Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Textbook Questions and Answers

Oral Comprehension Check (Pages 18-19)
 

Question 1. 
Where did the ceremonies take place? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone?
समारोह कहाँ हुए थे? क्या आप भारत के ऐसे भवनों का नाम बता सकते हैं जो बलुआ पत्थर के बने हैं?
Answer: 
The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria.
In India the Parliament, the President House, the Red Fort, the Jama Maszid and the Jawahar Kala Kendra Jaipur are made of sandstone.

समारोह सुंदर बलुआ पत्थर से बने गोलाकार रंगमंडल में हुए जिसे प्रिटॉरिया में यूनियन बिल्डिंग्ज के द्वारा बनवाया गया था।
भारत में संसद भवन, राष्ट्रपति भवन, लाल किला, जामा मस्जिद व जवाहर कला केन्द्र जयपुर आदि बलुआ पत्थर के बने हैं।
 

Question 2. 
Can you say how 10 May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
क्या आप बता सकते हैं कि 10 मई दक्षिण अफ्रीका में एक ‘पतझड़ का दिन’ कैसे है?
Answer: 
Geographically, South Africa is in southern hemisphere so seasons come first over there. Politically, the day symbolised the shedding of the leaves of slavery which continued for 300 years in the form of the white rule.
 

भौगोलिक रूप से, दक्षिण अफ्रीका दक्षिणी गोलार्द्ध में है अतः ऋतु यहाँ पहले आती हैं। राजनीतिकरण रूप से, यह दिन गुलामी रूपी पत्तियों के झड़ने का प्रतीक था जो श्वेत शासन के रूप में 300 वर्ष तक जारी रही थी।
 

Question 3. 
At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious….human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
अपने भाषण के आरंभ में मंडेला उल्लेख करते हैं ‘एक असाधारण मानवीय महाविपत्ति’। इससे उनका क्या तात्पर्य है? ‘भव्य मानवीय उपलब्धि’ क्या है जिसके विषय में वे भाषण के अंत में बोलते हैं।
Answer: 
By “an extraordinary human disaster’, he means the oppression of the black by the white that lasted too long.
The liberation of the black from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations is the glorious human achievement.

‘एक असाधारण मानवीय महाविपत्ति’ से उसका तात्पर्य है श्वेतों द्वारा अश्वेतों का उत्पीड़न जो बहुत लंबे चला।
अश्वेतों का लगातार जारी गरीबी की बंधकता, वंचितता, दुःख, लिंग व अन्य भेदभावों से मुक्ति ही भव्य मानवीय उपलब्धि है।

Question 4. 
What does Mandela thank the international leaders for?
मंडेला अंतर्राष्ट्रीय नेताओं को किस बात के लिए धन्यवाद देते हैं?
Answer: 
Mandela thanks the international leaders for coming come to take possession with the people of South Africa in their victory for justice, for peace, and for human dignity.

मंडेला, अंतर्राष्ट्रीय नेताओं को दक्षिण अफ्रीका के लोगों की आखिरकार, न्याय के लिए, शांति के लिए व मानवीय गरिमा के लिए हुई उनकी जीत में साथ देने आने के लिए धन्यवाद ज्ञापित करते हैं।
 

Question 5. 
What ideals did he set out for the future of South Africa?
दक्षिण अफ्रीका के भविष्य के लिए उसने क्या आदर्श स्पष्ट किये?
Answer: 
South Africa will never again experience the oppression of one by another. The people will be liberated from the poverty, deprivation, suffering and discrimination. These ideals he set out for the future of South Africa.

दक्षिण अफ्रीका कभी भी एक-दूसरे के द्वारा उत्पीड़न की अनुभूति नहीं करेगा। लोगों को गरीबी, वंचितता, दुःख व भेदभाव से मुक्ति दिलाई जायेगी। ये आदर्श उसने दक्षिण अफ्रीका के भविष्य के लिए स्पष्ट किये। 
 

(Page 21)
 

Question 1. 
What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why?
सेना के जेनॉल क्या करते हैं? उनका व्यवहार कैसे बदल गया है और क्यों?
Answer:
The military generals salute Mr. Mandela and pledge their loyalty to democracy and the new elected government. Previously, they arrested Mr. Mandela but now they are saluting him. It is because Mr. Mandela has become the president now.

सेना के जेनरॅल श्रीमान् मंडेला को सैल्यूट करते हैं और लोकतंत्र व चुनी हुई नई सरकार के प्रति अपनी निष्ठा की शपथ लेते हैं। पहले, उन्होंने श्रीमान् मंडेला को गिरफ्तार किया था लेकिन अब वे उसे सलामी दे रहे हैं। यह श्रीमान् मंडेला के अब राष्ट्रपति बन जाने के कारण है।


Question 2.
Why were two national anthems sung?
दो राष्ट्रगान क्यों गाये गये थे?
Answer: 
Two national anthems were sung because they showed two visions- of the white and of the black. The white wanted to show respect to their national anthem and the black to their ones.

दो राष्ट्रगान गाये गये थे क्योंकि इन्होंने दो दृष्टिकोणों को दिखाया था – श्वेतों का और अश्वेतों का। श्वेत अपने राष्ट्रगान के प्रति सम्मान दिखाना चाहते थे और अश्वेत अपनों के प्रति।

Question 3.
How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country
(i) in the first decade, and
(ii) in the final decade of the twentieth century?
मंडेला अपने देश में सरकार की प्रणालियों का वर्णन कैसे करता है 20वीं सदी के
(i) प्रथम दशक में, और
(ii) आखिरी दशक में।
Answer:
In the first decade of the 20th century, whites patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against blacks of their own land. It was the harshest and the most inhumane system.
In the final decade the system recognised the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

20वीं सदी के प्रथम दशक में, श्वेतों ने अपने आपसी मतभेद भुलाकर अपने ही देश के कालों के विरुद्ध जातीय प्रभुत्व की प्रणाली का निर्माण कर लिया। यह सर्वाधिक कठोर व अमानवीय प्रणाली थी।
अंतिम दशक में इस प्रणाली ने सभी लोगों के अधिकारों व स्वतंत्रताओं को मान्यता दी, चमड़ी के रंग को ध्यान में लाये बगैर।

Question 4.
What does courage mean to Mandela?
मंडेला साहस का क्या अर्थ लेते हैं?
Answer:
To Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but the triumph over it. The brave man is he who does not feel afraid but he who conquers that fear.

मंडेला के लिए साहस का अर्थ भय की अनुपस्थिति नहीं बल्कि इस पर विजय है। पराक्रमी व्यक्ति वह नहीं होता है जो डरता नहीं है बल्कि वह होता है जो डर पर विजय पा लेता है।

Question 5.
Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate?
वह किसे स्वाभाविक समझता है, प्रेम करने को या घृणा करने को।
Answer:
He thinks that love comes more naturally to human heart than hate.
वह सोचता है कि मानवीय हृदय में प्रेम अधिक स्वाभाविक रूप से आता है बजाय घृणा के।

(Page 24)

Question 1.
What ‘twin obligations’ does Mandela mention?
किन दो कर्तव्यों का मंडेला उल्लेख करते हैं?
Answer:
According to Mandela every man has to fulfil two obligations. In one of the obligations, he has to fulfil his family, parents, wife and children. In the second obligation he fulfils his community, people and his country.

