Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution
How did Britain’s involvement in wars from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?
Both Britain and France were at war between 1793 to 1815. The industries of Britain were badly affected with this war. That is why Britain was unable to get capital formation and reinvestment during war period. It had to use borrowed capital to fight rather than reinvestment. Due to war, factories were shut down. Trade declined. The prices of essential commodities were very high. So, this war affected British industries in many ways.
What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
Advantages of Canal Transportation: It was the cheapest mode of transportation. It was made easier to transport heavier goods from mines to factories. When big cities and towns were linked to these canals, the city people were able to get various essential commodities such as coal and tool items at cheaper rate.
Advantages of Rail Transportation: The use of railways helped in increasing the production of coal and iron industry. It also did a lot of help. Railways helped in carrying heavy goods through various regions of the country.
What were the interesting features of the inventions of this period?
The interesting features of the inventions of this period are as follows:
- At first, Abraham Darby brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.
- Henry Cort (1740-1823) designed the puddling furnace and rolling mill to roll purified iron into bars.
- In the 1770s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs, vats for breweries and iron pipes of all sizes.
- John Kay made the flying shuttle loom in 1733. It made possible to weave broader fabrics in less time.
- Edmund Cartwright invented power loom in 1787.
- Thomas Savery built a model steam engine called the Miner’s friend in 1698 to drain mines.
- James Watt developed a steam engine in 1769 that converted the steam engine from a pump into a ‘prime mover’.
Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the nature of British industrialization.
Since 17th century, Britain had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at exorbitant price. But after the entry of East India Company into India, it began to import along with cloth, raw cotton, which could be spun and woven into cloth in England. Till the early 18th century, the process of spinning had been very slow. The spinners were occupied throughout the day, while weavers waited idly to receive yarn. A lot of technological inventions closed the gap between the speed in spinning raw cotton into yarn, and weaving the yarn into fabric. The production shifted from the homes of spinners and weavers to factories.
Answer In A Short Essay
How were the lives of different classes of British women affected by the Industrial Revolution?
- Women of all classes began working in factories. It helped them in getting financial independence and self-esteem.
- But their wages for the same hour of work were low in comparison to those of men.
- Industrialization was a blessing in disguise. A number of food items became cheap and were available in abundance. It increased the social status of the women in particular.
- Women were supposed to observe strict discipline. They were also punished for violation of any discipline.
Compare the effects of the coming of the railways in different countries of the world.
Effects of the coming of the railways in differents countries of the world:
- The expansion of railways helped the imperialist countries a lot.
- Railways became a means of transportation which was available in different parts of the world throughout the year.
- They also helped a lot in boosting the process of industrialization.
- They also helped in the transportation of heavy goods at cheaper rate.
- They joined the parts of different countries and helped in picking up the material easily.
- They provided a lot of employment opportunities and also accelerated trade and commerce. Thus, it can be said that the coming of railways connected different countries of the world.
More Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by Industrial Revolution?
Industrial Revolution means the transformation of industry and economy of a country with quick succession than normal slow rate.
When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
The Industrial Revolution began in England in the 18th century.
Who was Abraham Darby?
Abraham Darby was the first Englishman to use coke for the first time in the process of smelting.
Write the names of some new machineries and technologies.
Flying shuttle loom, spinning jenny, water frame, steam engine, etc.
Who coined the term Industrial Revolution first?
Georges Michelet of France, and Friedrich Engels of Germany were the first to use the term Industrial Revolution.
Who was Arnold Toynbee?
Arnold Toynbee was a well-known philosopher and economist. He wrote a book named “Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England”.
How did Britain become the father of Industrial Revolution?
Political stability, investment, capital formation and entrepreneurship made England the father of Industrial Revolution.
What do you mean by Agricultural Revolution in England?
Answer It was related to the promotion of agrarian economy or countryside development.
What was the effect of Agricultural Revolution?
Due to new scientific methods and the use of machines, agricultural production highly increased.
Who designed flying shuttle loom?
Flying shuttle loom was designed by John Kay in 1733.
What were the advantages of spinning jenny?
Spinning jenny was a machine made by James Hargreaves in 1765. This machine speeded up the production of Spinning Fabrics in less time.
Who invented water frame?
It was invented by Richard Arkwright in 1769.
What does rapid increase in the population of a city show?
