

Question 1. 
It ……….. be a risk, a challenge.
(a) would 
(b) will 
(c) must 
(d) can
Answer:
(a) would 

Question 2. 
You not imagine, dearest Connie, my feelings.
(a) will 
(b) can 
(c) would 
(d) should
Answer:
(b) can 

Question 3. 
The fighting would end and we all go home.
(a) could 
(b) can 
(c) may 
(d) might
Answer:
(a) could 

Question 4.
If not, he die of starvation and sorrow.
(a) must 
(b) shall 
(c) will 
(d) can
Answer:
(a) must 

Question 5. 
He understood that the water come rushing back with great force.
(a) will 
(b) would 
(c) must 
(d) may
Answer:
(b) would 

Question 6. 
They sense an approaching disaster long before humans realise what’s going on.
(a) may 
(b) can 
(c) must 
(d) could
Answer:
(b) can 

Question 7. 
Knowledge be practical and scientific.
(a) shall 
(b) should 
(c) must 
(d) can
Answer:
(b) should 

Question 8. 
1818, they had passed Regulationifi under it an Indian be jailed without trial in a court.
(a) can 
(b) could 
(c) will 
(d) must
Answer:
(b) could 

Question 9. 
We teach the natives through the English language.
(a)shall 
(b)should
(c) can 
(d) may
Answer:
(b)should

Question 10. 
For that we convey our grievances to the British Parliament.
(a) can 
(b) must 
(c) will 
(d) could
Answer:
(b) must 

Practice Exercise 2.

Question 1. 
The white man’s rule ………… end.
(a) must 
(b) can 
(c) will 
(d) could
Answer:
(a) must 

Question 2. 
Yes, we ………… help you.
(a) must 
(b) can 
(c) will 
(d) should
Answer:
(c) will 

Question 3 
Using my strength I ……….. make that mom take off the cloak.
(a) could
(b) will
(c) shall 
(d) can
Answer:
(d) can

Question 4. 
Bepin Choudhary ………. drop in at Kalicharan’s new market to buy books.
(a) would
(b) should
(c) might
(d) must
Answer:
(a) would

Question 5.
You said you didn’t like hotel food and.,…. prefer to have your meals cooked by a bawarchi
(a) can
(b) would
(c) should
(d) shall
Answer:
(b) would

Question 6.
How….. he make such a mistake about the Ranchi mp?
(a) can
(b) could
(c) will
(d) shall
Answer:
(b) could

Question 7.
That be the reason.
(a) will
(b) must
(c) can
(d) would
Answer:
(b) must

Question 8.
This is not impossible More than that do at the moment
(a) will not
(b) shall not
(c) cannot
(d) must not
Answer:
(c) cannot

Question 9.
I certainly write about it in a medical
(a) would
(b) must
(c) shall
(d) will not
Answer:
(c) shall

Question 10.
Once taken up. it be given up halfway even when one’s life is at stake.
(a) must not.
(b) cannot
(c) shall not
(d) would not
Answer:
(c) shall not

Practice Exercise 3. 

Question 1.
I am strong. I lift this table.
(a) can 
(b) must 
(c) need 
(d) will
Answer:
(a) can 

Question 2. 
I swim when l was young.
(a) can 
(b) could 
(c) will 
(d) shall
Answer:
(b) could 

Question 3 
I come in, sir?
(a) Would 
(b) Should
(c) May 
(d) Needn’t
Answer:
(c) May 

Question 4. 
Heisverydullsohe pass.
(a) would 
(b) should
(c) need 
(d) migit
Answer:
(d) migit

Question 5. 
I give ýou a watch on your birthday.
(a) would 
(b) will 
(C) could 
(d) need
Answer:
(b) will 

Question 6. 
You revise your lessons.
(a) shall 
(b) could 
(c) need 
(d) should
Answer:
(d) should

Question 7.
…… you like to help me’
(a) Can 
(b) Would
(c) Must 
(d) Need
Answer:
(b) Would

Question 8. 
You wear a sweater as the day is hot.
(a) must 
(b) needn’t
(c) dare 
(d) will
Answer:
(d) will

Question 9. 
You run fast to catch the bus.
(a) must 
(b) dare 
(c) need 
(d) would
Answer:
(a) must 

Question 10. 
I exercise daily in young age.
(a) dare 
(b) need 
(c) used to 
(d) shall
Answer:
(c) used to 

Practice Exercise 4. 

Rewrite the sentences using the words given in brackets —

1. We should do something to teach human beings a lesson. (ought to)
2. Children should respect the elders. (ought to)
3. Your dress is very dirty You should wash it. (ought to)
4. You should obey your parents. (ought to)
5. These are your guests. You should serve them. (ought to)
6. You should pay your fee regularly. (ought to)
7. You should not insult the poor. (ought to)
8 It is possible that she takes tea in the morning. (can)
9. Sita worked hard. It is possible that she passes the examination. (can)
10. My sister likes this toy. It is possible that she purchases it. (can)
Answer:
1. We ought to do something to teach human beings a Lesson.
2. Children ought to respect the elders.
3. Your dress is very dirty. You ought to wash
4. You ought to obey your parents.
5. These are your guests. You ought to serve them.
6. You ought to pay your fee regularly.
7. You ought not to insult the poor.
8 She can take tea in the morning.
9. Sita worked hard She can pass the examination.
10. My sister likes this boy. She can purchase

9 Grammar Modal Auxiliaries