मन्डेला के अनुसार प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को दो दायित्वों को पूरा करना होता है। एक दायित्व में वह अपने परिवार, माता-पिता, पत्नी और बच्चों की पूर्ति करता है। दूसरे दायित्व में वह अपने समुदाय, लोग और राष्ट्र की पूर्ति करता है।

Question 2.
What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?
मंडेला के लिए एक लड़के के तौर पर और एक विद्यार्थी के तौर पर स्वतंत्रता का क्या अभिप्राय था? वह क्षणिक स्वतंत्रताओं में तथा मूलभूत व गरिमापूर्ण स्वतंत्रताओं में कैसे अन्तर करता है?
Answer:
To Mandela being free as a boy means to run in the fields near the mother’s hut, to swim in the clear stream that ran through the village, to roast mealies under the stars and to ride the broad backs of slow moving bulls.
As a student he felt freedom is to be able to stay out at night, to read what he pleased and to go where he chose.
“Transitory freedoms’ are for his ownself and the basic and honourable freedoms’ are for his people.

मंडेला के लिए बालक के तौर पर स्वतंत्र होने का अर्थ है, मां की झोंपड़ी के समीप खेतों में दौड़ना, 31 गांव के मध्य से बह रहे स्वच्छ झरने में तैरना, तारों के नीचे अनाज के बाल/भुट्टे भूनना और धीमी गति से चल रहे बैलों की चौड़ी पीठ पर सवारी करना।
विद्यार्थी के रूप में उसने महसूस किया कि स्वतंत्रता रात्रि में बाहर ठहर सकने में योग्य होना है, जो चाहे वह पढ़ना है, और जहाँ चाहे वहाँ जाना है। … ‘क्षणिक स्वतंत्रताएँ’ उसके स्वयं के लिए हैं और मूलभूत व गरिमापूर्ण स्वतंत्रताएँ उसके सभी लोगों के लिए हैं।

Question 3.
Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/Why not?
क्या मंडेला सोचते हैं कि उत्पीड़क स्वतंत्र हैं? क्यों/क्यों नहीं? ।
Answer:
No, Mandela doesn’t think the oppressor is free because a man who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred, prejudice and narrow-mindedness. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are deprived of their humanity.

नहीं, मंडेला नहीं सोचते कि उत्पीड़क स्वतंत्र है क्योंकि एक व्यक्ति जो दूसरे की स्वतंत्रता छीनता है वह घृणा, पूर्वाग्रह व संकीर्ण मानसिकता का कैदी है। उत्पीड़क व उत्पीड़ित दोनों ही समान रूप से मानवता से वंचित होते हैं।

Thinking about the Text

Question 1.
Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of? ।
इतनी बड़ी संख्या में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय नेता उद्घाटन (शपथ ग्रहण) समारोह में उपस्थित क्यों हुए? इसने किस प्रकार की विजय का संकेत दिया?
Answer:
A large number of international leaders attended the inauguration to confer glory and hope to the newborn liberty of South Africa. It signified the triumph of justice, peace, and human dignity.

इतनी बड़ी संख्या में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय नेता उद्घाटन समारोह में उपस्थित हुए ताकि दक्षिण अफ्रीका की नई जन्मी स्वतंत्रता को गौरव व आशा प्रदान कर सकें। इसने न्याय, शांति व मानव गरिमा की जीत का संकेत दिया।

Question 2.
What does Mandela mean when he says he is ‘simply the sum of all those African patriots’ who had gone before him?
मंडेला क्या अर्थ लेते हैं जब वे यह कहते हैं कि वह ‘सभी अफ्रीकी राष्ट्रभक्तों का एक साधारण कुल योग’ है जो उससे पहले जा (मर) चुके हैं?
Answer:
By this, Mandela means that in the struggle against the policy of apartheid he learnt the meaning of courage from these patriots. They stood up to attacks and torture without breaking and so did he. They showed a strength and resilience that defied the imagination and so did he.

इससे मंडेला का अर्थ है कि रंगभेद की नीति के विरुद्ध संघर्ष में उसने इन राष्ट्रभक्तों से ही साहस का पाठ पढ़ा था। वे आक्रमणों व यातना में बिना टूटे डट कर मुकाबला करते रहे और उसी प्रकार वह भी। उन्होंने आघातों को वहन करने की इतनी शक्ति व सामर्थ्य दिखाया कि कल्पना में सोचा भी नहीं जा सकता और वही उसने (मंडेला ने) भी किया।

Question 3.
Would you agree that the ‘depths of oppression’ create ‘heights of character’? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument?
क्या आप सहमत होंगे कि ‘उत्पीड़न की गहनता’ ‘व्यक्तित्व की ऊँचाइयों’ को उत्पन्न करती है? मंडेला इसे किस प्रकार उदाहरण सहित स्पष्ट करते हैं? क्या आप इस तर्क पर अपने स्वयं के उदाहरण जोड़ सकते हैं?
Answer:
Yes, I would agree that the depths of oppression create ‘heights of character’.
Mandela illustrates that the decades of oppression and brutality produced the Oliver Tambos, the Walter Sisulus, the Chief Luthulis, the Yusuf Dadoos, the Bram Fischers, the Robert Sobukwes.

 
In India, we had Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and so on.
हाँ, मैं सहमत रहूँगा कि ‘उत्पीड़न की गहनता’ ‘व्यक्तित्व की ऊँचाइयों’ को उत्पन्न करती है।
मंडेला उदाहरण देते हैं कि दशकों के उत्पीड़न व पाशविकता ने बहुत से ऑलिवर ताम्बो, वॉल्टर सिसुलु, चीफ लुथुलि, युसुफ डैडू, ब्रैम फिशर, रॉबर्ट सॉबुकवे पैदा किये।
भारत में, हमारे पास महात्मा गाँधी, सरदार वल्लभभाई पटेल आदि थे।

Question 4.
How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
मंडेला की स्वतंत्रता की समझ आयु व अनुभव के साथ कैसे परिवर्तित हुई?
Answer:
In boyhood, Mandela’s understanding of freedom was upto physical and dietary freedoms; as a student, upto transitory freedoms; and in young age, he yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms.

बालपन में, मंडेला की स्वतंत्रता की समझ शारीरिक व खान-पान की स्वतंत्रताओं तक ही थी; विद्यार्थी के रूप में, क्षणिक स्वतंत्रताओं तक थी; और युवावस्था में, उसने मूलभूत व गरिमापूर्ण स्वतंत्रताओं को चाहा।

Question 5.
How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
मंडेला की ‘स्वतंत्रता के लिए भूख’ ने उसका जीवन कैसे परिवर्तित किया?
Answer:
Mandela’s great desire was for the freedom of his people so that they could lead their life with dignity and self-respect. This tendency changed him into a bold person. He became a homeless person like a monk.