Due to lack of education facilities there were less employment opportunities. People migrated from villages to cities. The rapid increase in the population of a city showed that there were more facilities and opportunities in the city.
What was the contribution of rivers to the proliferation of London as a centre of trade?
Rivers helped in the movement of goods from the distant places to the market.
What do you mean by coasters?
Coasters were the ships or ships rowed within the limits of the seashore.
Write the use of coaster.
Coasters were used in loading cargo brought by river vessels.
Who was Thomas Newcomen?
Thomas Newcomen designed steam engine. He designed it in the year 1712.
What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution on England?
The population increased. It resulted in the destruction of old family norms. Due to Industrial Revolution, the urbanisation of England happened at fast pace.
How did industrialization change the farming technique?
- At the place of wooden plough, steel plough came into being.
- For sowing seeds, mechanical drill came into existence.
- For harvesting, mechanical thrasher was used.
What were the positive sides of the Industrial Revolution?
- It helped people in meeting their primary needs.
- New job opportunities came for the people.
- Life became easy and interesting.
What was initially used for the process of smelting?
Charcol was initially used for the process of smelting.
Which area was called Iron Bridge?
Coalbrookdale at the bank of river Severn was called Iron Bridge.
Write two features of the cotton industry of England.
- Colonies like India served for the import of raw cotton and as a market for the finished goods.
- Manufacturing became cheap.
Which machine was devised to be used by child workers?
What were the conditions that led to industrialization?
The following conditions led to industrialization:
- Rapid capital formation
- Installation of new machines
- Availability of infrastructure
When was Com Law passed in Britain? What was its main objective?
The Corn Law was passed in 1815 in Britain. The main objective of this law was to impose ban on the import of cheaper food.
What do you mean by Luddism?
Luddism was a movement led by the charismatic General Ned Ludd. Its participants demanded a minimum wage, control over the labour of women and children, job for the jobless and the right to form trade unions so that they could legally present these demands.
Write any two provisions each of Factory Act of 1819 and 1833.
Provisions of Factory Act, 1819:
- Children below nine years of age will not be employed in factories.
- Working hour will be lessened from 16 to 12 hours.
Provisions of Factory Act, 1833:
- Children of age group between 13-17 years will not be forced to work for more than 10 hours.
- Inspectors were recruited for the inspection of the factories.
Who wrote the novel Hard Times?
Charles Dickens wrote the novel Hard Times.
When and where was Combination Act enacted? What was its aim?
Combination Act was enacted by the British government in 1799-1800. This act aimed at imposing restrictions or ban on the trade unions.
What do you know about factory system?
It is a system under which the process of production began in factories, whereas it had been earlier carried out from the house/cottage.
Name any four cities of Britain where protest movement took place against the Enclosure movement.
The cities were:
Name the two persons who made a remarkable contribution in the construction of canal in England.
- Duke of Bridgewater
- James Brindley
By whom and when was Worsely canal constructed? When was it opened?
Worsely canal was constructed by James Brindely in 1759. It was opened in 1761.
Short Answer Type Questions
Industrial Revolution with its demand for raw material and markets made nations more dependent on one another. How?
So far the progress of industry is concerned two things are essential, i.e. raw material and market. In this situation, it is necessary to take the help of other nations who are self-sufficient in it.
- Raw Materials: For the supply of raw materials one country depends on another. Before independence, England was dependent on India for the raw materials of textile.
- Market: If any country produces its products, it searches its market to sell it. For this, it depends upon another country. Their trade relations become closer and they become economically viable.
The growth of trade union helped to put an end to the idea of Laissez faire. How?
The workers were working hard for their owners. But they were not given their due amount. Sense of annoyance prevailed among them. So the workers put up their demands before the factory owners. They just wanted to crush their movement. So, the workers got united and started a movement against their owners. In this situation, the government was forced to end Laissez faire. For the well-being of workers, laws were made. The Act of 1819, prohibited the children under nine from working in factories. Trade unions were declared lawful. On this basis, it can be said that the development of trade unions ended Laissez faire.
Industrialisation was a natural step in the progress of mankind. Why?
During the prehistoric period, human beings were wanderers. They searched their food for their livelihood. They made tools of stone for hunting animals and satisfying their hunger. But as the time advanced, their needs increased. They made new inventions. Trade and commerce started. For trading, transportation was necessary. Communication was established. New industries were set up. People became financially sound. On this basis, it can be said that industrialization was a natural step in the progress of mankind.
Study the disadvantages of producing goods and services under the capitalist system. What are the advantages that a socialist system can have in a society?
Disadvantages: There are many weaknesses and disadvantages of producing goods and services.
- The main motive of capitalist is to earn huge profit . They always think about their welfare.
- They produce low quality of goods to earn more profit.
Advantages of a Socialist System
- The distribution of wealth is equal under socialist system.
- All get employment.
- There is no distinction between the rich and the poor.
- This system leads the country towards progress.
What was the opinion of Karl Marx about socialism?
Karl Marx was a thinker and scholar as well. He is also called “the Father of Modern Communism”. He developed socialism on scientific lines. His ideas on socialism or communism are incorporated in ‘Das Capital.
- According to him, capitalism is the root cause of all social evils and hence it should be done away with.
- In socialism there is no place for private property.
- All the units of production should be nationalized.
- Capitalism in itself has the seeds of its own destruction.
- Industrial workers are a force which could destroy capitalism and establish socialism.
Industrialization has affected farming, transportation, communication and trade in many ways. How?
Industrialization has affected farming, transportation, communication and trade in the following ways:
- Farming: Due to industrialization, farming was highly affected. The demand for raw materials grew along with the industrialization. This demand enforced the farmers to adopt new methods to have more production. The new machines were invented for digging the soil, sowing and reaping. A number of farmers also became unemployed due to industrialization.
- Transport: The pucca or metalled roads were built for safe and fast transportation of goods. Navigational canals were dug up to carry the goods and passengers. The steam engines were used to run railway trains. The rapid development of the means of transport made quite easy the transportation of finished goods and raw- materials from one country to another.
- Communication: The invention of telegraphy and telephone brought revolution in the field of communication as sending and receiving of messages became easier. It was much helpful in the growth of industry.
- Effects on Trade: The production of goods encouraged the trade. The international trade grew very fast as it was easy for any industrialized country to import raw material and export the finished goods to any part of the world.
Explain the advantages that a socialist system can have over a society based on capitalism.
Under the socialist system, all the factories, industries and means of production belong to state while in capitalist system all these things belong to the private owners. The socialist system can have following advantages over the capitalist system.
Differences between socialist and capitalist systems are as follows:
Why did Industrial Revolution first occur in England? Give reasons. [HOTS]
Due to the following reasons, Industrial Revolution first occurred in England:
- England was the first country to experience industrialization. Because it had been a politically stable country.
- There was abundance of natural resources like iron and coal in England. Iron and coal are necessary resources for the functioning of any industry. No industry can function without it.
- England was an economically sound country. The Britishers had been doing business in foreign countries. They had amassed huge wealth which was necessary for the functioning of industries.
- England had trade relations with many countries of the world. They had better transportation facility available. Through this, they could sell their products in the markets of other countries too.
- There was availability of labour forces at cheap rates in England.
What were the main features of the Industrial Revolution in England?
The main features of the Industrial Revolution in England were:
- Goods were produced in big factories instead of the cottage industries.
- Machines took the place of mankind in industrial production. Their work burden lessened.
- Due to Industrial Revolution, more employment opportunities were created. More and more people got employment.
- Due to Industrial Revolution, agricultural production increased.
- Communication and transportation facilities were increased.
- Due to production of goods, they became available at cheaper rates.
Describe the conditions that denote industrialization.
Following conditions denote industrialization:
- When the investment gives way to rapid capital formation.
- When productivity is raised.
- When infrastructure is developed.
- When new machinery is installed.
The invention of steam engine revolutionized industry and transport. How?
The steam engine was invented by James Watt in 1769. Its invention brought about a drastic change in the life of mankind. It revolutionized the entire industrial set up. Steam engine technology was further developed with the use of lighter and stronger metals. It increased the manufacturing of more accurate machine tools. In 1840, British steam engines were generating more than 70% of the European power. Its invention connected the people even from the distant areas. It also linked people on commercial point. Trade relations between different regions got more strengthened. It also helped in transportation of luggage from one place to another. Now the peasants could sold their products in the markets and also earn huge
Discuss the condition of workers in England in context of Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution affected the condition of workers in many ways:
- The workers had to work very hard. They had to work for 15-18 hours in a day.
- They were living in slum areas. This area was surrounded with filth and garbage.
- There was no proper arrangement for safety of the workers at working places.
- Their health got deteriorated day by day in unhygienic conditions.
- Women and children were paid less wages than men.
What do you know about ‘Luddism’? Explain.
- Luddism, was a movement led by the charismatic General Ned Ludd. Its main aim was to demand minimum wages, control over the labour of women and children, work for those who had lost their jobs because of the coming of machinery, and the right to form trade unions so that they could legally present their demands. During the early years of industrialisation, the working population did not have the right to vote nor legal methods to express their anger at the manner in which their lives had been overturned. About 80,000 people gathered peacefully in August 1819, at St.Peter’s Fields in Manchester to claim democratic rights of political organization, public meetings and of the freedom of the press.
- This movement was ruthlessly suppressed. It was known as Peterloo Massacre Their demands were rejected by the Parliament.
Long Answer Type Questions
What were relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
Advantages of Canal Transportation
- Canals were mainly built to transport coal to cities. The bulk and weight of coal made its transport by road much slower and expensive than by barges on canals. Coal was mainly used for heating and lighting homes in cities. The demand for coal grew constantly. The first English canal was made by James Bindley in 1761. It was known as Worsely canal. Its main purpose was to carry coal from the coal deposits at Worsely (near Manchester) to that city; after the canal was completed.
- Canals were usually built by big landowners. The confluence of canals created marketing centres in new towns. For example, the city of Birmingham owed its growth to its position at the heart of a canal system connecting London, the Bristol Channel, and the Mersey and Humber rivers. Between 1760 to 1790, 25 projects of canal building began. The period between 1788 to 1796 is known as canal mania. In it, there were another 46 new projects and over the next 60 years more than 4,000 miles of canal were built.
Advantages of Railway Transportation
- Railways emerged as a new means of transportation available throughout the year. It was both cheap and fast, to carry passengers and goods.
- In the second stage, the invention of the railways took the entire process of industrialisation. In 1801, Richard Trevithick had devised an engine called the ‘Puffing Devil’. In 1814, the railway engineer George Stephenson invented a lomocotive called ‘The Blutcher’. It could pull a weight of 30 tonnes upto a hill at 4 mph. The first railway line connected the cities of Stockton and Darlington in 1825. The distance between the two cities was just nine miles which could be covered in 2 hours at the speed of 24 KPh.
Which factors were responsible for Industrial Revolution in England? Explain.
The factors responsible for Industrial Revolution in England were as follows:
- Natural resources: There was plenty of natural resources like iron and coal in England. These resources are essential for the industries.
- Capital: The traders of Britain had established good trade relations with numerous countries since a long time. They were quite affluent. So, they were successful in doing any kind of business.
- Climate: The climate of Britain is humid. Because it is located near the sea. It was also one of the factors of Industrial Revolution.
- Control over the colonies: British had established a large number of new colonies from where she could get the cheap raw materials and they could also serve as markets to sell the finished goods. Now they could sell their products in the colonies.
- Shipping Industry: Shipping industry of England was much developed. Through ships, they could do their business in proper way. They could now transport the things from far away countries and also sell their products in the market.
- Foreign Trade: The British had established their trade relations with another countries. Through this, they were able to expand their business. Foreign trade was also one of the main factors of Industrial Revolution.
- Innovative Ideas: The British had developed innovative ideas. That is why they made new discoveries. It was one of the main causes of the Industrial Revolution.
Discuss the socio-economic effects of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution made tremendous impact on the life of British people. It affected not only their social life but economic life too. The socio-economic effects of Industrial Revolution are as follows:
- End of Cottage Industries: During the Industrial Revolution, a lot of new machines were prepared. Through these machines, numerous products were made. In cottage industries, it was not possible to manufacture these products. So, cottage industries in England have almost ended.
- Development of new Industrial Towns: After the Industrial Revolution, a number of new industrial towns were set up. Before it, industrial towns were not much developed. As a result, the industrial towns like Birmingham, Lancashire, Manchester, etc. came into existence.
- Growth of Agriculture: After the Industrial Revolution, new types of cropping machine, high-yielding seeds, fertilisers and new techniques of farming came into being. The farmers could now produce high yields. It also made their economic condition strong.
- Exploitation of women and children: Women and children were also employed in industries. They were forced to do work without wages or wages less than the male workers. It badly affected their health.
- Increase in National Income: After the Industrial Revolution, they were now able to produce new items. These items were sold in international market at high prices. This way their national income increased.
- Appearance of New classes: As a result of Industrial Revolution, two distinct classes appeared, i.e. the capitalists and the workers. The capitalists became more and more richer and the workers became more poorer.
- Standard of living: After the Industrial Revolution, people became more and more rich. Transport and communication, railways, ships, etc. made their life happier and comfortable. Thus, their standard of living improved.
- Population increased: After the Industrial Revolution people became well-off. Their standard of living improved. Now they could take nutritious diet. Numerous medicines were discovered. It also helped in checking the various diseases. Ultimately, it led to an increase in population.
How did the Industrial Revolution in England affect India’s economy?
Industrial Revolution in England became the main cause of poverty in India. As India was a colony of England, it hit the Indian economy adversely. Due to the Industrial Revolution in England India’s economy was affected in the following ways:
- The Industrial Revolution enabled England to produce more goods than needed there. Indian markets were flooded with the machine made goods from England. In this way, India became a big consumer of the English goods.
- The Industrial Revolution in England threw the Indian artisans and handicrafts men out of job. As a result, small industries of India collapsed.
- The British Government forced the Indian farmers to sell their raw materials at cheap rates to the British factory owners. The policy of exploiting the Indian economy for the benefit of the British capitalist was the direct consequence of the Industrial Revolution on India’s economy.
- The unemployed artisans again became the farm labourers. They became a burden on the Indian agriculture. In this way, within very short-time, India became a poor country where agriculture was the only occupation of the people.
- Before the Industrial Revolution, India was the major producer of cotton, woollen and silken clothes. Now India suffered a severe setback in these industries. Clothes made by the British mills were cheaper than the Indian clothes.
- The Indian goods could not compete with the British goods. The British Government in India imposed heavy duties on the Indian goods and discouraged the Indian craftsmen ir. many ways so that they could never think of competing with the British goods.
What sort of reforms through laws were made by the British government to improve the condition of workers? What were the weaknesses of these measures?
The reforms through laws made by the British government were as follows:
- Act of 1819: In 1819, laws were passed. It prohibited the employment of children under the age of nine in factories. It limited the hours of work of those between the age of 9 and 16 to 12 hours a day.
- Act of 1833: Under the Act of 1833, chi’dren under the age of nine were permitted to be employed only in silk factories. This act also limited the hours of work for older children. A number of Factory Inspectors Act were also employed to ensure that the Act was enforced.
- Ten Hours Bill: In 1847, the Ten Hours Bill was passed. This bill limited the hours of work for women and children and secured a ten-hour day for male workers.
- The Mines Commission of 1842: The Mines Commission was set up in 1842. This commission revealed that working conditions in mines had become worst, because more children had been put to work in coal mines.
- The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842: The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842 banned children under ten and women from working in underground mines.
- Fielder’s Factory Act of 1847: In this act, it was laid down that children under eighteen and women should not work more than ten hours a day.
The weaknesses of the these measures were as follows:
- It was the duty of factory inspectors to enforce the factory laws. But the inspectors were poorly paid and easily bribed by factory managers.
- Parents lied about the real ages of their children, so that they could work and contribute to family incomes.
Do you think that industrialisation affects farming, transportation, communication and trade?
Industrialisation definitely makes its impact on farming, transportation, communication and trade in the following ways:
- Effects on Farming: After the Industrial Revolution, farming was highly affected. The inventions of new machines for agriculture were made. Now the machinery took the place of mankind. The farmers could sow, reap and harvest their products through machines. On the one side, production doubled but on the other side, the unemployment problem increased.
- Effects on Transport: Roads were built for safe and fast transportation of goods. After industrialization, production of goods increased. So the businessmen had to send their goods to the different markets. Navigational canals were dug up to carry the goods and passengers. The rapid development of the means of transport made quite easy the transportation of finished goods. Now it became easier to send goods from one country to another.
- Effects on the Means of Communication: After Industrial Revolution, there occurred a change in the field of communication. Telegraphy and telephone were invented. Now it became easier to receive and send the message. Now people could establish contact with others in very short time.
- Effects on Trade: Trade was highly affected. As the products increased, it also encouraged trade. The international trade grew fast. It became easier for any industrialized country to import raw material and to export the finished goods to any part of the world market.
Do you think the period between 1780 to 1820 is considered to be revolutionary for the growth of cotton or iron industries?
For textile industries, the raw materials like cotton was not grown in Britain. So, Britain imported it from other countries to produce their products. After the Industrial Revolution, a number of inventions were made. Machines of high quality and capacity were made. The production also increased. To sell their products, the manufacturers sent them to other countries. Most of the products were sold in Indian markets. Since 1780, the imports and exports of British goods also increased. After the War of American Independence, its trade with North America was interrupted. But after 1780, its trading relations with North America also established again.
After 1815-20, economic changes also occurred. After French Revolution, industrialization was highly affected. Industrialization is mainly related with growth in investment in capital formation. After 1820, these things gradually appeared. Now technical progress was not only confined to these areas but also other areas too. Now its progress could be seen in other branches too. So, growth in the cotton or iron industries from 1780 to 1820 is not called revolutionary.
What were the most favorable conditions for industrialization?
The most favorable conditions for industrialization were as follows:
- Natural resources: For the development of any industry, the availability of natural resources is must. It must be in abundance.
- Capital: Sufficient capital is also necessary for the development of industries. Without the availability of capital, the development of industries is not possible.
- Raw materials: Availability of raw-materials is also needed for the industrialisation. It must be in plenty. The raw materials include cotton, jute, sugarcane, etc.
- Sources of energy: There must be sufficient sources of energy like electricity, oil or coal etc.
- Markets: There must be potential markets for the consumers. If there is potential market, more finished goods will be consumed. And the economy will grow.
- Transportation facilities: There must be efficient transportation facility. Roads, railway lines, shipping facilities etc. play a major role in the development of country.
- Cheap labour: For the growth of any industry a number of labourers must be available at reasonable price.
- Suitable climate: For the growth of any industry, suitable climate is must. If the climate is not suitable, production will also be affected. Worker’s health will also deteriorate. If their health is ill, there will be shortfall in production.
- Govt’s policy: The policy of govt, is also one of the factors in the growth of industry. If the govt is stable, it will have positive results on the industry. The industry will grow at fast pace.
Discuss the developments that took place in Britain and in other parts of the world in the eighteenth century that encouraged industrialisation.
Developments in Britain
- Population of town was increasing rapidly.
- London was the largest town in Britain. It had become centre of global trade. It had also established its trade relations with Africa and West Indies.
- The companies trading in America and Asia opened their offices in London.
- Banking facilities also developed.
- New machines for textile industry, silk industry, iron industry and coal industry were also invented.
- Raw material was imported from the countries outside England and finished cloth was exported.
- Railway lines were laid and steam engine was invented.
- The big farmers made large estates by fencing around the meadows and pasture land and also bought the lands of smaller farmers nearby their property. They installed factories in their estates and became rich.
- Landless labourers left their villages and settled in urban slums in order to work in factories there.
- Exploitation of men, women and children in factories started. Developments in other parts of the world
- Slaves were bought from Africa to get the work done in factories by them. British colonialism started in Africa.
- Raw material was imported from Asia, Africa and America. Consequentially, the local industries got closed there.
- In Britain, goods were manufactured on large scale due to the inventions of new machine. It was also cheaper than the goods produced manually in other parts of the world. Now British goods were sold in abundance.
The invention of steam power proved helpful in the industrialization of Britain. How?
Steam generates tremendous power. Power is essential for the growth of any industry. Water has been the major source of energy since a long time. It was just used as hydraulic power. But it had been limited only to certain areas, seasons and by the speed of flow of the water. Now it was used as steam. Pressure was provided by steam power at high temperatures.
Mining industries and Steam Power. Firstly, steam power was used in mining industries. There was a very serious problem in mining and that was flooding. The increase of demand for coal and metals increased. Efforts were also made to obtain them from deeper mines.
Thomas Savery built a model of steam engine in 1698 to drain mines. Its name was Miner’s Friend. It worked in shallow depth and under intense pressure.
Another steam engine was built by Thomas New comen in 1712. It had the major effect of losing energy due to the continuous cooling of the condensing cylinder.
Steam Power used in Factories. The steam engine had been used only in coal mines till 1769. James Watt developed his machine in 1769. He converted the steam engine from being a mere pump into a prime mover. This machine supplied energy to power machines in factories. Watt created the Soho Foundry in Birmingham in 1775 with the help of Matthew Boulton. In this foundry Watt’s steam engines were produced in great numbers. Steam engine technology was further developed after 1800 C.E. Following factors contributed to its development:
- The use of lighter and stronger metals.
- The manufacture of more accurate machine tools.
- The spread of better scientific knowledge.
- Steam engine technology was further developed with the use of higher, stronger metals.
What are Trade unions? Discuss its aim while they were formed.
Trade union is an organisation of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas, such as working conditions. Trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Aims of the formation of Trade unions
- To fight for the well-being of the workers.
- To fight against the injustice and malpractices in the industries.
- To fight for regulating the working hours for the workers.
- To fight for higher wages of the workers for their work done.
- To demand better services facilities and the working conditions of the workers.
- These were formed to maintain the harmonious relations between the employer and the employees.
Passage Based Questions
Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow:
‘The man of wealth and pride
Takes up a space that many poor supplied;
Space for his lake, his park’s extended bounds,
Space for his horses, equipage, and hounds;
The robe that wraps his limbs in silken cloth
Has robbed the neighboring fields of half their growth.
— Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village.
(i) Who wrote this? Write the name of the book from which it was taken.
(ii) What do you understand by the Enclosure Movement?
(iii) Write any two effects of this movement.
(i) It has been written by Oliver Goldsmith. It was taken from the book The Deserted Village.
(ii) The Enclosure Movement refers to a process in which landowner began to enlarge their farms by appropriation of common lands as private property or began to change open field system into closed fields. The process of enclosure began in Britain in 14th century and spread to other European nations by 15th and 16th centuries.
(iii) The effects of this movement are:
- The big landowners merged the holding of the small landholders.
- Poor rural family began to migrate to towns/cities in search of livelihood, because due to industrialization more work was available for them.
In his novel Hard Times, Charles Dickens (1812-70), perhaps the most severe contemporary critic of the horrors of industrialization for the poor, wrote a fictional account of an industrial town he aptly called Coketown. ‘It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town of unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never got uncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye, and vast piles of building full of windows where there was a rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine worked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a stare of melancholy madness.
(i) Who was Charles Dickens?
(ii) About which period and the country he is talking about in this passage?
(iii) Highlight any four social problems mentioned here.
(i) Charles Dickens was a famous novelist who wrote a fictional account of an industrial town, Coketown.
(ii) In this passage, he is talking about the industrialization phase in Britain from 1780’s to 1850’s.
(iii) (a) Constant flow of rural migration to cities in search of work, increased the
population in the cities.
- Increasing slums in industrial towns.
- Constant increase in thefts, crimes, street browls, etc.
- Break down in family ties.
D.H.Lawrence (1885-1930), British essayist and novelist, writing seventy years after Dickens, described the change in a village in the coal-belt, change which he had not experienced, but about which he had heard from older people.
‘Eastwood… must have been a tiny village at the beginning of the nineteenth century, a small place of cottages and fragmentary rows of little four-roomed miners’ dwellings, the homes of the old colliers…But somewhere about 1820 the company must have sunk the first big shaft…and installed the first machinery of the real industrial colliery…Most of the little rows of dwellings were pulled down, and dull little shops began to rise along the Nottingham Road, while on the down-slope…the company erected what is still known as the New Buildings…little four-room houses looking outward into the grim, blank street, and the back looking into the desert of the square, shut in like a barracks enclosure, very strange.
(i) What do you know about D.H. Lawrence? What did he describe?
(ii) Which particular class is he referring to?
(iii) Write a few effects of early industrialization on villages and towns.
(i) D.H. Lawrence was a famous British essayist and novelist. He described how changes occurred in the Eastwood village in the coal belt region due to industrialization.
(ii) He is referring to the labour class and the ordinary people of the Eastwood village.
(iii) Effects on Villages:
- Thousands of villages lost their means of livelihood due to introduction of cotton machines.
- Self-sufficiency of the village came to decline. It resulted in weakening of traditional rural bonds.
Effects on Towns:
- Economic disparities started increasing between the rich and the poor in the cities.
- The trend of child labour began to increase. They were now employed in dangerous coal mines.
- Average lifespan of workers was lower than any other social group in cities.
On the given map of Britain, mark and locate the following iron and coal manufacturing areas.
On the map of Britain, mark and locate the following cotton textile manufacturing areas.