Participle 8

Read the sentence :
Going on the road, the boy met with an accident.
The word ‘going’ qualifies the noun ‘boy’ as an adjective does. It is formed from the word ‘go’. The word ‘going’ therefore has something of an adjective and something of a verb too. Such words are called Participle. It may be called a verbal Adjective.
Def. A participle is a form of verb which takes the nature of both—a verb and an adjective. .

2. Study the following sentences with participles :

  1. We met a boy carrying books.
  2. Knocking at the gate, he was crying bitterly.
  3. Thinking about the problem, he sat down.
  4. He fell down fighting.

The participles used in the above sentences end with-ing. They are called present participles. Please note that present participles represent an action in progress or we may say the action which is incomplete and going on.

3. However, a participle can represent an action which has been completed. In such cases the third, form of the verb is used. Such participles are called Past Participle.
Study the following sentences :

  1. Blinded by dust, the man stopped on the road.
  2. Deceived by friends, he felt very sad.
  3. Time wasted is the time lost.
  4. Tired by walking, he called a cab.
  5. I saw a plant laden with flowers.

Besides the Present Participle and the Past Participle, we have Perfect Participle too. It represents an action completed at some past time.

Use of Participle
4. You can easily see that the ‘continuous tense’ is formed from the ‘present partici¬ple’ with the verb ‘be’.
I am reading. I was reading. I shall be reading.
Similarly, the Perfect Tense is formed with Past Participle with the verb ‘have’.
I have read. I had read. I shall have read.

5. We have seen that the participles serve the purpose of an adjective. They may be used before or after the noun they qualify :

(i) Before the noun ; (attributively)
The moving wheel moves on.
The tired man needs rest.
The finished picture was a beauty.

(ii) After the noun. (Predicatively)
He seems worried.
He kept me waiting.

(iii) Absolutely with a noun or pronoun before it.
It being fine, I went out.
The teacher having arrived, the boys became quiet.
Weather permitting, the match will start.
God willing. I shall be rich.

Note: It should be noted that in the above sentences, (iii) the participle forms a phrase independent of the rest of the sentence. In the above sentences these phrases are—It being fine. The teacher having arrived : Weather permitting and God willing. These phrases are called Absolute Phrases and the noun or pronoun used in these phrases are called Nominative Absolute.

Errors In The Use of Participles

6. The participles must refer to a ‘subject’. Without it the sentence is incorrect, e.g..
Walking on the road, a truck hit him.
This sentence is wrong, because, we are not told who it was that was walking. As it is, it means that the truck was walking.

7. In some cases, the usage permits use of participle without a proper subject of reference. Taking everything into consideration. I decided to move on.
Frankly speaking. I want to go now.

8. Sometimes, the participle is understood. Pistol in hand, he rushed towards the door.
Here ‘being’ is understood between ‘pistol’ and ‘in’.

Exercise 1

Rewrite the following sentences using suitable form of the participle of the verbs given in brackets :
1. Everybody worships the ……….. (rise) sun.
2. The sun ……….. (rise), the birds began to chirp.
3. ……….. (Place) the books on the table, he ran away.
4. A ………. (break) glass cannot hold water.
5. ……….. (Hit) by an arrow in the chest, he fell down dead.
6. ……….. (See) the film once, I do not want to see it again.
7 ………… (Lose) my book, I reported the matter to the teacher.
8. ……….. (See) the Principal, the student ran away. .
9. ………… (Work) hard, my sister got good marks.
10. ………. (Starve) is better than (beg).
11. ……….. (Abuse) by his friend, he lost his temper.
12. ………… (Reach) home, I asked my mother to make tea.
1. rising
2. having risen Answers
3. Placing
4. broken
5. Hit
6. Having seen
7. Having lost
8. Seeing
9. Having worked
10. Starving, begging
11. Abused (Having been abused)
12. Having reached, (reaching)

Exercise 2

Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using a participle :
1. She felt hungry. She went on eating.
2. They finished their breakfast. They boarded the school-bus.
3. The sun had set. We returned home.
4. I do not like this child. He weeps bitterly.
5. I saw a woman. She was crossing the road.
6. I found my brother. He was drinking.
7. It was cloudy. We did not venture out.
8. I threw the pen. It was broken.
9. The traveller lay under a shady tree. He was tired.
10. He won a lottery. He bought a car.
11. The marriage has been fixed. No change is possible now.
1. Feeling hungry, she went on eating.
2. Having finished their breakfast, they boarded the school-bus.
3. The sun having set, we returned home.
4. I do not like this bitterly weeping child.
5. I saw a woman crossing the road.
6. I found my brother drinking.
7. It being cloudy, we did not venture out.
8. I threw the broken pen.
9. The tired traveller lay under a shady tree.
10. Having won a lottery, he bought a car.
11. The marriage having been fixed, no change is possible now.

Exercise 3
(For Practice)

I. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences using either a Present Participle or a Perfect Participle :
1. I had finished my work. I went out to play.
2. I spoke to a gentleman. He was standing near the window.
3. Arjuna pulled the string. He shot an arrow.
4. She heard the news. She burst into tears.
5. He left the bicycle at the gate. He entered the house.
6. She felt for the poor man. She gave him some money.
7. I had reached the railway station. I bought a ticket for Agra.
8. He handed over the answer-book to the supervisor. He came out.

II. Re-write the following sentences making corrections, wherever necessary :
1. He succeeded to get a prize.
2. A pen is for writing.
3. She bade me to do it.
4. Being a fine day, we went out for a walk.
5. He is fond to play football.
6. You need not to pay the bill.
7. He advised me to at once call in the doctor.
8. She could not but laughing.

III. Combine each of the following pairs, of sentences, using participles :
1. He took a bath. He sang a song.
2. I took off my clothes. I called my mother.
3. My friend opened the drawer. He took out his purse.
4. He fell down. He struck his head against the door.
5. I read the notice. I went to the Principal.
6. He was warned by me. He did not go out.
7. The girl entered the room. She was wearing a gown.
8. He failed twice. He did not want to appear again.
9. He fired. He killed two men.
10. The thief stole the money. He escaped in the dark.

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the blanks in the following choosing the best alternative from among the ones given in the brackets.
1. She came ……… (to see/for seeing/seeing/having seen) you.
2. The sun ………. (rise/to rise/rising/having risen) the birds began to chirp.
3. Everybody worships the (rise/rising/having risen/to rise) sun.
4. ………… (Place/Placing/Having placed/To place) the books on the table he ran away.
5. I saw a woman ……….. (cross/having crossed/to cross/crossing) the road.
6. A ………… (break/breaking/broken/to break) glass cannot hold water.
7. …………. (Hit/Being hit/Having hit/Hitting) by an arrow, he fell dead.
8. I found him ………… (drink/to drink/drinking/having drunk).
9. The marriage …………. (fixed/fixing/to fix/having been fixed), no change is possible now.
10. You had better ………… (leave/to leave/leaving/having left) before he arrives.
1. to see
2. having risen
3. rising
4. placing
5. cross
6. broken
7. Hit
8. drinking
9. having been fixed
10. leave