मंडेला की तीव्र इच्छा अपने लोगों को स्वतन्त्रता दिलाना था जिससे वे गरिमा और आत्मसम्मान के साथ जीवन जी सकें। इस प्रवृत्ति ने उन्हें एक साहसी व्यक्ति में परिवर्तित कर दिया। वह संन्यासी की तरह एक गृह विहीन व्यक्ति बन गये।

Thinking About Language

I. There are nouns in the text (formation, government) which are formed from the corresponding verbs (form, govern) by suffixing – (at)ion or ment. There may be a change in the spelling of some verb-noun pairs : such as rebel, rebellion; constitute, constitution.
– मूल पाठ में संज्ञाएँ (formation, government) हैं जो शब्द में निहित उसकी क्रिया से (जैसे form, govern) इनके पीछे -(ation या ment जोड़कर बनाई जाती हैं । कुछ क्रियाओं-संज्ञाओं के जोड़ों की वर्तनी में परिवर्तन भी आ सकता है, जैसे कि rebel + ion = rebellion; constitute + ion = constitution.

Question 1.
Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text.
मूल पाठ में दी गई ऐसी संज्ञाओं व क्रियाओं के ऐसे जोड़ों की सूची बनाइए।
Answer: 

Noun

Verb

rebellion

rebel

constitution

constitute

inauguration

inaugurate

emancipation

emancipate

discrimination

discriminate

demonstration

demonstrate

installation

instal

contribution

contribute

humiliation

humiliate

deprivation

deprive

achievement

achieve


2. Read the paragraph below.

Fill in the blanks with the noun forms of the verbs in brackets.
निम्न पैराग्राफ को पढ़ें । कोष्ठक में दी गई क्रियाओं के संज्ञा रूप से रिक्त स्थान भरें।

Martin Luther King’s………………. (contribute) to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the……………..(assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean…………..(subjugate) and……………. (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings……………… (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the System. Martin Luther King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent……… (resist) to racial injustice.
Answer:
contribution, assistance, subjugation, humiliation, imprisonment, resistance.

II. Using the Definite Article with Names

(Definite Article को नामों से पूर्व प्रयोग करना)


आप जानते हैं कि definite article “the” साधारणतया Proper Nouns से पूर्व प्रयोग नहीं किये जाते हैं। न ही Proper Nouns अक्सर बहुवचन में आते हैं। (हम ऐसा नहीं कहते हैं—The Nelson Mandela या Nelson Mandelas) किन्तु अब मूल पाठ से दिये गए इस वाक्य को ध्यान से देखें :
…..the decades of oppression and brutality……produced the Oliver Tambos, the – Walter Sisulus……..of our time.
इस तरीके से प्रयोग किये जाने पर the या बहुवचन रूप में, Proper Noun एक विशेष अर्थ देता है। उदाहरण के लिए, ऊपर दिये नामों का आप क्या अर्थ सोचते हैं? उचित उत्तर को चुनें।

(a) for example, Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu….
(b) many other men like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu………./many men of their type or kind, whose names may not be as well-known.
क्या आपने विकल्प b को चुना? तब आपका उत्तर ठीक है।
Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean.
You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’.)

यहाँ कुछ और उदाहरण हैं जिनमें the का प्रयोग Proper Names के साथ किया है। बताने का प्रयास करें कि इन वाक्यों का क्या अर्थ है। (यदि आप चाहें तो एक शब्दकोश की सहायता ले सकते हैं। the की entry को ध्यान से देखें)।

1. Mr. Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchans and the Shah Rukh Khans to his parties.
2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times.
3. History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleons and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.
Answer:
1. Many other men like Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan are invited.
2. Madhuri Dixit is similar to Madhubala.
3. History is not only the story of many persons like that of Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler, but of ordinary people as well.

III. Idiomatic Expressions (मुहावरेदार अभिव्यक्तियाँ)

Match the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase nearest in meaning in Column B.
(Hint : First look for the sentence in the text in which the phrase in Column A occurs.)

A

B

1. I was not unmindful of the fact

(i) had not forgotten; was aware of the fact
(ii) was not careful about the fact
(iii) forgot or was not aware of the fact

2. when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits

(i) pushed by the guards to the wail
(ii) took more than our share of beatings
(iii) felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer

3. to reassure me and keep me going

(i) make me go on walking
(ii) help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation
(iii) make me remain without complaining

4. the basic and honourable freedoms of.. .. earning my keep ………….

(i) earning enough money to live on
(ii) keeping what I earned
(iii) getting a good salary

Answer:
1. (i), 2. (iii), 3. (ii), 4. (i) 

Speaking

In groups, discuss the issues suggested in the box below. Then prepare a speech of about two minutes on the following topic.
(First make notes for your speech in writing.)
आगे बॉक्स में सुझाये गए मुददों पर समूहों में विचार विमर्श करें। फिर अग्र प्रकरण पर दो मिनट का भाषण तैयार करें।
(पहले अपने भाषण के लिए लिखित में नोट्स बनाइए।)


True liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation and all forms of discrimination.

  • causes of poverty and means of overcoming it
  • discrimination based on gender, religion, class, etc.
  • constitutionally guaranteed human rights

Answer:

Notes –
1. Title,
2. Formal Greeting,
3. Introduction of the Speaker and Announcement of the Topic,
4. Development of the Topic-

  • True Liberty
  • Causes of Poverty
  • Discriminations
  • Human Rights

5. Conclusion
6. Formal Thanks.
True Liberty is Freedom From Poverty, Deprivation, And All Forms of Discrimination Good morning everybody!
I, Laxmibai, the student of X class of Rajasthan Public School, Jodhpur stand before you to speak on :

“True Liberty is Freedom From

Poverty, Deprivation, And All Forms of Discrimination.
It is right that true liberty can’t be achieved without ending poverty, deprivation and discrimination
The causes of poverty are; illiteracy or poor education, lack of job opportunities, lethargic attitude and so on. There are many means to overcome it – impart education, create jobs, implement schemes and projects etc.

Discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, class, colour, gender, region, religion etc. must come to an end for a true liberty.
The constitution of a democratic country ensures human rights-right to live, equality, movement, speech, worship and so on.
Thus, true liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation, and all forms of discrimination.
Thank you. 

Writing

I. Looking at Contrasts (विरोधाभास देखें)

Nelson Mandela’s writing is marked by balance : many sentences have two parts in balance.
Use the following phrases to complete the sentences given below : 

निम्न वाक्यांशों का प्रयोग कर नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों को पूरा करें : 
(i) they can be taught to love. 
(ii) I was born free. 
(iii) but the triumph over it.
(iv) but he who conquers that fear. 
(v) to create such heights of character.
1. It requires such depths of oppression…………… 
2. Courage was not the absence of fear….. 
3. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid…………….. 
4. If people can learn to hate…………….  
5. I was not born with a hunger to be free……………. 
Answer:
1. (v), 2. (iii), 3. (iv), 4. (i), 5. (ii)
 

II. This text repeatedly contrasts the past with the present or the future. 

We can use coordinated clauses to contrast two views, for emphasis or effect.
यह मूल पाठ बारंबार भूतकाल से वर्तमान काल या भविष्य काल में स्थानान्तरित होता रहता है। हम जोर देने के लिए या प्रभाव के लिए  Coordinated Clauses का प्रयोग इस तरह से कर सकते है
Given below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast. Find in the text the second part of the contrast, and complete each item. Identify the words which signal the contrast. This has been done for you in the first item.

नीचे वाक्य दिये गये हैं जो विरोधाभासिता का केवल एक भाग रखते हैं। विरोधाभासिता का द्वितीय भाग मूल पाठ में ढूंढ़िए और प्रत्येक वाक्य को पूरा कीजिए। उन शब्दों को भी पहचानिए जो विरोधाभास का संकेत देते हैं। प्रथम वाक्य में यह आपके लिए किया गया है।
 

1. For decades the Union Buldings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now……. 
2. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police…..saluted me and pledged their loyalty……not so many years before they would not have saluted… 
3. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem…………. they would soon………….. 
4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil …………. 
5. The Air Show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force; but
6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people………….. that , transformed……….. into a bold one, that drove………….to become a criminal, that turned…………into a man without a home.
Answer:
नोट — Contrast दिखाने वाले शब्द boxes में हैं, रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति वाला भाग underlined है तथा कोई-कोई भाग contrast दिखाने वाला व रिक्त स्थान की पूर्ति करने वाला अर्थात् दोनों ही हो सकते हैं।

1. For decades the Union Buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government. 


2. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by, saluted me and pledged their loyalty. I was not unmindful of the fact that not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me. 


3. Although that day, neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem they once despised, they would soon know the words by heart. 


4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people finer and truer than the purest diamonds. 


5. The Air Show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.

6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney, to become a criminal, that turned a family loving husband into a man without a home. 

III. Expressing Your Opinion (अपने विचार अभिव्यक करना )
 

Do you think there is colour prejudice in our own country? Discuss this with your friend and write a paragraph of about 100 to 150 words about this. You have the option of making your paragraph a humorous one.

क्या आप सोचते हैं कि हमारे राष्ट्र में भी रंग पूर्वाग्रह है? इस पर अपने मित्र के साथ विचार-विमर्श करें और लगभग 100 से 150 शब्दों का एक पैराग्राफ इस पर लिखें। आपको अपने पैराग्राफ को हास्यपूर्ण बनाने का विकल्प है।

Read the short verse given below. (नीचे दी गई लघु verse को पढ़िए।)
When you were born you were pink
When you grew up you became white
When you are in the sun you are red
When you are sick you are yellow
When you are angry you are purple
When you are shocked you are grey
And you have the cheek to call me ‘coloured’.
Answer:
Colour Prejudice In India

The colour prejudice in India is not in that form as it is in South Africa, Europe, America, Australia and so on. In India, colour prejudice is in various other forms. For nuptial knots, fair colour has greater preference than the black colour. Every young boy wants a girl of fair colour and vice versa. There is colour difference between a North Indian and a South Indian.

Most of the South Indians are either black or wheatish in colour. But there is no colour prejudice between the North Indians and the South Indians. Lord Krishna was entirely black even then the whole of India loves Him. But the black colour object is normally avoided in auspicious ceremonies. It is considered ominous. Thus, in India, colour prejudice is in exotic way.
 

Important Questions and Answers

Answer the following questions in about 80 words each :


Question 1.
Recount in brief the chief events of 10th May 1994. संक्षेप में 10 मई, 1994 के दिन की घटनाओं का वर्णन कीजिए।
Answer:
The day of 10th May 1994 was bright and clear. Nelson Mandela was sworn in as South Africa’s first black President. His African National Congress (ANC) party had won 252 of the 400 seats in the first democratic elections of South Africa’s history. The inauguration ceremony took place in the Union Building’s amphitheatre in Pretoria. Politicians and dignitaries from 140 or so countries attended the ceremony. More than 100,000 South African men, women and children of all races sang and danced with joy.

10 मई, 1994 का दिन चमकीला एवं स्वच्छ था। नेल्सन मंडेला को दक्षिण अफ्रीका के प्रथम अश्वेत राष्ट्रपति पद की शपथ दिलाई गई। उनकी अफ्रीकन नेशनल पार्टी ने 400 सीटों में से 252 सीटें जीती थीं। यह चुनाव दक्षिण अफ्रीका के इतिहास का प्रथम जनतांत्रिक चुनाव था। उद्घाटन का उत्सव यूनियन बिल्डिंग्स के गोलाकार रंगमंडल में प्रिटोरिया नगर में आयोजित हुआ। करीब 140 देशों के राजनेताओं तथा गणमान्य अतिथियों ने इस उत्सव में उपस्थिति दी। एक लाख से अधिक दक्षिण अफ्रीका के सभी प्रजातियों के पुरुष, महिलाओं तथा बच्चों ने आनन्द-विभोर होकर गीत गाए तथा नृत्य किए।

Question 2.
Sum up the speech of Nelson Mandela on the occasion of the inauguration of his newly elected government.
नेल्सन मंडेला द्वारा उनकी नवनिर्वाचित सरकार के उद्घाटन समारोह के अवसर पर दिए गए भाषण का सार लिखिए।
Answer:
Nelson Mandela addressed the assembled guests and the word watching. attentively. He said that the presence of politicians and dignitaries from different countries, and the people of South Africa conferred glory and hope to newborn liberty. After an extraordinary human disaster, a new society must be born. The occasion symbolizes a victory for justice, for peace and for human dignity. The blacks of South Africa have achieved their political emancipation. They have pledged themselves to liberate all their people from the bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination for ever.

नेल्सन मंडेला ने एकत्रित अतिथियों तथा ध्यानपूर्वक देख रहे विश्व-समुदाय को सम्बोधित किया। उन्होंने कहा कि विभिन्न देशों के राजनेताओं तथा गणमान्य अतिथियों और दक्षिण अफ्रीका के लोगों की उपस्थिति ने नवजात स्वतंत्रता को गरिमा एवं आशा प्रदान की है। एक असाधारण मानवीय त्रासदी के बाद एक नये समाज का उदय (जन्म) अवश्य होता है। यह अवसर न्याय, शान्ति तथा मानवीय गरिमा की विजय का प्रतीक है। दक्षिण अफ्रीका के काले रंग के लोगों ने अपनी राजनैतिक मुक्ति प्राप्त की है। उन्होंने सभी देशवासियों को गरीबी, वंचितता, दुःखों, लिंग तथा अन्य भेदभावों के बंधन से मुक्त करने की शपथ ली है।

Question 3.
What is the vision of Nelson Mandela for the future of South Africa?
दक्षिण अफ्रीका के भविष्य के लिए नेल्सन मंडेला का स्वप्न क्या है?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela said that the people of South Africa share their victory for justice, peace and human dignity with the rest of the world. The political emancipation has been achieved, but the problems of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination remain to be solved. Also, he declared that “never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another’.
 

नेल्सन मंडेला ने कहा कि दक्षिण अफ्रीका के लोग न्याय, शान्ति तथा मानवीय गरिमा के लिए अपनी विजय में शेष दुनिया को भागीदार मानते हैं। राजनैतिक मुक्ति तो प्राप्त कर ली गई है किन्तु गरीबी, वंचन, दुःख तथा लिंग-आधारित एवं अन्य प्रकार के भेदभावों की समस्याओं का समाधान अभी किया जाना शेष है। उन्होंने यह घोषणा भी की कि “ऐसा पुनः कभी नहीं, कभी नहीं, होगा कि यह सुन्दर देश एक व्यक्ति द्वारा दूसरे व्यक्ति के दमन को अनुभव करे।”

Question 4.
What did Mandela think of the air-show of the South African defence forces?
साउथ अफ्रीका के प्रतिरक्षा बलों के वायु प्रदर्शन के बारे में मंडेला क्या सोचते थे?
Answer:
A spectacular air-show was presented by South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers on the occasion of inauguration ceremony. Mandela’s opinion was that the air-show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force but also a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy and to a new government. He thought that the highest generals of South African defence force and police, who had saluted him that day, would have arrested him a few years before. Thus it was a totally changed scenario.

उद्घाटन समारोह के अवसर पर दक्षिण अफ्रीका के जेट विमानों, हैलिकॉप्टरों तथा सैनिक-वाहक विमानों के द्वारा एक शानदार वायु-प्रदर्शन आयोजित किया गया। मंडेला का मत था कि वायु-प्रदर्शन न केवल ठीक निशाने तथा सैन्य बल का प्रदर्शन था बल्कि प्रजातंत्र एवं नई सरकार के प्रति सेना की स्वामिभक्ति का प्रदर्शन भी था। उनका विचार था कि दक्षिण अफ्रीका के प्रतिरक्षा बलों तथा पुलिस के उच्चतम जनरल जिन्होंने मंडेला को उस दिन सैल्यूट किया था, उन्होंने ही कुछ वर्षों पूर्व उन्हें गिरप्तार कर लिया था। इस प्रकार यह एक पूर्णतया परिवर्तित परिवेश था।

Question  5.
How was Mandela overwhelmed with a sense of history?
मंडेला किस प्रकार इतिहास की समझ से अभिभूत थे?
Answer:
Mandela says that he was overwhelmed with a sense of history on the day of inauguration. He was reminded of how in the first decade of 20th century, before his own birth, the white-skinned people of his country became united and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned people of their country. They created the harshest, most inhumane society based on that system. Now, in the last decade of the same century, that same system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognized the rights and freedoms of all peoples regardless of their colour.

मंडेला कहते हैं कि उद्घाटन के दिन वह इतिहास की समझ से अभिभूत हो गए। उन्हें याद आया कि किस प्रकार 20वीं शताब्दी के प्रथम दशक में, उनके जन्म से पूर्व, उनके देश के श्वेत चमड़ी वाले लोगों ने एकता बनाई तथा उनके देश के काली चमड़ी वाले लोगों के विरुद्ध प्रजातीय प्रभुत्व की एक व्यवस्था खड़ी कर दी थी। उन्होंने सर्वाधिक कठोर एवं अमानवीय समाज की रचना इस व्यवस्था के आधार पर कर डाली। अब उसी शताब्दी के अन्तिम दशक में उस व्यवस्था को हमेशा के लिए उलट दिया गया है और उसका स्थान एक ऐसी व्यवस्था ने ले लिया है जो सभी लोगों के अधिकारों एवं स्वतंत्रताओं की पक्षधर हैं, चाहे वे लोग किसी भी रंग की चमड़ी वाले हों।

Question 6.
Whom and how does Mandela give credit to for the coming about of the historic day of the inauguration?
मंडेला उद्घाटन के दिवस के आगमन का श्रेय किसे एवं किस प्रकार देते हैं?
Answer:
Nelson Mandela gives credit for the coming about of the inauguration day to thousands of his people who gave their unimaginable sacrifices, the people whose suffering and courage can never be counted or repaid. He felt that he was simply the sum of all those African patriots who had gone before him. He considered himself the last of that long and noble line that began again with him. He felt pained that he was not able to thank them and that they could not see what their sacrifices had achieved.

नेल्सन मंडेला उद्घाटन के दिवस के आगमन का श्रेय उन हजारों लोगों को देते हैं जिन्होंने अकल्पनीय त्याग किए, वे लोग जिनके कष्ट एवं साहस को न गिना जा सकता है और न ही चुकता किया जा सकता है। मंडेला ने महसूस किया कि वह स्वयं उन अफ्रीकी देशभक्तों का जोड़ मात्र थे जो उनसे पूर्व हुए। उन्होंने स्वयं को उस लम्बी एवं महान् पंक्ति का अन्तिम व्यक्ति माना जो उनके साथ ही पुनः शुरू हो गई। उन्हें कष्ट था कि वह उन महापुरुषों को धन्यवाद नहीं दे सके और न ही वे देख पाए कि उनके त्याग ने क्या उपलब्ध कर लिया था।

Question 7.
What effect did the policy of apartheid produce on the people of South Africa?
रंगभेद की नीति ने दक्षिण अफ्रीका के लोगों पर क्या प्रभाव डाला?
Answer:
Mandela says that the policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in his country and in his people. It will take many years to recover from that deep and strong wound. But the decades of oppression and brutality had another effect, though nobody had worked for it. It produced men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity. Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulus, Chief Luthulis, Yusuf Dadoos, Bram Fischer, Robert Sobukwes etc. were some of the great personalities that the policy of apartheid produced.

मंडेला कहते हैं कि रंगभेद की नीति ने एक गहरा एवं स्थायी घाव देश तथा उनके देशवासियों में पैदा कर दिया। इस गहरे एवं शक्तिशाली घाव से ठीक होने में वर्षों लग जाएंगे। किन्तु दमन एवं क्रूरता की दशाब्दियों का एक और प्रभाव हुआ, यद्यपि किसी ने भी इस प्रभाव के लिए प्रयास नहीं किया था। इस दमन एवं क्रूरता ने असाधारण साहस, बुद्धिमत्ता एवं उदारता रखने वाले लोगों को जन्म दिया। ऑलिवर टैम्बो, वाल्टर सिसुलु, चीफ लिथुलि, युसुफ दादूस, बैम फिशर, राबर्ट सौबुकवे आदि महान् व्यक्तियों में से कुछ लोग थे जिन्हें रंगभेद की नीति ने पैदा किया था।

Question 8.
State Nelson Mandela’s ideas about courage, love and hate.
साहस, प्रेम एवं नफरत के बारे में नेल्सन मंडेला के विचारों को बताइए।
Answer:
Mandela says that he learnt the meaning of courage from those great personalities who struggled against the policy of apartheid. He has seen men and women risk and sacrifice their lives for an idea. He has seen men stand up to attacks and together without breaking, showing strength and ability to deal with any kind of hardship and recover from its effects.

In Mandela’s opinion, courage is not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. Love, according to Mandela, comes more naturally to human heart than hate. If people can learn to hate, they can also be taught love.

मंडेला का विचार है कि उन्होंने साहस का अर्थ उन महान् व्यक्तित्वों से सीखा जिन्होंने रंगभेद की नीति के विरुद्ध संघर्ष किया था। उन्होंने पुरुषों एवं स्त्रियों को किसी विचार के लिए जीवन को खतरे में डालते एवं न्योछावर करते देखा है। उन्होंने लोगों को आक्रमणों एवं उत्पीड़न का सामना बिना टूटे (समर्पण किए) करते देखा है। इन लोगों ने किसी भी प्रकार की मुश्किल से निपटने तथा इसके प्रभावों से उबर पाने की सामर्थ्य एवं दृढ़ता का प्रदर्शन किया है। मंडेला के मत के अनुसार, साहस भय की अनुपस्थिति नहीं है, बल्कि भय पर विजय पाना ही साहस है। मंडेला के अनुसार प्रेम मनुष्य के हृदय के लिए अधिक स्वाभाविक भावना है, नफरत की अपेक्षा। अगर लोग नफरत करना सीख सकते हैं, तो उन्हें प्रेम करना भी सिखाया जा सकता है।
 

Question 9.
What, according to Mandela, are the twin obligations in life? Why couldn’t he fulfil his first obligation?
मंडेला के अनुसार जीवन के दो कर्त्तव्य क्या हैं? वह उनके प्रथम कर्त्तव्य को पूर्ण क्यों पूरा नहीं कर सके?
Answer:
According to Mandela, every man has twin obligations to fulfil in lifeobligations to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children and an obligation to his people, his community, and is country. Each man is able to fulfil those obligations if the society is civil and humane. But in a country like South Africa, it was impossible for Mandela to fulfil both those obligations on account of his birth and colour. In South Africa, a man of colour who tried to live as a human being was punished and isolated. He could not fulfil his first obligation as he was ripped from his family and home.

मंडेला के अनुसार प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को जीवन में दो कर्तव्यों को पूरा करना होता है-परिवार, मातापिता, पत्नी एवं बच्चों के प्रति कर्त्तव्य तथा उसके लोगों, समुदाय तथा देश के प्रति कर्त्तव्य । प्रत्येक व्यक्ति इन कर्तव्यों को पूर्ण करने की सामर्थ्य रखता है, बशर्ते समाज सभ्य एवं मानवीय हो। लेकिन दक्षिण अफ्रीका जैसे देश में मंडेला के लिए इन दोनों कर्तव्यों को पूर्ण करना उनके जन्म एवं रंग के कारण असम्भव था। दक्षिण अफ्रीका में एक काले रंग का व्यक्ति जो मनुष्य की भाँति जीने की कोशिश करता था, उसे दण्डित एवं बहिष्कृत कर दिया जाता था। मंडेला उनके प्रथम कर्त्तव्य को इसलिए पूर्ण नहीं कर सके क्योंकि उन्हें परिवार एवं घर से अलग कर दिया गया।

Question 10.
What different concepts of freedom did Mandela have at different stages of his life?
जीवन की विभिन्न अवस्थाओं में मंडेला की स्वतंत्रता के बारे में भिन्न-भिन्न धारणाएँ क्या थीं?
Answer:
Mandela says that he was not born with a hunger to be free. As a child and a boy, he had all the freedom, the freedom to run in the fields, the freedom to swim in the stream, the freedom to roast mealies in the open and the freedom to ride bulls. But as a young man he realized that his freedom had already been taken from him and he began to hunger for it. As a student, he wanted freedom to do as he liked, to read, to go any where and to stay out at night. Later as a young man, he yearned for the basic freedoms to achieve his potential, to earn his livelihood, to marry and to have a family

मंडेला का कहना है कि वे स्वतंत्र होने की भूख के साथ पैदा नहीं हुए। बच्चे एवं लड़के के रूप में उन्हें सभी तरह की स्वतंत्रता मिली हई थी, खेतों में दौडने की स्वतंत्रता, नदी में नहाने की स्वतंत्रता, खले भुट्टे सेंकने तथा सांडों की सवारी करने की स्वतंत्रता। लेकिन युवक के रूप में उन्होंने जाना कि उनकी स्वतंत्रता उनसे पहले ही छीन ली गई है। छात्र के रूप में वह जैसा चाहें वैसा करने की स्वतंत्रता चाहते थे, पढ़ने की, कहीं भी जाने की तथा रात को बाहर ठहरने की। बाद में, युवक के रूप में वे आधारभूत स्वतंत्रताओं के लिए लालायित रहे, उनकी क्षमताओं को प्राप्त करने, आजीविका कमाने, शादी करने तथा परिवार बनाने आदि की स्वतंत्रताओं के लिए।


Question 11.
When did Mandela’s hunger for freedom become greater? What changes did it bring in him?
मंडेला की स्वतंत्रता की भूख कब बड़ी हो गई? यह उनमें क्या परिवर्तन लाई?
Answer:
Mandela realized that he as well as his brothers and sisters were not free. Everyone who was a black like him had got his freedom curtailed. That is when he joined the African National Congress, and that is when the hunger for his  own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people. It transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, a law-abiding-attorney into a criminal, a husband into a man without home and a life-loving man into a monk.
 

मंडेला ने महसूस किया कि वह तथा उसके भाई एवं बहिनें स्वतंत्र नहीं थे। प्रत्येक व्यक्ति जो उन्हीं की तरह काले रंग का था, उसने ही उनकी स्वतंत्रता को घटा लिया था। तब ही मंडेला ने अफ्रीकन नेशनल कांग्रेस में प्रवेश किया, और तब ही स्वतंत्रता के लिए उनकी भूख उनके लोगों की स्वतंत्रता के लिए भूख बन गई। इस भूख ने एक डरे हुए व्यक्ति को एक दुस्साहसी व्यक्ति में, एक कानून के पालन करने वाले वकील को एक अपराधी में, एक पति को एक बेघर व्यक्ति में तथा जीवन से प्रेम करने वाले एक व्यक्ति को एक संन्यासी में बदल दिया।
 

Question 12. 
Why does Mandela say that freedom is indivisible and that even an oppressor must be liberated?
मंडेला ऐसा क्यों कहते हैं कि स्वतंत्रता अविभाज्य होती है तथा अत्याचारी को भी मुक्त किया जाना चाहिए?
Answer:
Mandela says that he could not enjoy the limited freedoms given to him – when he knew that his people were not free. According to him, freedom is indivisible. If anyone of his men was not free, all of them too, were not free and, if all of his people were not free, he too, was not free. Further, he says that the oppressor must be liberated just as surely as the oppressed. An oppressor is a prisoner of hatred, prejudice and narrow-mindedness. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.

मंडेला कहते हैं कि वह उन्हें दी गई सीमित स्वतंत्रता का आनन्द नहीं ले सकते थे, जब तक वह यह जानते थे कि उनके लोग स्वतंत्र नहीं थे। मंडेला के अनुसार, स्वतंत्रता अविभाज्य होती है। अगर उनके लोगों में से एक भी व्यक्ति स्वतंत्र न हो तो सभी स्वतंत्र नहीं होंगे और अगर उनके सभी लोग स्वतंत्र नहीं होंगे तो वह स्वयं भी स्वतंत्र नहीं होंगे। फिर वह कहते हैं कि अत्याचारी को भी मुक्त करना पड़ेगा, उतनी ही निश्चितता के साथ, जितनी निश्चितता के साथ उत्पीड़ित को मुक्त करना होगा। एक अत्याचारी नफरत, पूर्वाग्रह एवं मानसिक संकीर्णता का कैदी होता है। अत्याचारी तथा उत्पीडित दोनों ही समान रूप से उनकी मानवीयता को खो बैठते हैं।
 

Comprehension Passages :
 

Passage 1.

Tenth May dawned bright and clear. For the past few days I had been pleasantly besieged by dignitaries and world leaders who were coming to pay their respects before the inauguration. The inauguration would be the largest gathering ever’ of international leaders on South African soil.

The ceremonies took place in the lovely sandstone amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. For decades this had been the seat of white supremacy, and now it was the site of a rainbow gathering of different colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.
 

Tick (✓) the correct answers : 
 

Question 1.

(i) Why was Nelson Mandela besieged by dignitaries and world leader? 
(a) Because they were against the first democratic and non-racial government.
(b) Because they did not like Mandela to be the President of the new government. 
(c) Because they had come to pay their respect.
(d) None of the above. 
Answer:
(c) Because they had come to pay their respect.

(ii) What was special about Pretoria?
(a) It was still the seat of white supremacy. 
(b) Now it was the site of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government. 
(c) It had now a beautiful sandstone amphitheatre.
(d) All of the above. 
Answer:
(b) Now it was the site of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government. 

Question 2. 

(i) Why had international leaders gathered in Pretoria?
(ii) What was different about the gathering at the amphitheatre in Pretoria? 
Answer:
(i) The international leaders had gathered in Pretoria to participate in the inaugural ceremonies of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government under Nelson Mandela.
(ii) The gathering at the amphitheatre in Pretoria consisted of people of different colours and nations.


Question 3.
(i) Find out the word from the passage which means – to be surrounded closely’.
(ii) Give the opposite of-lovely’.
Answer: 

(i) Besieged.
(ii) Ugly or unpleasant.


Passage 2.

A few moments later we all lifted our eyes in awe as a spectacular array of South African jets, helicopters and troop carriers roared in perfect formation over the Union Buildings. It was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.

Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police, their chests bedecked with ribbons and medals from days gone by, saluted me and pledged their loyalty. I was not unmindful of the fact that not so many years before they would not have saluted but arrested me.

Tick (✓) the correct answers : 
 

Question 1. 

(i) The air-show by the South African jets and helicopters demonstrated
(a) Pinpoint precision and military force. 
(b) The military’s loyalty to democracy and to the new government. 
(c) Both (i) and (ii).
(d) None of the above. 
Answer:
(c) Both (i) and (ii).

(ii) The highest generals of South African defence force and police ……… him a few years before
(a) Would have saluted. 
(b) Would not have saluted but arrested. 
(c) Would have pledged their loyalty to.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(b) Would not have saluted but arrested. 

Question 2. 
(i) What did the air-show symbolize? 
(ii) What did the highest generals of the South African defence force and police do and why? 
Answer:
(i) The air-show by the South African airplanes and helicopters symbolized both pinpoint precision, military force and the military’s loyalty to democracy and the new government. 
(ii) They saluted Nelson Mandela to show their loyalty and respect to him. 

Question 3. 
(i) Find out the word from the passage which means – ‘striking or wonderful.
(ii) Give the opposite of ‘loyalty’. 
Answer: 
(i) Spectacular. 
(ii) Disloyalty or faithlessness.


Passage 3.

On the day of the inauguration, I was overwhelmed with a sense of history. In the first decade of the twentieth century, a few years after the bitter AngloBoer war and before my own birth, the white-skinned peoples of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned peoples of their own land.

The structure they created formed the basis of one of the harshest, most inhumane, societies the world has ever known. Now, in the last decade of the twentieth century, and my own eighth decade as a man, that system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognised the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

Tick (✓) the correct answers :

Question 1. 
(i) What happened in the first decade of the 20th Century? 
(a) A system was established that recognized the rights and freedom of all peoples.
(b) A most humane society was formed.
(c) Equal rights were given to the dark-skinned peoples of South Africa
(d) A system of racial domination against the dark-skinned people of South Africa was erected. 
Answer:
(d) A system of racial domination against the dark-skinned people of South Africa was erected. 

(ii) What happened in the last decade of the 20th century?
(a) The system of racial domination was overturned. 
(b) The rights and freedoms of all people were recognized, irrespective of the colour of their skin. 
(c) A harshest, most inhumane society was formed.
(d) Both (i) and (ii). 
Answer:
(d) Both (i) and (ii). 

Question 2. 
(i) Why was Mandela overwhelmed with a sense of history? 
(ii) How old was Nelson Mandela when he became President of South Africa in 1994? 
Answer:
(i) Mandela was overwhelmed with a sense of history because the system of racial domination was established in the first decade of 20th century and it came to an end in the last decade of the same century. 
(ii) He was in his eighties when he became the President of South Africa in 1994. 

Question 3. 
(i) Find out the world from the passage which means – ‘occupying commanding position’.
(ii) Give the opposite of – ‘harshest’. 
Answer:
(i) Domination. 
(ii) Softest or kindest.

Passage 4.
 

The policy of apartheid created a deep and lasting wound in my country and my people. All of us will spend many years, if not generations, recovering from that profound hurt. But the decades of oppression and brutality had another, unintended, effect, and that was that it produced the Oliver Tambos, the Walter
 

Sisulus, the Chief Luthulis, the Yusuf Dadoos, the Bram Fischers, the Robert Sobukwes of our time men of such extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity that their like may never be known again. Perhaps it requires such depths of oppression to create such heights of character.

Tick (✓) the correct answers :

Question 1.
(i) Why did the policy of apartheid do?
(a) It made the blacks lazy and fatalistic:
(b) It created a deep and lasting wound in his country and in his people.
(c) It made no difference to the people of South Africa.
(d) All the above.
Answer:

(b) It created a deep and lasting wound in his country and in his people.

(ii) What was the unintended effect of the decades of oppression and brutality?
(a) The men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity were produced.
(b) The whites became generous towards the blacks.
(c) The whites as well as the blacks fought for freedom together.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:

(a) The men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity were produced.

Question 2.

(i) Why does Mandela say that “it recognizes such depths of oppression to create such heights of character?
(ii) How deep and lasting wound did his country and people suffer?

Answer:
(i) Mandela says so because decades of oppression and brutality had produced a number of men of extraordinary courage, wisdom and generosity.
(ii) The wound suffered by South Africa and its people would take many years, if not generations, to heal.


Question 3.

(i) Find out the words from the passage which means-deep and strong’.
(ii) Give the opposite of brutality’.

Answer:

(i) Profound.

(ii) Kindness or sympathy or good-heartedness.


Passage 5.


No one is born hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite. Even in the grimmest times in prison, when my comrades and I were pushed to our limits, I would see a glimmer of humanity in one of the guards, perhaps just for a second, but it was enough to reassure me and keep me going. Man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished.


Tick (✓) the correct answers :

Question1.

(i) Can love be taught?
(a) No, it can’t.
(b) Yes, it can
(c) Sometimes it can be taught.
(d) Sometimes it cannot be taught.
Answer:
(b) Yes, it can

(ii) In whom did Mandela see a glimmer of humanity?
(a) The jailor.
(b) One of the guards.
(c) A white man.
(d) A friend….
Answer:
(b) One of the guards.

Question 2.

(i) Are people born hating others because of their colour, or background, or religion? How do they learn to hate?

(ii) Why does Mandela say that man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden out never extinguished?
Answer:

(i) No, they are not born hating others. They learn to hate from others.
(ii) One of the guards of the jail showed a glimmer of humanity in him : towards Mandela and his comrades. This proved that goodness can be … hidden but cannot be ended.
 

Question 3.

(i) Find out the word from the passage which means caused to cease burning’.
(ii) Give the opposite of the word – ‘grimmest.

Answers
(i) Extinguished.
(ii) Gentlest, or mildest.


Passage 6.

In life, every man has twin obligations- obligations to his family, to his …: parents, to his wife and children; and he has an obligation to his people, his community, his country. In a civil and humane society, each man is able to fulfil those obligations according to his own inclinations and abilities.

But in a country like South Africa, it was almost impossible for a man of my birth and colour to fulfil both of those obligations. In South Africa, a man of colour who attempted to live as a human being was punished and isolated. In South Africa, a man who tried to fulfil his duty to his people was inevitably ripped from his family and his home and was forced to live a life apart.

Tick (✓) the correct answers :

Questions1.
(i) What happened to a dark-skinned man if he tried to fulfil his duty to his people?
(a) He was separated from his family.
(b) He was rewarded by the government.
(c) He was allowed to do his duty.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) He was separated from his family.

(ii) Which two obligations is Mandela talking about?
(a) Duty to oneself and duty to God.
(b) Duty to oneself and duty to one’s society and country.
(c) Duty to one’s family and duty to one’s society and country.
(d) Duty to all
Answer:

(c) Duty to one’s family and duty to one’s society and country.

Question 2.
(i) Is it possible for a man to fulfil his twin obligations? When?
(ii) What happened to a man of colour in South Africa who tried to live as a human being?
Answer:
(i) Yes, it is possible if the society he lives in is civil and humane.
(ii) In South Africa, a man of colour who tried to live as a human being was … punished and separated from others.

Question 3.
(i) Find out the word from the passage which means – Natural tendencies of behaviour’.:
(ii) Give the opposite of – “punished’.

Answer :

(i) Inclinations.
(ii) Rewarded. 


Passage 7.
 

It was only when I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion, when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me, that I began to hunger for it. At first, as a student, I wanted freedom only for myself, the transitory freedoms of being able to stay out at night, read what I pleased and go where I chose. Later, as a young man in Johannesburg, I yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms of achieving my potential, of earning my keep, of marrying and having a family – the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

Tick (✓) the correct answers 

Question 1.
(i) When did Mandela discover that his freedom had already been taken from him?
(a) When he was a boy.
(b) When he was a young man.
(c) When he was a student.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:

(b) When he was a young man.

(ii) What was freedom as a student to Mandela?
(a) The freedom to stay out at night, to read what he pleased and go where he chose.
(b) The freedom not to attend college, to eat and drink and to do what he chose.
(c) The freedom to achieve his goals.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) The freedom to stay out at night, to read what he pleased and go where he chose.

Question 2.

(i) What, according to Mandela, were freedoms in his youthfulness?
(ii) When did Mandela begin to hunger for freedom?
Answer:
(i) The freedoms he yearned for as a young man were, the freedom to achieve his potential, to earn his livelihood, to marry and have a family.
(ii) When he discovered as a young man that his freedom had already been taken away from him, he began to hunger for freedom. 

Question 3.
(i) Find out the word from the passage which means – continuing for only a short time’.
(ii) Give the opposite of the word— illusion’.
Answer:

(i) Transitory. –
(ii) Truth or Reality.

Passage : 8.

It was this desire for the freedom of my people to live their lives with dignity and self-respect that animated my life, that transformed a frightened young man into a bold one, that drove a law-abiding attorney to become a criminal, that turned a family-loving husband into a man without a home, that forced a life-loving man to live like a monk. I am no more virtuous or self-sacrificing than the next man, but I found that I could not even enjoy the poor and limited freedoms I was allowed when I knew my people were not free. Freedom is indivisible.


Tick (✓) the correct answers 


Question :

(i) What animated Mandela’s life?
(a) His desire for his own freedom.
(b) His desire for the freedom of his people.
(c) His desire for a comfortable life.
(d) None of the above.
Answer:
(a) His desire for his own freedom.

(ii) He could not enjoy the poor and limited freedoms he was allowed because
(a) He considered the freedoms he was allowed insufficient.
(b) He wanted more freedom.
(c) He already had sufficient freedoms.
(d) He knew his people were not free.
Answer:
(d) He knew his people were not free.

Question 2.
(i) What animated the life of Mandela?
(ii) What was Mandela transformed into?
Answer:
(i) The desire for the freedom of the blacks to live both dignity animated the o life of Mandela.
(ii) Mandela was transformed into a criminal, a homeless person and a monk.

Question 3.
(i) Find out the word from the passage which means – ‘Honest or moral’.
(ii) Give the opposite of Bold’.
Answer:

(i) Virtuous.
(ii) Cowardly or fearful.

Chapter 2 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom