Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady

Textbook Questions and Answers

Understanding the Text Mention 

Question 1. 
The three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad. 
दादी के साथ लेखक के सम्बन्ध की तीन अवस्थाओं का उल्लेख कीजिये जो उसके अध्ययन हेतु विदेश जाने के पूर्व रहीं। 
Answer:
The three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad were as follows: 
(a) In the village : They were always together in the village. The grandmother used to bathe him and get him ready for the school.

(b) In the city : The author started going to an English school. Now the grandmother could not help the author in his studies. The grandmother started passing her time by praying and feeding the sparrows. 

(c) When the author went up to university : The author was given a separate room. The last link of friendship was broken. The grand mother spent all her time in spinning, praying and feeding the sparrows. 

लेखक के विदेश जाने के पूर्व दादी के साथ उसके सम्बन्ध की तीन अवस्थाएँ निम्नवत् रहीं

(अ) गाँव में : गाँव में वे सदा साथ रहते। दादी उसे नहलातीं और स्कूल के लिए तैयार करतीं। 
(ब) शहर में : लेखक ने एक अंग्रेजी स्कूल में जाना शुरू किया। अब दादी लेखक की पढ़ाई में उसकी मदद नहीं कर पाती थीं। उन्होंने अपना समय प्रार्थना करने एवं चिड़ियों को दाना खिलाने में व्यतीत करना शुरू कर दिया। 
(स) जब लेखक कॉलेज गया : लेखक को अपना अलग कमरा दे दिया गया। मित्रता का आखिरी सम्बन्ध भी टूट गया। दादी माँ अपना सारा समय चरखा कातने, प्रार्थना करने और चिड़ियों को दाना खिलाने में बितातीं। 

Question 2. 
Three reasons why the author’s grandmother was disturbed when he started going to the city school. 
लेखक की दादी के परेशान हो जाने के तीन कारण बताइये जब वह (लेखक) शहर के स्कूल में जाने लगा। 
Answer:
The grandmother was disturbed because of the following reasons : 
(a) No religious teaching at English school : There was no teaching about God and scriptures in the English school. 
(b) She could not help the author in his studies : The grandmother used to help the author in his studies in the village. Now she could not help the author in his studies. 
(c) Music was taught at school : She was disturbed when she knew that music lessons were given at school. She believed that music was meant only for beggers and harlots.

निम्नलिखित कारणों से दादी परेशानी थीं : 
(अ) अंग्रेजी स्कूल में धार्मिक अध्यापन नहीं था:अंग्रेजी स्कूल में ईश्वर और धार्मिक ग्रन्थों के सम्बन्ध में कोई पढ़ाई नहीं होती थी।
(ब) वह लेखक की पढ़ाई में मदद नहीं कर पाती थीं : दादी गाँव में लेखक की पढ़ाई में मदद किया करती थीं। अब दादी लेखक की पढ़ाई में मदद नहीं कर पाती थीं। 
(स) स्कूल में संगीत पढ़ाया जाता था : दादी परेशान हो गईं जब उन्हें पता चला कि स्कूल में संगीत के पाठ पढ़ाए जाते हैं। उन्हें विश्वास था कि संगीत केवल भिखारियों और वेश्याओं के लिए ही बना है। 

Question 3. 
Three ways in which the author’s grandmother spent her days after he grew up.
वे तीन तरीके बताइये जिनसे लेखक की दादी लेखक के बड़े हो जाने पर अपना समय व्यतीत करती थीं। 
Answer:
The three ways in which the author’s grandmother spent her days are as follows : 
(a) Spinning : The grandmother started spinning when the author was given his own separate room. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her spinning wheel. 
(b) Praying: Her lips always moved inaudible prayer and hands always busy telling the beads of the rosary. 
(c) Feeding the sparrows : Only in the afternoon she left her spinning wheel to feed the sparrows. She used to feed them with frivolous rebukes.

दादी अपना दिन जिन तीन तरीकों से बिताती थीं निम्न हैं : 
(अ) चरखा कातकर : जब लेखक को अपना अलग कमरा दे दिया गया दादी ने चरखा कातना शुरू किया। सुबह से शाम तक वह चरखा कातती रहती थीं। 
(ब) प्रार्थना करके : उनके होंठ सुनाई न देने वाली प्रार्थना में हमेशा हिलते रहते थे और हाथों से वह हमेशा माला जपती रहती थीं। 
(स) चिड़ियों को भोजन कराकर : केवल दोपहर में वह चिड़ियों को दाना खिलाने के लिए चरखा छोड़ती थीं। वह उन्हें प्यार से झिड़कते हुए खाना खिलाती थीं।

Question 4. 
The odd way in which the author’s grandmother behaved just before she died.
मरने से ठीक पहले लेखक की दादी माँ ने जिस विचित्र ढंग से व्यवहार किया, उसका उल्लेख कीजिये। 
Answer:
Just before her death, the grandmother lay peacefully in bed praying and telling beads.
अपनी मृत्यु से ठीक पहले, दादी माला जपते हुए और प्रार्थना करते हुए शांतिपूर्वक बिस्तर पर लेट गईं। 

Question 5. 
The way in which the sparrows expressed their sorrow when the author’s grandmother died.
वह तरीका बताइये जिसके द्वारा चिड़ियों ने लेखक की दादी की मृत्यु पर दुःख प्रकट किया। 
Answer:
The sparrows gathered around the grandmother’s corpse which was lying wrapped in a red shroud. They were not chirping as if they were paying a silent tribute to her. When the grandmother’s corpse had been removed, they flew away silently.

गौरैया पक्षी दादी के शव के इर्द-गिर्द इकट्ठी हो गयीं जो लाल कफन में लिपटा हुआ पड़ा था। वे चहचहा नहीं रही थीं मानो उन्हें मूक श्रद्धाञ्जलि अर्पित कर रही थीं। जब दादी का शव हटा दिया गया, वे चुपचाप उड़ गयीं। 

Talking about the Text

Talk to your partner about the following: 

Question 1. 
The author’s grandmother was a religious person. What are the different ways in which we come to know this ? 
लेखक की दादी माँ एक धार्मिक महिला थीं। हम किन भिन्न तरीकों से यह जान पाते हैं? 
Answer:
The author’s grandmother was, undoubtedly, a religious person. She would always tell the beads of her rosary and her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer. She went to temple daily when she was in the village. She also read scriptures. 

लेखक की दादी निःसन्देह एक धार्मिक व्यक्ति थीं। वे हमेशा माला फेरती रहती थीं तथा उनके होंठ लगातार अश्रवणीय प्रार्थना बोलते रहते थे। जब वे गाँव में थीं, वे प्रतिदिन मन्दिर जाया करती थीं। वे धार्मिक पुस्तकें भी पढ़ती थीं। 

Question 2.
Describe the changing relationship between the author and his grandmother, Did their feelingsfor each other change ?
लेखक एवं उसकी दादी माँ के बीच बदलते हुए सम्बन्ध का वर्णन कीजिए। क्या एक-दूसरे के प्रति उनकी भावनाओं में परिवर्तन हुआ? 
Answer:
The author’s parents left him with his grandmother in the village. They lived all the time together and became most intimate friends. The grandmother used to wake him up and get him ready for school. After some time they came to the city.

Now she no longer went to school with her grandson. She did not like what her grandson was taught in his school. When the author went up to university, he was given a room of his own. The changes in relationship came only because of the circumstances but their feelings for each other did not change.

लेखक के माता-पिता ने लेखक को गाँव में दादी के पास छोड़ दिया था। वे पूरे समय साथ रहते थे और घनिष्ठ मित्र बन गये थे। दादी उसको जगातीं और स्कूल के लिए तैयार करती थीं। कुछ समय बाद वे शहर आ गये।

अब वे अपने पोते के साथ स्कूल नहीं जाती थीं। उन्हें वह सब पसन्द नहीं था जो उनके पोते को स्कूल में पढ़ाया जाता था। जब लेखक विश्वविद्यालय स्तर पर पहुँच गया तो उसे अपना कमरा दिया गया। सम्बन्धों में बदलाव केवल परिस्थितियों के कारण था किन्तु एक-दूसरे के प्रति उनकी भावनाओं में कोई बदलाव नहीं आया था। 

Question 3. 
Would you agree that the author’s grandmother was a person strong in character ? If yes.  . . .. give instances that show this.
क्या आप सहमत होंगे कि लेखक की दादी माँ दृढ़ चरित्र की महिला थीं? यदि हाँ, तो उदाहरण देकर बताइये।। 
Answer:
Yes, the author’s grandmother was a person of strong character. She had her own convictions which she rigorously followed. She loved the author very much. But when she came to know that things were not going her way, she accepted it without making any fuss. When her grandson went abroad she was not at all sentimental. Above all, she accepted her death as calmly as she had been accepting other changes taking place about her.

हाँ, लेखक की दादी दृढ़ चरित्र की महिला थीं। उनके अपने विचार थे जिनका उन्होंने मजबूती के साथ पालन किया। वे लेखक को बहुत प्यार करती थीं। लेकिन जब वे यह जान गईं कि घटनाएँ उनके अनुसार घटित नहीं हो रही हैं तो इस बात को उन्होंने बिना शिकायत के स्वीकार कर लिया। जब उनका पोता विदेश गया, वे बिल्कुल भावुक नहीं हुईं। और सर्वोपरि, उन्होंने अपनी मृत्यु को भी उतने ही शान्त भाव से स्वीकार किया जितने शान्त भाव से वे अपने आस-पास घटित होने वाले परिवर्तन को स्वीकार करती रही थीं। 

Question 4. 
Have you known someone like the author’s grandmother ? Do you feel the same sense of loss with regard to someone whom you have loved and lost? 
क्या आपने लेखक की दादी माँ जैसे किसी व्यक्ति को जाना है? क्या आपने वैसा ही दुख उस व्यक्ति के लिए अनुभव किया है जिसको आप प्रेम करते थे और जिसे आपने खो दिया है। 
Answer:
Yes, this story reminds me of my grandfather. He was very old and uneducated. He and I used to spend most of the time together. He would tell us some inspiring stories. He never wanted anyone to do anything for him. He was, in fact, a Karmyogi who believed in hard work.

When I was 28 years old, he, after a brief illness, left for his heavenly abode. We still miss him not because he was our grandfather but because he was so pure and unsullied that anyone would like to emulate him.

हाँ, यह कहानी मुझे मेरे दादा जी की याद दिलाती है। वे बहुत बूढ़े थे और अशिक्षित थे। मेरा और दादाजी का अधिकांश समय साथ-साथ गुजरता था। वे हमको कुछ प्रेरणादायक कहानियाँ सुनाया करते थे।

वे कभी किसी से अपने लिए कुछ करवाना नहीं चाहते थे। वे सचमुच कर्मयोगी थे जो मेहनत में विश्वास करते थे।  जब मैं 28 वर्ष का था, थोड़ी बीमारी के बाद, वे स्वर्ग सिधार गये। हम आज भी उन्हें याद करते हैं इसलिए नहीं कि वे हमारे दादाजी थे वरन् इसलिए कि वे इतने पवित्र और निष्कलंक थे कि कोई भी उनके जैसा बनना चाहेगा। 

Thinking about Language

Question 1. 
Which language do you think the author and his grandmother used while talking to each other ?
आपके विचार में लेखक व उसकी दादी माँ एक-दूसरे से बात करते समय कौन-सी भाषा प्रयोग करते थे? 
Answer:
Khushwant Singh, a Punjabi Putter as he is, is sure to speak to his grandmother in Punjabi.
खुशवन्त सिंह, चूंकि पंजाब के पुत्र हैं, निश्चय ही अपनी दादी से पंजाबी में बात करते होंगे। 

Question 2. 
Which language do you use to talk to elderly relatives in your family? .
आप अपने बड़े रिश्तेदारों के साथ बात करते समय कौन-सी भाषा का प्रयोग करते हैं ? 
Answer:
I use Hindi to talk to elderly relatives in my family.
मैं अपने बूढे रिश्तेदारों से हिन्दी में बात करता हूँ। 

Question 3. 
How would you say ‘a dilapidated drum’ in your language ?
A dilapidated drum को आप अपनी भाषा में कैसे कहेंगे? 
Answer:
I would say
‘फटो पुरानी ढोलक’। 

Question 4. 
Can you think of a song or a poem in your language that talks of homecoming?
क्या आप अपनी भाषा में कोई गीत या कविता बता सकते हैं जिसमें गृह वापसी का वर्णन हो? 
Answer:
Do it with the help of your Class-teacher.
अपने कक्षाध्यापक की सहायता से करें। 

Working with Words 

I. Notice the following uses of the word ‘tell’ in the text.

1. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary. 
2. I would tell her English words and little things of Western science and learning. 
3. At her age one could never tell. 
4. She told us that her end was near.
Given below are four different senses of the word ‘tell’. Match the meanings to the uses listed above.
1. make something known to someone in spoken or written words 
2. count while reciting 
3. be sure
4. give information to somebody 
Answer:
1. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary = count while reciting. 
2. I would tell her English words and little things of Western science and learning. = give information to somebody. 
3. At her age one could never tell. = be sure. 
4. She told us that her end was near. = make something known to someone in spoken or written words.

II. Notice the different senses of the word ‘take’.

1. to take to something = to begin to do something as a habit. 
2. to take ill = to suddenly become ill.
Locate these phrases in the text and notice the way they are used. 
Answer:
1. take to something There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding sparrows in the courtyard of our city house. 
2. take ill The next morning she was taken ill. 

III. The word ‘hobble’ means to walk with difficulty because the legs and feet are in bad condition.

Tick the words in the box below that also refer to a manner of walking.
RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady 1
Answer:
1. Haggle – to argue with somebody in order to reach an agreement especially about the price of something. ( x ) 
2. Shuffle – to walk slowly without lifting your feet completely off the ground. ( ✓ ) 
3. Stride – to walk with long steps in a particular direction. ( ✓ ) 
4. Ride – to sit on a horse etc. ( x ) 
5. Waddle – to walk with short steps, swinging from side to side, like a duck. ( ✓ ) 
6. Wriggle – to twist and turn one’s body with quick short movements. ( x ) 
7. Paddle – to walk with no shoes or socks in shallow water. ( ✓ ) 
8. Swagger – to walk in an extremely proud and confident way. ( ✓ ) 
9. Trudge – to walk slowly because you are tired or carrying something heavy. ( x ) 
10. Slog – to walk steadily with great effort. ( ✓ ) 

Noticing Form

Notice the form of the verbs italicised in these sentences. 

1. My grandmother was an old woman. She had been old and wrinkled for the twenty years that I had known her. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a husband, but that was hard to believe.
2. When we both had finished we would walk back together. 
3. When I came back she would ask me what the teacher had taught me. 
4. It was the first time since I had known her that she did not pray.
5. The sun was setting and had lit her room and varandah with a golden light. These are the examples of the past perfect forms of verbs. When we recount things in the distant past we use this form.

Things to Do

Talk with your family members about elderly people who you have been intimately connected with and who are not there with you now. Write a short description of someone you liked a lot. 
अपने परिवारजनों से उन वृद्ध लोगों के विषय में बात करो जिनसे आप हृदय से जुड़े हों और जो अब आपके साथ नहीं हैं। एक छोटा विवरण लिखिये, उनके बारे में, जिन्हें आप बहुत चाहते हैं। 
Answer:
My Grandmother My grandparents were very important in my family. Their personality was very impressive. My grandmother was very beautiful. She loved everybody in the family. I was very close to her. She was like my friend. She loved to do everything systematically. She was the source of inspiration for all of us. She was always ready to help others. Due to her old age she died two years back. We all remember her a lot. We’ll always remember the moral values, she taught us.

मेरी दादी माँ मेरे परिवार में मेरे दादा-दादी बहुत महत्वपूर्ण थे। उनका व्यक्तित्व बहुत प्रभावशाली था। मेरी दादी माँ बहुत सुन्दर थीं। वह परिवार में प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को प्यार करती थीं। मैं उनके बहुत करीब था। वह मेरी मित्र जैसी थीं। वह प्रत्येक कार्य व्यवस्थित ढंग से करना पसन्द करती थीं। वह हम सभी के लिये प्रेरणा स्रोत थीं। वह दूसरों की मदद के लिए हमेशा तैयार रहती थीं। वृद्धावस्था के कारण दो वर्ष पूर्व उनकी मृत्यु हो गयी। हम सभी उन्हें बहुत याद करते हैं। उनके दिये संस्कार हम हमेशा याद रखेंगे।

Important Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1. 
Uhai was hard for the author to believe ?
लेखक के लिये क्या विश्वास करना कठिन था ? 
Answer:
It was hard for the author to believe that the grandmother had once been young and pretty.
लेखक के लिये यह विश्वास करना कठिन था कि दादी कभी जवान और सुन्दर थीं। 

Question 2. 
How did the author’s grandfather look like ? 
लेखक के दादा कैसे दिखाई देते थे ? 
Answer:
Author’s grandfather looked hundred years old and a sort of person who could have lots of grand children.
लेखक के दादा सौ वर्ष बूढे और ऐसे व्यक्ति, दिखते. थे जिनके अनेक नाती-पोते हो सकते हैं। 

Question 3.
How was the face of the grandmother as described by author ?
लेखक के द्वारा वर्णित दादी माँ का चेहरा कैसा था ? 
Answer:
Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from everywhere to everywhere.
उनके चेहरे पर रेखाएँ चारों ओर थीं। 

Question 4. 
What was the ? ‘or’s grandmother like ? 
लेखक की दादी किस तरह की थी ? 
Answer:
She was like a winter landscape in the mountains breathing peace and contentment.
वह पहाड़ों में जाड़े के दृश्य की तरह शांति संतोष की सांस लेती रहती थीं। 

Question 5. 
Why did the grandmother recite the prayer while she bathed the author ?
लेखक को नहलाते समय दादी माँ प्रार्थना क्यों बोलती थीं ? 
Answer:
The grandmother recited the prayer so that the author might learn it by heart.
दादी प्रार्थना बोलती थीं ताकि लेखक उसे कण्ठस्थ कर ले। 

Question 6. 
What did the grandmother give the author for his breakfast ?
दादी लेखक को नाश्ते के लिए क्या देती थीं ? 
Answer:
The grandmother gave the author a thick and stale chapati with a little butter and sugar spread on it.
दादी एक मोटी व बासी रोटी जिस पर थोड़ा मक्खन और शक्कर फैली होती थी लेखक को देती थीं। 

Question 7. 
Why did the grandmother always go to school with the author ?
दादी लेखक के साथ हमेशा विद्यालय क्यों जाती थीं ? 
Answer:
The grandmother always went to school with the author because the school was attached to the temple. 
दादी लेखक के साथ हमेशा विद्यालय जाती थी क्योंकि विद्यालय मन्दिर से जुड़ा हुआ था। 

Question 8. 
What was the grandmother’s views about music ? 
संगीत के बारे में दादी के क्या विचार थे ?
Answer:
The grandmother thought that music had lewd (lustful) association. Music was monopoly of beggers and harlots. 
दादी सोचती थीं कि संगीत का सम्बन्ध घटिया वासनाओं से है। संगीत पर केवल वेश्याओं और भिखारियों का एकाधिकार है। 

Question 9. 
Why was the grandmother unhappy with the education given at English school ?
दादी अंग्रेजी स्कूल में दी जाने वाली शिक्षा से अप्रसन्न क्यों थीं ? 
Answer:
There was no teaching about God and scriptures at the English school, so the grandmother was unhappy. 
अंग्रेजी स्कूल में भगवान और धर्म सम्बन्धी शिक्षा नहीं थी, इसलिए दादी अप्रसन्न थीं।

Question 10. 
What was the grandmother’s happiest moment of the day ?
दादी के दिन का सबसे सुखद क्षण कौन-सा होता था ?
Answer:
The happiest moment of the day was when grandmother used to feed the sparrows in the afternoon.
दादी के दिन का सबसे सुखद क्षण वह होता था जब वह चिड़ियों को दोपहर में दाना चुगाया करती थीं। 

Question 11.
What was the common link of friendship between the author and his grandmother in the city
शहर में दादी और लेखक के बीच में मित्रता की सामान्य कड़ी क्या थी ? 
Answer:
The room which they used to live together was the common link of friendship between them in the city.
वह कमरा जिसमें वे साथ रहते थे, लेखक और दादी के मध्य शहर में मित्रता की सामान्य कड़ी था। 

Question 12.
When was the common link of friendship snapped ? 
मित्रता की सामान्य कड़ी कब टूट गई ? 
Answer:
The common link of friendship was snapped when the author went up to university and was given a separate room.
जब लेखक ने विश्वविद्यालय जाना शुरू किया और उसे अपना अलग कमरा दे दिया गया, तब मित्रता की सामान्य कड़ी टूट गई। 

Question 13. 
What would happen when the grandmother of the author sat in the varandah breaking the bread into little bits ? 
जब दादी माँ बरामदे में बैठकर रोटी के छोटे-छोटे टुकड़े करतीं तब क्या होता था? 
Answer:
At that time hundreds of little birds collected round her creating a veritable (real) bedlam (scene of uproar) of chirpings.
उस समय सैकड़ों पक्षी चहचहाकर शोर मचाते हुए उनके इर्द-गिर्द इकट्ठे हो जाते थे।

Question 14. 
Why did the author decide to go abroad ? 
लेखक ने विदेश जाने का फैसला क्यों किया ?
Answer:
The author decided to go abroad for his further studies.
लेखक ने अपनी आगे की पढ़ाई के लिए विदेश जाने का निर्णय लिया। 

Question 15. 
What did the author think about his grandmother when he was going abroad ?
लेखक ने .दादी के बारे में क्या सोचा जब वह विदेश जा रहा था ? 
Answer:
He thought that the grandmother might not survive till his return from abroad.
उसने सोचा कि दादी उसकी विदेश से वापसी तक शायद जीवित न रहें। 

Question 16. 
What sign of physical contact did the author cherish ?
शारीरिक सम्बन्ध के किस चिह्न को लेखक ने संजोकर रखा ? 
Answer:
The grandmother’s kiss on the author’s forehead was the sign of physical contact which the author cherished.
दादी का लेखक के माथे पर चूमना वह अन्तिम शारीरिक सम्बन्ध था जिसे लेखक ने संजोकर रखा। 

Question 17. 
Mention two things which the grandmother started doing in the city ?
उन दो चीजों के बारे में बताओ जिन्हें दादी ने शहर में करना शुरू किया ?
Answer:
The grandmother started spinning and feeding the sparrows in the city.
दादी ने शहर में चरखा कातना एवं चिड़ियों को दाना चुगाना शुरू किया। 

Question 18. 
What was taught to the author at the English school ?
लेखक को अंग्रेजी स्कूल में क्या पढ़ाया जाता था ? 
Answer:
The author was taught English words, little things of western science, the law of gravity, geography and music were taught at the English school.
लेखक को अंग्रेजी स्कूल में अंग्रेजी के शब्द, पश्चिमी ज्ञान-विज्ञान, गुरुत्व के नियम, भूगोल और संगीत पढ़ाए जाते थे। 

Question 19. 
What was taught to the author at the village school ?
लेखक को गाँव के स्कूल में क्या पढ़ाया जाता था ?
Answer:
The author was taught the alphabet and the morning prayer at the village school.
लेखक को गाँव के स्कूल में वर्णमाला एवं सुबह की प्रार्थना सिखाई जाती थी। 

Question 20. 
Which act of kindness was done by the grandmother at the village ?
दादी द्वारा दया का कौन-सा कार्य गाँव में किया जाता था ? 
Answer:
The grandmother used to feed the dogs with stale chapattis. This act of kindness was done at the village.
दादी गाँव के कुत्तों को बासी रोटी खिलाया करती थीं। यह दया का कार्य गाँव में किया जाता था। 

Question 21. 
How did the grandmother celebrate the home coming of the author from abroad ? दादी ने लेखक
के विदेश से घर आगमन का उत्सव कैसे मनाया ? 
Answer:
The grandmother collected the women of the neighbourhood and sang the songs of home coming of warriors.
दादी ने पड़ोस की औरतों को इकट्ठा किया व योद्धाओं की गृह वापसी के गीत गाये। 

Question 22. 
What did the grandmother do in her last time ?
दादी ने अपने अंतिम समय में क्या किया ? 
Answer:
In her last moments of life grandmother kept on praying. She lay peacefully in her bed telling the beads of the rosary. 
अपने जीवन के अंतिम क्षणों में दादी ने प्रार्थना करना जारी रखा। वह शान्ति से बिस्तर पर लेटी रहीं और माला जपती रहीं।. 

Question 23. 
What did the author see when he returned after making arrangements for the funeral?
लेखक जब अन्तिम संस्कार की व्यवस्थाएँ करके लौटा तो उसने क्या देखा ? 
Answer:
He saw thousands of sparrows sitting scattered on the floor in the varandah and in the room where the grandmother was lying dead without chirping. 
लेखक ने सैकड़ों चिड़ियों को बरामदे में व उस कमरे में जहाँ दादी माँ मृत पड़ी थीं, बिना चहचहाहट के फर्श पर बैठे देखा। 

Question 24. 
What happened when the author’s grandmother died ?
जब लेखक की दादी मर गईं तब क्या हुआ ?
Answer:
The rosary fell from her hand. A peaceful paller spread on her face.
उनके हाथ से माला गिर गई। उनके चेहरे पर शान्तिमय पीलापन छा गया। 

Question 25. 
How did the sparrows mourn the death of the grandmother ?
चिड़ियों ने दादी की मौत पर शोक कैसे मनाया ? 
Answer:
The birds sat silently around her shroud, took no notice of the breadcrumb thrown to them. They flew away quietly from there. 
चिड़ियाँ उनके कफन के चारों ओर शांत बैठी, उन्होंने उनके लिए फैंके गए रोटी के टुकड़ों पर ध्यान नहीं दिया। वे चुपचाप वहाँ से उड़ गईं। 

Question 26. 
What did the author treat as fables of the Prophets ?
किन बातों को लेखक पैगम्बरों द्वारा कही गयी नीति कथाओं जैसा मानता था ? 
Answer:
He treated all that his grandmother told about her childhood and the games she played then as fables of the Prophets. 
वह अपनी दादी द्वारा सुनायी गयी उनके (दादी के) बचपन की तथा उस समय उनके द्वारा खेल-कूद की घटनाओं को पैगम्बरों द्वारा कही गयी नीति कथाओं जैसा समझता था। 

Question 27. 
When did the author’s parents leave him in the village with grandmother ?
लेखक के माता-पिता ने उसे दादी के पास गाँव में अकेला कब छोड़ दिया था ? 
Answer:
They left the author with grand mother in the village when they went to live in the city.
शहर में रहने के लिए जाते समय उन्होंने लेखक को गाँव में दादी के पास छोड़ दिया था। 

Question28. 
When were the author and his grandmother called to the city ?
लेखक और उसकी दादी को कब शहर बुला लिया गया ? 
Answer:
When the author’s parents were comfortably settled in the city, they called the author and the grandmother to the city. 
जब लेखक के माता-पिता शहर में अच्छी तरह बस गये तो उन्होंने लेखक और उसकी दादी को शहर बुला लिया। 

Question 29. 
How did the author’s grandmother spend her time in the city ?
लेखक की दादी शहर में अपना समय किस प्रकार बिताती थीं ? 
Answer:
From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers.
सूर्योदय से सूर्यास्त तक वह चरखे पर सूत कातती हुई प्रार्थनाएँ करती रहती थीं। 

Question 30. 
What was the song the grandmother sang with the women from the neighbourhood about the day before her death ? 
अपनी मृत्यु के एक दिन पूर्व पड़ोस की महिलाओं के संग दादी के द्वारा गाया जाने वाला गीत किस बारे में था ? 
Answer:
The song sung by grandmother the day before her death with the women from neighbourhood was about the ‘home-coming of warriors’. 
दादी के द्वारा अपनी मृत्यु के एक दिन पूर्व पड़ोस की महिलाओं के साथ गाया जाने वाला गीत ‘योद्धाओं के गृह-आगमन’ से सम्बधित था। 

Question 31. 
What did the author use to take with him to village school ?
गाँव के विद्यालय में लेखक अपने साथ क्या ले जाया करता था ? 
Answer:
The author used to take wooden slate, yellow chalk, a tiny earthen ink-pot and a red pen with him. 
लेखक अपने साथ लकड़ी की तख्ती, पीली खड़िया, एक छोटी मिट्टी की बनी स्याही की दवात तथा लाल कलम ले जाया करता था। 

Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1. 
What was hard for the author Khushwant Singh to believe ?
लेखक खुशवंत सिंह के लिए क्या विश्वास करना कठिन था ? 
Answer:
Given the old age and dominance of wrinkles on the face of the grandmother, it was extremely difficult to believe that she had been once young and pretty. Ever since he saw of her, she had been perennialy unchanged in her look. 

दादी के चेहरे पर बुढ़ापे और झुर्रियों के प्रभाव को देखकर लेखक को यह विश्वास करना अत्यधिक कठिन हो गया था कि वह कभी सुन्दर व जवान भी थीं। जबसे उसने उन्हें देखा था वह हमेशा अपने रूप में अपरिवर्तित रही थीं। 

Question 2. 
Grandmother has been portrayed as a very religious lady. What details in the story create this impression? 
(इस कहानी में) दादी का चित्रण एक बहुत धार्मिक महिला के रूप में किया गया है। कहानी में कौन-कौन से विवरण इस धारणा का निर्धारण करते हैं? 
Answer:
The grandmother would visit the temple everyday. She also read the holy books. She kept walking across the house telling the beads of her rosary. Apart from it, her lips were found to be busy reciting prayers. She always wanted that the children should be imparted religious education.

लेखक की दादी माँ हर रोज मन्दिर जाया करती थीं। वह पवित्र पुस्तकें (धार्मिक ग्रंथ) भी पढ़ती थीं। वह अपनी माला फेरते हुए घर में घूमती रहती थीं। इसके अलावा उनके होंठ प्रार्थना करते हुए व्यस्त पाए जाते थे। वह हमेशा यह चाहती थीं कि बच्चों को धार्मिक शिक्षा प्रदान की जानी चाहिए। 

Question 3. 
The grandmother had a divine beauty. How does the author drag it out ?
दादीजी के पास दैवीय सुन्दरता थी। लेखक इसका चित्रण कैसे करता है? 
Answer:
The author says that his grandmother was always beautiful. She looked like the winter landscape in the mountains reflecting a picture of peace and contentment in her white clothes. 

लेखक कहता है कि उसकी दादीजी हमेशा ही सुन्दर रही थीं। वह अपने श्वेत वस्त्रों में शान्ति व सन्तोष को बिखेरती हुयी पर्वतों के बीच शीत के प्राकृतिक दृश्य के समान दिखती थीं। 

Question 4. 
What was the grandmother’s happiest moment of the day?
दादीजी के दिन का सबसे खुशी का पल क्या था? । 
Answer:
The grandmother felt very happy when she fed the sparrows in the house in the after noon. She had developed a ‘connection’ with the sparrows and the sparrows too had no . fear of her while sitting on her legs, shoulders and her head. 

लेखक की दादीजी बहुत खुशी महसूस करती थी जब वह दोपहर में गौरैयों को घर में दाना चुंगाती थीं। उन्होंने गौरैयों के साथ एक ‘सम्बन्ध’ विकसित कर लिया था और गौरैयों को भी उनके पैर, कंधे और सिर पर बैठने में किसी प्रकार का भय नहीं लगता था। 

Question 5.
Give example in support of the notion that the grandmother was a kind-hearted woman.
इस धारणा के समर्थन में एक उदाहरण दें कि दादी माँ दयालु हृदय महिला थीं। 
Answer:
There are several instances that prove that the grandmother was a kind-hearted woman. The grandmother fed stale chapattis to the village dogs while going to the temple in the morning. In the city house also fed sparrows who had become quite friendly with her.

इस कहानी में कई ऐसे उदाहरण हैं जो यह साबित करते हैं कि दादी माँ दयालु हृदय थीं। दादी माँ सुबह मन्दिर जाते वक्त गाँव के कुत्तों को बासी चपातियाँ खिलाती थीं। शहर के मकान में वह गौरैयों को भी दाना
चुगाती थीं जो उनसे अत्यधिक मित्रवत् हो गयी थीं। 

Question 6. 
According to you, what was the last physical contact between the author and the grandmother ? And what was its sign in proving your point ?
आपके अनुसार लेखक और दादी माँ के बीच अन्तिम शारीरिक सम्पर्क क्या था? और आपकी बात साबित करने में इसका क्या संकेत था? 
Answer:
When the author was going abroad to acquire higher education, the grandmother also came to the railway station to bid adieu to him. She kissed him on his forehead leaving a moist imprint as the last sign of physical contact. The author thought that when he would return after 5 years, she might not be alive. 

जब लेखक उच्च शिक्षा प्राप्त करने के लिए विदेश जा रहा था तब उसकी दादी माँ उसे अलविदा कहने के लिए रेलवे स्टेशन पर आईं। शारीरिक सम्पर्क के अन्तिम चिन्ह के रूप में उन्होंने लेखक के माथे पर . नम निशान छोड़ते हुए उसे चूमा। लेखक ने यह सोचा कि जब वह पाँच साल बाद वापस लौट कर आएगा तो शायद वह उसे जीवित न मिले।

गौरैयों ने दादी माँ के जीवन में बहुत महत्वपूर्ण योगदान दिया। जब वह शहर में आयीं तो उन्होंने वहाँ गौरैयों से घनिष्ठता बना ली। वे उनके पैरों, कंधों और सिर पर आकर बैठ जाती थीं और इस तरह वे उनसे मित्रवत् हो गईं थीं। जब दादी माँ मर गयीं तो वे घर में चारों ओर इकट्ठी हो गयीं और उन्हें श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित की। 

Question 12. 
What does Khushwant Singh describe in the “The Portrait of a Lady” ? ‘The Portrait of a Lady’ 
नामक पाठ में खुशवन्त सिंह क्या वर्णित करते हैं? 
Answer:
In the chapter “The Portrait of a Lady”, Khushwant Singh has drawn a pen picture of his grandmother. In the text, the author describes how he spent his childhood in his village. He also describes his shift to the city and changes in his educational pursuits. 

‘The Portrait of a Lady’ नामक पाठ में खुशवन्त सिंह ने अपनी दादी माँ का चित्रण (कलम चित्र) किया है। इस पाठ में लेखक यह वर्णित करता है कि उसने किस तरह से अपने गाँव में बचपन बिताया। वह शहर में जाने और अपनी शिक्षण व्यवस्था में बदलाव के बारे में भी वर्णन करता है। 

Long Answer Type Questions 

Question 1. 
Write a character sketch of the author’s grandmother as described in the “The Portrait of a Lady”.
“The Portrait of a Lady” में वर्णित लेखक की दादी माँ का चरित्र-चित्रण लिखिए। 
Answer:
The author’s grandmother was an old lady with her face covered with wrinkles. She was an image of peace, care and contentment. It was difficult for the author to believe that once she could have been young and beautiful. She took full care of the author. She emphasised to the author the importance of religious tilt and holy scriptures. The grandmother was also very kind-hearted. 

She fed the village dogs with stale chapattis and once she had gone to the city, she started feeding the sparrows in the absence of dogs there. She was also busy praying to God by way of telling the beads of her rosary. She was also an example of strong character. She did not show any emotions when the author went abroad for higher studies. She was also having a strong sense of adaptability and accepted the changes with utmost maturity.

लेखक की दादी माँ झुर्रियों से ढंके चेहरे वाली एक बूढ़ी महिला थीं। वह शान्ति, सन्तुष्टि एवं देखभाल की मूर्ति थीं। लेखक के लिए यह विश्वास करना कठिन था कि वह शायद कभी सुन्दर व जवान रही हों। वहलेखक की पूर्ण रूप से देखभाल करती थीं। वह लेखक को पवित्र-ग्रन्थों व धार्मिक रुझान के प्रति महत्व पर जोर डालकर समझाती थीं। दादी माँ बहुत दयालु हृदय थीं। वह गाँव के कुत्तों को बासी चपातियाँ खिलाया करती थीं और जब वह शहर में चली गयीं तो.

वहाँ कुत्तों की अनुपस्थिति में गौरैयों को दाना चुंगाती थीं। वह माला फेरकर भगवान से प्रार्थना करने में भी व्यस्त करती थीं। वह एक दृढ़ चरित्र वाली महिला का उदाहरण भी थीं। उन्होंने किसी भी तरह की भावनाएँ व्यक्त नहीं की जब लेखक उच्च शिक्षा प्राप्त करने के लिए विदेश गया। उनमें अनुकूलन क्षमता की भी प्रबल भावना थी और उन्होंने अत्यन्त परिपक्वता के साथ बदलावों को स्वीकार किया। 

Question 2. 
The grandmother herself was not formally educated but was serious about the author’s education. How does the text support this ? 
दादी माँ खुद औपचारिक रूप से शिक्षित नहीं थीं लेकिन वह लेखक की शिक्षा के प्रति गम्भीर थीं। इस बात का समर्थन (यह) पाठ कैसे करता है? 
Answer:
There had been a great degree of concern of the grandmother towards the education of the author. When author’s parents shifted to the city, he was taken care of by his grandmother. She woke him up early in the morning and got him ready for the school.

She also would wash and plaster his wooden slates and then bundled all other paraphernalia required by him at the school. She accompanied him to the school and kept praying in the temple in the school premises till his school was over.

Even while being shifted to the city she kept check on his study. She became very sad that no religious education was being imparted there. Knowing this she did not like music-related education. These above stated facts show that she was very much indulgent in his education whereas she herself was not educated. 

लेखक की शिक्षा के लिए दादी माँ को बहुत चिन्ता थी। जब लेखक के माता-पिता शहर में चले गये तब उसकी देखभाल दादी माँ के द्वारा की गयी। वह उसको (लेखक को) सुबह जल्दी जगा देतीं और स्कूल के लिए तैयार कर देती। वह उसकी लकड़ी की स्लेट को धोती और प्लास्टर भी करती थीं और स्कूल में

उसके जरूरत के अन्य सभी सामान को एक साथ बाँध लेती थीं। वह उसके साथ स्कूल जातीं और स्कूल परिसर में ही बने मन्दिर में प्रार्थना करती रहती थीं जब तक कि स्कूल समाप्त न हो जाता। और शहर में भी चले जाने के पश्चात् वह उसकी पढ़ाई-लिखाई पर ध्यान देती थीं। वह यह बात जानकर बहुत दु:खी हुयीं कि शहर में धार्मिक शिक्षा प्रदान नहीं की जा रही है। वह संगीत सम्बन्धी शिक्षा पसन्द नहीं करती थीं। उपर्युक्त तथ्य यह दर्शाते हैं कि वह (दादी माँ) उसकी (लेखक की) शिक्षा के प्रति बहुत लगाव रखती थीं जबकि वह स्वयं शिक्षित नहीं थीं।

Passages For Comprehension 

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given below : 

निम्न अनुच्छेदों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़िये और नीचे दिये गये प्रश्नों के उत्तर दीजिए :

Passage – 1.

My grandmother, like everybody’s grandmother, was an old woman. She had been old and wrinkled for the twenty years that I had known her. People said that she had once been young and pretty and had even had a husband, but that was hard to believe. My grandfather’s portrait hung above the mantelpiece in the drawing room. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting clothes. 

His long, white beard covered the best part of his chest and he looked at least a hundred years old. He did not look the sort of person who would have a wife or children. He looked as if he could only have lots and lots of grandchildren. As for my grandmother being young and pretty, the thought was almost revolting. She often told us of the games she used to play as a child. 

That seemed quite absurd and undignified on her part and we treated it like the fables of the Prophets she used to tell us. She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a criss-cross of wrinkles running from everywhere to everywhere. No, we were certain she had always been as we had known her. 

Question 1. 
How long had the author known his grandmother ?
लेखक अपनी दादी को कितने समय से जानता था? 
Answer:
The author had known his grandmother for twenty years.
लेखक अपनी दादी को बीस वर्ष से जानता था। 

Question 2. 
What did people say about the author’s grandmother ?
लेखक की दादी के बारे में लोग क्या कहते थे? 
Answer:
People said about the grandmother that she had once been young and pretty and even had a husband.
दादी के बारे में लोग कहते थे कि किसी जमाने में वे सुन्दर और युवा थीं और उनका एक पति भी था। 

Question 3. 
What was hard for the author to believe ?
लेखक को क्या विश्वास करना कठिन था ? 
Answer:
It was hard for the author to believe that his grandmother had once been young and pretty.
लेखक को यह विश्वास करना कठिन था कि उसकी दादी कभी जवान और सुन्दर रही थीं। 

Question 4. 
What did the narrator’s grandmother tell them ?
लेखक की दादी उन्हें क्या बताया करती थीं? 
Answer:
The narrator’s grandmother told them about the games she used to play as a child.
लेखक की दादी उसे अपने बचपन के उन खेलों के बारे में बताया करती थीं, जो वे खेला करती थीं। 

Question 5. 
How did the author’s grandfather look ?
लेखक के दादाजी कैसें दिखाई देते थे ? 
Answer:
Author’s grandfather looked at least hundred years old and like a man who would only have grandchildren. 
लेखक के दादा कम से कम सौ वर्ष बूढ़े प्रतीत होते थे और ऐसे आदमी लगते थे जिसके केवल नाती-पोते ही हो सकते थे। 

Question 6. 
Find out the synonym of the word ‘legendary tales’ from the passage. 
‘legendary tales’ का अनुच्छेद में से पर्यायवाची शब्द खोजें। 
Answer:
Fables.

Passage – 2.

She could never have been pretty; but she was always beautiful. She hobbled about the house in spotless white with one hand resting on her waist to balance her stoop and the other telling the beads of her rosary. Her silver locks were scattered untidily over her pale, puckered face, and her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer. Yes, she was beautiful. 

She was like the winter landscape in the mountains, an expanse of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment. My grandmother and I were good friends. My parents left me with her when they went to live in the city and we were constantly together. She used to wake me up in the morning and get me ready for school. She said her morning prayer in a monotonous sing-song while she bathed and dressed me in the hope that I would listen and get to know it by heart; 

I listened because I loved her voice but never bothered to learn it. Then she would fetch my wooden slate which she had already washed and plastered with yellow chalk, a tiny earthen ink-pot and a red pen, tie them all in a bundle and hand it to me.

After a breakfast of a thick, stale chapatti with a little butter and sugar spread on it, we went to school. She carried several stale chapattis with her for the village dogs. My grandmother always went to school with me because the school was attached to the temple. The priest taught us the alphabet and the morning prayer. 

Question 1. 
Why did grandmother keep her one hand on her waist.?
दादी अपने एक हाथ को अपनी कमर पर क्यों रखती थीं? 
Answer:
The grandmother was slightly bent. She kept her one hand on her waist to balance her stoop. 
दादी की कमर थोड़ी झुकी हुई थी। दादी अपने झुकाव का सन्तुलन बनाने के लिए एक हाथ अपनी कमर पर रखती थीं।

Question 2. 
What does the author compare his grandmother to ?
लेखक अपनी दादी की तुलना किससे करता है? 
Answer:
The author compares his grandmother to the winter landscape in the mountains.
लेखक अपनी दादी की तुलना पहाड़ों के शीतकालीन भू-दृश्य से करता है। 

Question 3. 
What did the author take for breakfast ? 
लेखक नाश्ते में क्या लेता था? 
Answer:
For breakfast the author took a thick stale chapatti with a little butter and sugar spread on it.
नाश्ते में लेखक मक्खन चुपड़ी और चीनी डाली हुई मोटी बासी रोटी लेता था। 

Question 4. 
Why did grandmother took with her several stale chapattis ?
दादी अपने साथ कई बासी रोटियाँ क्यों ले जाती थीं ? 
Answer:
She took with her several stale chapattis to give them to the village dogs.
वे गाँव के कुत्तों को देने के लिए अपने साथ कई बासी रोटियाँ ले जाती थीं। 

Question 5. 
Why did the grandmother accompany the author to school ?
दादी लेखक के साथ स्कूल क्यों जाती थीं ? 
Answer:
The grandmother went to school with the author because the school was attached to the temple.
दादी लेखक के साथ स्कूल जाती थीं क्योंकि स्कूल मन्दिर से जुड़ा हुआ था। 

Question 6.
Give the antonyms of ‘beautiful’ and ‘contentment’ from the passage.
‘Beautiful’ और ‘contentment’ के विपरीत अर्थ वाले शब्द लिखो। 
Answer:
Beautiful-ugly (कुरूप), Contentment — discontentment (असन्तुष्ट)।

Passage – 3 : 

When my parents were comfortably settled in the city, they sent for us. That was a turning-point in our friendship. Although, we shared the same room, my grandmother no longer came to school with me. I used to go to an English school in a motor bus. There were no dogs in the streets and she took to feeding sparrows in the courtyard of our city house.

As the years rolled by we saw less of each other. For sometime, she continued to wake me up and get me ready for school. When I came back she would ask me what the teacher had taught me. I would tell her English words and little things of Western science and learning, the law of gravity, Archimedes’ principle, the world being round, etc. 

This made her unhappy. She could not help me with my lessons. She did not believe in the things they taught at the English school and was distressed that there was no teaching about God and the scriptures. One day I announced that we were being given music lessons.

She was very disturbed. To her music had lewd associations. It was the monopoly of harlots and beggars and not meant for gentlefolk. She said nothing but her silence meant disapproval. She rarely talked to me after that.

When I went up to University, I was given a room of my own. The common link of friendship was snapped. My grandmother accepted her seclusion with resignation. She rarely left her spinning wheel to talk to anyone. From sunrise to sunset she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers. 

Question 1. 
When did the narrator’s parents send for them ?
लेखक के माता-पिता ने उन्हें कब बुला लिया? 
Answer:
When the narrator’s parents got comfortably settled in the city, they sent for them.
जब लेखक के माता-पिता शहर में भली-भाँति व्यवस्थित हो गये तो उन्होंने उनको बुला लिया। 

Question 2. 
How did the narrator go to his English medium school?
लेखक अपने अंग्रेजी माध्यम स्कूल कैसे जाता था? 
Answer:
He went to his English medium school in a motor bus.
लेखक अपने अंग्रेजी माध्यम स्कूल बस द्वारा जाता था। 

Question 3. 
Why was grandmother distressed ? 
Answer:
The grandmother was distressed to know that there was no teaching about God and scriptures in the narrator’s school. 

Question 4. 
What did the grandmother do from sunrise to sunset?
सूर्योदय से सूर्यास्त तक दादी क्या करती रहती थीं ? 
Answer:
From sunrise to sunset, she sat by her wheel spinning and reciting prayers.
सूर्योदय से सूर्यास्त तक वह अपने चरखे के पास बैठी रहतीं और कातती रहतीं तथा प्रार्थना करती रहतीं। 

Question 5. 
What happened when the author went up to university ?
जब लेखक विश्वविद्यालय जाने लगा तब क्या हुआ ? 
Answer:
The author was given a room of his own when he went up to university.
जब लेखक ने विश्वविद्यालय जाना शुरू किया तो उसे अपना कमरा दे दिया गया। 

Question 6. 
Find out the synonym of the word ‘upset’ from the passage.
Answer:
upset – distressed.

Passage – 4.

Only in the afternoon she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows. While she sat in the varandah breaking the bread into little bits, hundreds of little birds collected round her creating a veritable bedlam of chirpings. Some came and perched on her legs, others on her shoulders.

Some even sat on her head. She smiled but never shooed them away. It used to be the happiest half-hour of the day for her. When I decided to go abroad for further studies, I was sure my grandmother would be upset. 

I would be away for five years, and at her age one could never tell. But my grandmother could. She was not even sentimental. She came to leave me at the railway station but did not talk or show any emotion. Her lips moved in prayer, her mind was lost in prayer.

Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary. Silently she kissed my forehead, and when I left I cherished the moist imprint as perhaps the last sign of physical contact between us.

But that was not so. After five years I came back home and was met by her at the station. She did not look a day older. She still had no time for words, and while she clasped me in her arms I could hear her reciting prayers. Even on the first day of my arrival, her happiest moments were with her sparrows whom she fed longer and with frivolous rebukes. 

Question 1. 
When did the author’s grandmother feel the happiest ?
लेखक की दादी सर्वाधिक खुश कब होती थीं? 
Answer:
The narrator’s grandmother felt the happiest when she fed the sparrows.
दादी जब गौरैया पक्षियों को चुगाया करतीं तब वे सर्वाधिक खुश होती थीं। 

Question 2. 
Did the narrator’s grandmother get emotional when the author decided to go abroad?
जब लेखक ने विदेश जाने का निश्चय किया तो क्या उनकी दादी भावुक हुईं ? 
Answer:
No, she did not get emotional when the author decided to go abroad.
नहीं, जब लेखक ने विदेश जाने का निश्चय किया तब वे भावुक नहीं हुई। 

Question 3. 
How long did it take the author to complete his study abroad?
लेखक को विदेश में अपनी पढ़ाई पूरी करने में कितना समय लगा ? 
Answer:
It took the author five years to complete his study abroad.
लेखक को विदेश में अपनी पढ़ाई पूरी करने में पांच वर्ष लग।

Question 4. 
Whom did the author’s grandmother frivolously rebuke ?
लेखक की दादी हल्के-फुल्के अन्दाज में किनको झिड़का करती थीं ? 
Answer:
The narrator’s grandmother frivolously rebuked the sparrows whom she used to feed.
लेखक की दादी उन गौरैया पक्षियों को हल्के-फल्के झिडका करती थीं जिन्हें वे चुगाती थीं। 

Question 5. 
The author thought the grandmother’s kiss to be the last sign of physical contact. Why दादी ?
के चुम्बन को लेखक ने शारीरिक स्पर्श का अंतिम चिन्ह माना। क्यों ? 
Answer:
He thought it to be the last sign because he thought that his grandmother would not live till his return :
उसने उसे अंतिम चिन्ह समझा क्योंकि उसने सोचा कि उसकी दादी उसके वापस आने तक जीवित नहीं रहेंगी। 

Question 6. 
Give the noun form of the words tell and decide.
Tell एवं decide की संज्ञा बताइए। 
Answer:
Tell – tale (Qerit); Decide – decision (fatura)

Passage – 5.

The next morning she was taken ill. It was a mild fever and the doctor told us that it would go. But my grandmother thought differently. She told us that her end was near. She said that, since only a few hours before the close of the last chapter of her life she had omitted to pray, she was not going to waste any more time talking to us.

We protested. But she ignored our protests. She lay peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads. Even before we could suspect, her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers. A peaceful pallor spread on her face and we knew that she was dead.

We lifted her off the bed and, as is customary, laid her on the ground and covered her with a red shroud. After a few hours of mourning we left her alone to make arrangements for her funeral. In the evening we went to her room with a crude stretcher to take her to be cremated. The sun was setting and had lit her room and varandah with a blaze of golden light.

We stopped half-way in the courtyard. All over the varandah and in her room right up to where she lay dead and stiff wrapped in the red shroud, thousands of sparrows sat scattered on the floor. There was no chirping. We felt sorry for the birds and my mother fetched some bread for them.

She broke it into little crumbs, the way my grandmother used to, and threw it to them. The sparrows took no notice of the bread. When we carried my grandmother’s corpse off, they flew away quietly. Next morning the sweeper swept the bread crumbs into the dustbin

Question 1. 
What did the author’s grandmother think about her illness?
लेखक की दादी ने अपनी अस्वस्थता के बारे में क्या सोचा? 
Answer:
She thought that she was going to die.
उन्होंने सोचा कि वे मरने वाली हैं। 

Question 2. 
What was the author’s grandmother particular about ?
लेखक की दादी किस बात का विशेष ध्यान रखती थीं ? 
Answer:
She was very particular about praying. 
वे प्रार्थना करने का विशेष ध्यान रखती थीं। 

Question 3. 
Why did they leave the dead body alone 
‘उन्होंने शव को अकेला क्यों छोड़ दिया? 
Answer:
They left the dead body alone because they went out to make arrangements for her funeral.
उन्होंने शव को अकेला इसलिए छोड़ दिया क्योंकि वे उनकी अन्त्येष्टि क्रिया की व्यवस्था करने के लिए बाहर चले गये थे। 

Question 4. 
How can you say that the sparrows were greatly disturbed at the death of the author’s grandmother?
आप कैसे कह सकते हैं कि लेखक की दादी की मृत्यु पर चिड़ियाँ बहुत अधिक दुःखी थी ? 
Answer:
The sparrows sat silently scattered around the corpse. The sparrows did not even look at the bread and flew away. All this shows that the sparrows were greatly disturbed at the death of the narrator’s grandmother.
चिड़ियाँ शव के चारों ओर बिखरी हुई शांत बैठी थीं। चिड़ियों ने रोटी के टुकड़ों की ओर देखा भी नहीं और उड़ गईं। इस सबसे यह प्रदर्शित होता है कि दादी की मृत्यु पर चिड़ियाँ बहुत दुःखी थीं। 

Question 5. 
What did the author see when he returned back after making arrangements ?
जब लेखक व्यवस्था करने के पश्चात् वापस आया तो उसने क्या देखा? 
Answer:
He saw thousands of sparrows sitting scattered all over the varandah and in the room of the grandmother. 
उसने देखा कि हजारों चिड़िया पूरे बरामदे में और दादी के कमरे में जगह-जगह बैठी हुई थीं। 

Question 6.
Use “Take no notice’ in your own sentence. 
“Take no notice’ को अपने वाक्य में प्रयोग करो। 
Answer:
The people took no notice of the beggar. 
लोगों ने भिखारी की तरफ बिल्कुल ध्यान नही : या।

Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady